(18621947). B. Wharlton, Durham, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. King's Coll., London, and Oxford; bp. Gloucester; classified as enlightened conservative; adhered to hist. episcopacy while emphasizing validity of nonconformist ministry; prominent in Oxford* Movement; favored rev. of Book* of Common Prayer. Ed. Church Quarterly Review 190121; other works include The Doctrine of the Church and Christian Reunion; Christian Theology.
Unsuccessful formula intended to bind Cong. and Presb. pastors but not unite chs.; signed 1691 by most Cong. and Presb. pastors in the London area; the Happy Union was plagued by theol. controversy from the outset and completely disrupted by 1699.
For healing the NT uses the Gk. words iaomai (e.g., Mt 8:8; Mk 5:29; Lk 9:11) and sozein, which also means to save (e.g., Mt 9:22; Mk 6:56; Lk 8:48). The object of God's redemptive intent is man as a whole. The healing miracles of Jesus are part of His proclamation that in Him the kingdom of God had come. He therefore sent His disciples out both to proclaim the kingdom and to heal the sick (Mk 6:7, 13). Man was not created to be ill but to serve God in the full vigor of all his faculties. The power of physical healing is present in the ch. when persons are endowed by the Spirit with this special charism (1 Co 12:9, 28). The very possibility of such healing bears testimony to the grace of God. The medical profession enjoys the privilege of manifesting such divine grace in a special measure. Healing is a reminder of the presence of God's Spirit at work in His children to prepare them for the resurrection (Ro 8:11). Much of what passes for faith healing (divine healing) distorts Biblical truth by offering health as an ultimate gift [end in itself] rather than a penultimate gift of God; this approach does not regard illness as a chastisement of God (Heb 12:611). MHS
W. H. Boggs Jr., Faith Healing and the Christian Faith (Richmond, Virginia, 1956); P. L. Garlick, Man's Search for Health (London, 1952); R. A. Lambourne, Community, Church, and Healing (London, 1963); M. H. Scharlemann, Healing and Redemption (St. Louis, Missouri, 1965).
In nearly all passages in which the Hebrew word leb (or lebab) and the Gk. word kardia occur they are used of a man's heart and usually in a psychological sense as the organ of feeling, thinking, and willing. The heart is the seat of life (Gn 18:5; Ju 19:5, 8; Lk 21:34).
The spirit is the life principle of the heart and acts through it (heart and spirit paralleled Ps. 34:18). With the heart man approaches God (Heb 10:22); Christ dwells in the hearts of believers (Eph 3:17); estrangement from God is of the heart (Eph 4:18; Is 1:5). The heart determines the character of man (Lk 8:15; Acts 7:51; Ro 1:21; 2:5). It is the treasury of good and evil (Mt 12:3435), receives God's Word and the Holy Spirit (Mt 13:19), is the organ of faith (Ro 10:910) and unbelief (Acts 7:39), decision (Acts 5:4), and thought (Is 10:7). It is the object of Satan's activity (Jn 13:2). It resists God and becomes hardened (Acts 28:27). The work of the Law is written in the heart (Ro 2:15).
Term gen. used to designate religious system or rites outside the Judeo-Christian tradition. Derivation of the word heathen uncertain; scope of its meaning variously defined. Of special interest to Christians is the heathenism that prevailed in the Roman Empire in the 1st cents. AD There were gods many and lords many (1 Co 8:5), temples and shrines, cults and worships, including an imperial cult (see Persecution of Christians, 1), in bewildering confusion. The world was losing confidence in its gods. Xenophanes* scoffed at man-made gods. Aristophanes (ca. 448ca. 380 BC; Gk. playright) ridiculed them in his comedies. Epicurus relegated them to a state of innocuous irrelevance. Stoics (see Stoicism) reduced them to pantheistic abstraction. Lucretius* proclaimed a gospel of irreligion. The carpenter in Horace (658 BC; Roman poet and satirist) deliberates whether he should make a rude log into a bench or a god (Satire, 1, viii). Pliny* the Elder is openly atheistic. Yet heathenism had not spent its force. The religion of the cultured classes did not reflect the religion of the masses, nor were all the cultured irreligious. There was much ambivalence among the most advanced thinkers; in deference to tradition or to the beliefs of the masses, they observed, and even championed, superstitious rites and ceremonies that they inwardly despised. There was some superstition even among the most cultivated and enlightened. But neither heathenism nor philosophy satisfied the soul. It remained for Christ* Jesus to bring life and immortality to light (2 Ti 1:10). See also Pagan.
(16861756). B. Neuenhof [Neuenhofen], near Neustadt on the Orla, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; began academic career Leipzig 1715; Saturday preacher Thomaskirche, Leipzig, 1721; conrector Thomasschule 1725; prof. Heb. 1731, theol. 1740 Leipzig. Works include De corporis humani machina, divinae sapientiae ac providentiae teste; Disputationes IIX in prophetam Malachiam; De sabbato ante legem Mosis existente.
(16641718). B. Neustadt on the Orla, Ger.; educ. Jena; prof. theol. Jena; pastor and inspector Domburg; mem. Weimar consistory. Works include De praedestinatione; De theologiae exegeticae natura et constitutione; Theologia naturalis; Systema theologicum; De summa scriptura sacrae auctoritate; De legis ecclesiasticae natura, causis, et affectionibus.
(17831826). Angl. cleric and hymnist; b. Malpas, Cheshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; vicar Hodnet, Shropshire; bp. Calcutta, India. Hymns include Hosanna to the Living Lord; Brightest and Best of the Sons of the Morning; Holy, Holy, Holy! Lord God Almighty; The Son of God Goes Forth to War; From Greenland's Icy Mountains. See also Abdul Masih.
(nee Ruckle; 17341804). Mother of Methodism in Am. B. Ballingrane, Co. Limerick, Ireland; m. Paul Heck; to New York 1760; enraged against cardplaying, she urged P. Embury* to preach 1766; some date beginning of Methodism in Am. from this; helped erect 1st Wesleyan chapel in Am. (in NYC) 1768; moved to Salem in present Washington Co., New York, 1770; being loyalist, the Heck family moved to Montreal, Can., shortly before beginning of Revolutionary War; later moved to Augusta, upper Can.
(181988). B. NYC; at first Prot.; RC 1844; joined Redemptorists* 1845; founded Soc. of Missionary Priests of St. Paul the Apostle (see Paulists); active in RC publicity work; founded and ed. The Catholic World and Young Catholic (later Leader).
(Heid; 14941552). B. Ettlingen, Baden, Ger.; educ. Freiburg and Basel; influenced by W. F. Capito*; court preacher Mainz 1520; pastor Strasbourg 1523; 1st Prot. ch. historian. Works include history of the ancient ch.; hist. of the world to 1543. See also Reformed Confessions, D 1.
(from Gk. hedone, pleasure). Ethical hedonism holds that only pleasure (or enjoyment, or happiness) or pleasant states of mind are intrinsically desirable and that only displeasure (pain) or unpleasant states of mind are undesirable. But pleasure is not to be equated with sensory enjoyment. Hedonists are not agreed on a single definition or description of pleasure. Psychological hedonism seeks pleasure in goals to be achieved, pleasant contemplation or thought, or conditioning by pleasant experiences. See also Cyrenaics; Epicureanism; Eudaemonism; Sensationalism.
(15211600). B. Giengen, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Wittenberg; deacon Tübingen 1543; deposed 1548 for opposing Interim*; pastor Herrenberg 1550; signed Confessio Virtembergica (see Lutheran Confessions, A 5) 1551; one of Christoph* of Württemberg's delegates to Council of Trent 1552; helped reform Baden 1556; prof. Tübingen 1557; resigned 1599. Works include Compendium theologiae methodi quaestionibus tractatum.
(15851647). B. Raudten, Ger.; educ. Fraustadt, Breslau, Brieg; tutor Brieg and Strasbourg; returned to Raudten 1610; pastor Köben 1611; retired to Lissa, Posen, 1638; suffered in Thirty* Years' War, but bore trials with courage and patience; hymnist. Hymns include Ach Jesu, dessen Treu'; Frühmorgens, da die Sonn' aufgeht; O Jesu Christe, wahres Licht; O Jesu, du mein Bräutigam; Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen; O Gott, du frommer Gott; Gottlob, die Stund' ist kommen.
Johann Heermanns geistliche Lieder, ed. P. Wackernagel (Stuttgart, 1856); K. F. Ledderhose, Christliche Biographien, V: Das Leben Johann Heermann's von Köben (Heidelberg, 1857).
2. Hegel viewed the task of philos. as comprehending what is, a task that is possible because what is, is reason; the structure of mind and reality is one. Language, the medium of knowledge, is conceptual: words always refer beyond particulars to universals. Since all words are concepts and all concepts are universal terms, it follows that truth is likewise universal; the individual self who grasps this discovers that the process of realization of the content of the universal-as-Spirit is the very process by which Spirit comes to Self-consciousness as the universal Self of Reason. In the attainment of absolute knowledge, the Self recognizes its own unity and its objects as Absolute Spirit. Philos. traces the structure of the Absolute (God) by investigating the structure of Idea (Mind) and Nature, which are integral parts of the singular process of the Absolute's Self-manifestation, apart from which there is no Absolute.
4. Hegel's entire system rests on the triad Idea-Nature-Spirit. (1) Idea-in-itself (God in His eternal essence before Creation of Nature and finite mind) is the dynamic reality that gives rise to all that exists. All existence is the manifestation (actualization) of Idea-in-itself, which receives full reality only by being so manifested. In this state God does not yet exist, but in Creation God passes out of Himself into Nature. (2) Idea-outside-of-itself (the antithesis of Idea-in-itself) is Creation, the divine manifestation in space as Nature. Essence assumes existence. Logic (thesis) is externalized as Nature (antithesis). The triadic structure of Nature emerges as mechanics, physics, and organicsdeveloping from mineral and vegetable stages to man, in whose consciousness Idea becomes Self-conscious. The highest synthesis of organics is the free ego; Nature passes back into Spirit as mind awakens to the realization of the unity of idea (logic) and Nature (space) in the free ego (Self), conscious of itself as Spirit. (3) Idea-in-andfor-itself (Self-conscious or Spirit) is the antithesis of idea-in-itself and Idea-outside-of-itself, whose development in time is history.
5. History, as the Self-developing movement of Spirit, is embedded in a metaphysical flow of universal scope; universal hist. is a dialectical process of actualization of the divine Idea. Hence it is hist., not Nature, that is divine, for hist. is the unfolding of the divine plan, a theodicy. The philos. of Spirit is the emergence of the divine mind as Reason in hist. Tension bet. Spirit and its own hist. phases in world-historical individuals and nations constitutes the dialectic of history. The State as the cultural whole, the totality of all the artistic, pol., economic, moral, and religious ideas and institutions of a people who uniquely express Spirit. is the march of God on earth. Spirit is also the unfolding of mind as Reason in philos., which is the divine Idea knowing itself, and in religion, wherein the Idea-Nature-Spirit triad is seen as the Kingdom of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Thus, in this vast dialectical structure of triads and triads-within-triads, God's infinitude is realized by the mind of man.
6. Kant's postulate of the external, unknowable thing-in-itself (see Ding an sich) was regarded by Hegel as an untenable contradiction in terms, for to say that anything is unknowable and exists is to know something about it, namely that it exists. Hence there is no reason to assume there is anything intrinsically unknowable behind appearances. What appears to us (phenomena) is not an appearance of an underlying, unknowable thing-in-itself beyond thought, but Reality itself. Thought and thingsprocesses-events are dialectically interrelated.
7. Hegel found the clue to the nature of reality in the dialectical process by which mind proceeds in its logical operations. Examination shows that our mind fastens upon some idea (thesis) as true; then, in the face of difficulties, the opposite (antithesis) is held to be true. It is subsequently seen that though each alternative taken in abstraction is false, the whole truth is found in a synthesis of the two alternatives that takes up, reconciles, and preserves (aufheben) what is worthwhile and necessary in each partial, contradictory thesis. This synthesis serves as a new thesis for another train of thought ad infinitum; the whole world is enveloped in this dialectical chain until the attainment of the ultimate synthesis: God, or Absolute Spirit.
8. Since what is real in existence is only that which is divine in it, everything else is contingent and must perish. Thus the dialectical process is not only logical and ontological, but also chronological in nature and in significance; the temporal is but an aspect of the eternal in its ontological structure. The eternal Idea is affected by its actualization in the world, for man's spirit (the synthesis of the divine Idea and Nature) makes the indeterminate reality of Idea become determinate in existence. Hence by developing his own consciousness more fully, man makes Idea (the divine mind) more conscious of Himself. This process goes on throughout the course of human generations in the hist. of states and nations. History is thus the progressive Self-determination and Self-development of concrete Idea (Spirit), and the sequence of hist. events is both temporal (as Self-development of Spirit) and logical (as Self-development of Idea). Temporal process thus follows dialectically after the logical process of Idea-in-itself (God) and Idea-outside-of-itself (spatial Nature). Since Spirit, or the synthesis of Idea and Nature, is in essence free, hist. is the progress of freedom, the development of Spirit in time. Real freedom is found neither in anarchy nor in despotism, but in that which accepts the limitations imposed by reasonable law; real law is that which is accepted by its subjects as what they will because it is seen to be reasonable. Thus hist. is not a mere catalog of events (some good, some evil), but the dialectical unfolding of the nature of Mind or Spirit in which one-sided principles conflict with their contradictories and are reconciled in a solution that does justice to both. Universal Reason, acting through men (citizens, persons, heroes, victims), thus providently shapes history.
9. Aside from the impetus his thought gave to historicism, Romanticism, and later absolute idealism, as well as the reaction of Kierkegaardian existentialism,* 3 streams may be noted as arising in Hegel's thought: (1) K. H. Marx* used Hegel's dialectical method, in union with a dynamic of economic determinism and the materialism of P. H. D. Holbach,* to formulate a scientific system of dialectical materialism, the revolutionary Hegelian Left of communism (see Socialism); (2) Hegel's conservatism (what is logically must be, and is both rational and right) was adopted by the authoritarian voices of the Hegelian Right of fascism (see Socialism, 3); J. Dewey's* philos. is largely a tr. of Hegel's method into terms of experimental science deemed necessary in the modern industrialized, urbanized, and democratized order, a philos. in which dualisms of all sorts are overcome in the unity of experience and nature. Dewey replaces the notion of Absolute Mind with that of Society and naturalizes Hegel's thought in light of Darwinism.
Works include Phänomenologie des Geistes; Wissenschaft der Logik; Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse; Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts; Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte; Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie. RVS
J. N. Findley, Hegel: A Re-examination (London, 1958); W. T. Stace, The Philosophy of Hegel (London, 1924); F. Wiedmann, Hegel, tr. J. Neugroschel (New York, 1968).
(18631902). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; ch. hist.; taught at Tübingen.; Works include Geist und Schrift by Sebastian Franck: Eine Studie zur Geschichte des Spiritualismus in der Reformationszeit; Beiträge zur Geschichte der Mystik in der Reformationszeit; Die Psychologie in Kants Ethik.
(18481936). B. Copenhagen, Den.; educ. Copenhagen; to Am. 1873; pastor Chicago, Illinois, 187379; pres. The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. 187479; returned to Den. 1879. See also Danish Lutherans in America, 3, 4.
(van der Heyden). 1. Abraham (15971678). B. Frankenthal, Ger.; prof. Leiden; held modified form of federal* theol. of J. Cocceius.* 2. Caspar (153086). Calvinist theol.; active in Antwerp, Frankfurt am Main, Frankenthal, Middelburg, and Bacharach; with P. v. Marnix* helped form Ref. syns. in Neth. and W Ger.
(Heidelberg Meeting). Discussion, arranged by J. v. Staupitz,* at a meeting of the Gen. Chap. of the Augustinian Order held at Heidelberg, Ger., April 1518. Opponents of M. Luther* hoped to silence him at this meeting. But Staupitz tried to give Luther's position a fair hearing. In his theses Luther opposed the theologia gloriae of W of Ockham* with his own theologia* crucis, the philos. of Aristotle* with the theol. of Paul.
(Ger. hist. of salvation). God's activity on behalf of man, understood on the one hand as salvation and grace, and on the other as its effect on man's spiritual development. In its larger sense the term refers to the unfolding of God's entire plan of salvation for man, from creation* to the hereafter.* OT prophecies and NT fulfillments are important in the basis for the theol. method of exponents of Heilsgeschichte. Recapitulation* formed the basis of the conception of Irenaeus.* The covenant approach is prominent in federal* theol. Augustine* of Hippo, Joachim* of Floris, and J. Cocceius* are also prominent in the hist. of Heilsgeschichte as a concept.
(18741958). Luth. theol.; b. Frauenzimmern, Ger.; prof. Münster 1914, Tübingen 1920; influenced by Swabian pietism of J. A. Bengel,* F. C. Oetinger,* J. C. Blumhardt (see Blumhardt, 2), L. Hofacker.* Tried to present Gospel on scientificphilos. level and lead thought to choose bet. skepticism and despair or faith. See also East Asia Mission, German.
(August 31, 1868April 30, 1937). B. Wiesbaden, Ger.; to US 1884; educ. Capital U. and Sem., Columbus, Ohio; pastor Marion, Wisconsin, 188991, Detroit, Michigan, 18911902, Columbus, Ohio, 190225; elected pres. Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 1924, ALC 1930; active in LWC.
(originally Chaim Harry; 1797 [or 1799]1856). Poet and critic; b. Düsseldorf, Ger.; of Jewish descent; Prot. 1825; moved to Paris 1831; d. there after ca. 8 yrs. disability; attacked religious order; preached the rehabilitation of the flesh; in later yrs. tempered his cynicism.
(18761957). B. Frankfurt am Main, Ger.; lecturer Jewish theol. sem., Breslau, 191939; honorary prof. Breslau U. 193033; prof. Heb. U., Jerusalem, 1939. Ed. Monatsschrift für die Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums; other works include Altjüdische Allegoristik; Philons griechische und jüdische Bildung.
(18441915). Prot. theol.; b. Karkeln, E Prussia; educ. Halle and Berlin; prof. Marburg and Leipzig; interested esp. in the influence of Hellenism on early Christianity. Works include Theologische Enzyklopädie; Hellenismus und Christentum.
(November 11, 1868March 23, 1937). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor W. Hoboken, New Jersey, 189094; prof. Conc. Collegiate Institute, Bronxville, New York, 18941926; librarian Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192636.
(February 17, 1908September 27, 1971 ). B. New Orleans, Louisiana; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained 1934; pastor Coal Valley, Illinois, 1934; student pastor U. of Illinois, Champaign, 1941; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 1958. Works include With This Ring; Practical Christianity; Were You There?
(18691926). NT scholar; b. Döteberg, Ger.; taught at Göttingen, Marburg, Bonn, Tübingen; leader of Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule. Works include Das Johannesevangelium; Taufe und Abendmahl bei Paulus; Taufe und Abendmahl im Urchristentum.
(Hedjaz). Area: 150,000 sq. mi.; Formerly part of Turkish Empire; indep. since June 1916; part of Saudi Arabia (see Middle East, L 1) since 1925/26. Contains chief Islamic sacred cities, Mecca (capital of Hejaz and Saudi Arabia) and Medina; Islam* is prevailing religion.
(162059). B. Guhrau, Silesia; educ. Königsberg, Frankfurt an der Oder, and Leiden; lawyer at Rostock, Guhrau, and Altdamm; hymnist. Hymns include Gott sei Dank dutch alle Welt; Komm, o komm, du Geist des Lebens.
(18971957). B. Saarbrücken, Ger.; pastor Essen-Rüttenscheid; cofounder Bekennende Kirche in Rhineland; also active in Bekennende Kirche der Altpreussischen Union; often imprisoned; pres. Ev. Ch. in Rhineland. See also Kirchenkampf.
(ca. 15851635). B. Gotha, Ger.; schoolmaster Friemar, near Gotha, 1607; pastor Remstädt, near Gotha, 1616; hymnist; composer. Works include Cymbalum Genethliacum; Cymbalum Davidicum; hymns include O Lämmlein Gottes, Jesu Christ.
(Michael von Merseburg; Sidonius; 150661). RC theol.; b. Langenenslingen, Hohenzollern, Ger.; titular bp. Sidon; bp. Merseburg 1549; active at Council of Trent*; noted for efforts in behalf of Augsburg Interim*; writings opposed by M. Flacius* Illyricus and J. Wigand.*
(18661942). B. Gardar, Iceland; Luth. liberal theol.; educ. Copenhagen and in Ger.; taught theol. at Rejkjavík sem. 18941908; pres. of sem. 190810; prof. theol. U. of Iceland 1910; bp. Iceland 191738. Works include a gen. ch. hist. and a ch. hist. of Iceland.
(Old Saxon for Savior; cf. Ger. Heiland). 9th c. poetic presentation of the life of Christ in ca. 6,000 lines based on pseudo-Tatian's harmony of the Gospels; depicts Christ as a Germanic chief and the apostles as warriors; acc. to tradition, Louis* I commanded that the poem be written.
(16781749). Pietistic theol.; b. Nordhausen, Ger.; educ. Jena and Halle; pupil and friend of A. H. Francke*; pastor Daaden 1708, Wetzlar 1711; involved in controversies with orthodox pastors because of his conventicles; est. orphanage at Wiesbaden; tried to create pietistic image of M. Luther* for laity. See also Pietism.
(153298). The Ger. Asaph; theol.; hymnist; b. Mühlhausen, Thuringia; educ. Leipzig and Erfurt; lecturer Erfurt U.; crowned poet laureate 1566; became deacon 1571, pastor and supt. Mühlhausen 1586. Wrote metrical version of AC; hymns include Herr Gott, erhalt uns für und für; Von Gott will ich nicht lassen; Ihr Eltern, hört, was Christus spricht.
(15771644). B. Brussels, Belg.; educ. Louvain; RC physician, scientist, philos., mystic; followed P. A. Paracelsus*; later made significant contributions in areas of psychol., physiol., and chemistry; rejected pantheism* for personal God; held interaction of spiritual and material.
(May 16, 1745February 5, 1825). Luth. cleric; b. Helmstedt, Ger.; educ. Halle; influenced by G. A. Francke*; to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 1769; pastor Lancaster 176979, Philadelphia 17791820; trained J. Goering,* J. G. Butler,* (b. 1754), F. L. Endress,* J. G. Lochman,* J. G. Schmucker,* S. S. Schmucker,* J. Steck*; noted for pastoral care during yellow fever epidemic 1793. Founded Evangelisches Magazin; other works include Empfindungen des Herzens in einigen Liedern; Denkmal der Liebe und Achtung, welches seiner Hochwürden dem Herrn D. Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg ist gesetzet worden; Betrachtung der Evangelischen Lehre von der Heiligen Schrift und Taufe; Kurze Nachrieht von dem sogenannten Gelben Fieber in Philadelphia; Kurze Andachten einer Gottsuchenden Seele; Plan einer Anstalt zur Erziehung der Jungen Prediger; Etliche Kirchenlieder.
(ca. 14851545). B. Forchheim, Ger.; advisor of George* III of Anhalt; present at the February 1537 meeting of the Schmalkaldic League at Schmalkalden; signed SA and Tractatus (see Lutheran Confessions, B 2).
(Helth; Caspar; Gaspar; ca. 1500 [some think as late as ca. 1520]ca. 1574). Reformer in Klausenburg; b. probably Heltau, Transylvania; educ. Wittenberg; first followed M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon,* later J. Calvin,* then Socinianism.* Works include Bible, catechism, poems, and theol. writings in Hungarian.
(18551917). B. Den.; educ. Copenhagen; pastor Neenah, Wisconsin, 1881, West Denmark, Wisconsin, 1887; pres. The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3) 188385; pres. West Denmark Sem. 1887; returned to Den. 1895.
MPL, 23, 193216.
(from Gk. hemera, day, and baptistes, baptizer). Jewish sect named after its practice of daily ablution. Epiphanius* (Panarion i 17) describes them as similar to the Pharisees in gen. doctrine, but different from them, and like the Sadducees, in denying the resurrection. Mentioned by Hegesippus* (in Eusebius* of Caesarea, HE, IV, xxii, 6) and Justin* Martyr (Dialogue with Trypho the Jew 80). John the Baptist is called a Hemerobaptist in Clementine Homilies ii 23 (see Clementines).
(Lat. Malleolus; ca. 1388ca. 1458). B. Zurich, Switz.; educ. Erfurt and Bologna; doctor of canon law 1424; worked for reform at Councils of Constance* and Basel*; opposed celibacy* and mendicancy (see Mendicant Friars); castigated immorality of clergy; advocated decreasing of feast days.
(December 24, 1869July 22, 1948). B. Baltimore, Maryland; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Baltimore 189295, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 18951902; prof. Conc. Coll., Conover, North Carolina, 190205; pastor Pittsburgh 190508, St. Louis 190814; pres. Conc. Coll., Conover, 191418, 192835; pastor Rochester, New York, 191828; pres. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 193645.
(Nicolaus Hemmingii; 15131600). Dan. theol.; b. Errindlev, on the is. of Lolland; educ. Roskilde, Den., and Wittenberg, Ger.; follower of P. Melanchthon*; prof. U. of Copenhagen; accused of Crypto-Calvinism (see Crypto-Calvinistic Controversy); dismissed from the U. 1579; canon Roskilde. See also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 4.
(ca. 15831646). B. Criech, Fifeshire, Scot.; educ. St. Andrews; leader of Scot. Presbyterians against Anglicans; leader at Westminster* Assembly; drafted Solemn League and Covenant (see Presbyterian Confessions, 1) for Eng. and Scot. and the Directory* for the Public Worship of God.
J. Aiton, The Life and Times of Alexander Henderson (Edinburgh, 1836).
(180269). B. Fröndenberg, Westphalia, Ger.; son of Ref. pastor; educ. Bonn; tutor in Basel 1823; privatdocent Berlin 1824, licentiate of theol. 1825, extraordinary prof. 1826, prof. 1828; through private study found Christ in Bible; became Luth.; opposed rationalism,* unionism,* and mediating* theol. Founded Evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung 1827; other works include Christologie des Alten Testaments und Commentar über die Messianischen Weissagungen der Propheten; Beiträge zur Einleitung ins Alte Testament; Das Evangelium des heiligen Johannes; Die Offenbarung des heiligen Johannes; Commentar über die Psalmen. See also Vatke, Johann Karl Wilhelm.
(Alois; Henhoefer; 17891862). B. Völkersbach, near Karlsruhe, Ger., of RC parents; educ. Freiburg and Meersburg; priest; read M. Boos* and Scripture; began preaching justification by faith; excommunicated; joined Ev. Ch. 1823; exerted beneficial influence in Baden.
(17521809). B. Hehlen, Brunswick, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt; prof. Helmstedt; rationalist; saw divinity and deeds of God in human hist. of Christ; held that doctrinal development in early cents. was perversion of primitive faith.
(July 2, 1868July 5, 1929). B. Brandenburg, Ger.; to Am. 1882; educ. Watertown and Milwaukee, Wisconsin; pastor Wauwatosa, Maple Creek, and Morrison, Wisconsin; prof. Watertown 191220, Wauwatosa 192029.
1. This family, which gave a large number of pastors and educators to Am. Lutheranism, descended from Anthony Jacob Henkel (Henckel; formerly known as Gerhard, Gerhardt, or Gerhart), perhaps a descendant of the Henckel von Donnersmarck family. A Johann Henkel was chaplain to Mary* of Hung., who selected him on recommendation of M. Luther* ca. 1526; he was present with Mary at the Diet of Augsburg 1530 (see Lutheran Confessions, A). Count Erdman Henkel, a pious Luth., was a benefactor of the Halle institution of A. H. Francke*; helped H. M. Mühlenberg,* who is said to have been a blood relative of the Henkels.
Anthony Jacob Henkel (Henckel; 16631728). B. Me(h)renberg, Nassau, Ger.; educ. Giessen; ordained 1692; to Am. 1717 with his family and others; helped form a colony at New Hanover (also known as Falckner's Swamp), now in Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania; pastor there; also served Luths. at Philadelphia and elsewhere; fatally injured in fall from horse August 12, 1728.
2. Jacob Henkel (March 14, 1733February 14, 1779), son of John (or Johann) Justus Sr. (February 10, 1706August 1778; son of Anthony Jacob), was the father of Paul, Benjamin (ca. 1765February 4, 1794), Isaac (b. ca. 1767), Joseph (b. ca. 1770), John (ca. May 21, 1774December 30, 1803), all of whom became Luth. ministers, and of Moses (September 18, 1757July 28, 1827), who became a Meth. minister. Paul (December 15, 1754November 27, 1825), b. near Salisbury, North Carolina, was educ. by J. A. Krug* and C. Streit*; licensed 1783 by Ministerium of Pennsylvania (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22); ordained 1792 by same body; active in areas including Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio; helped organize North Carolina Syn. 1803, Ger. Ev. Luth. Ministerium in Ohio and the Neighboring States 1818, and Ev. Luth. Tennessee Syn. 1820 (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16); fostered theol. studies of his brothers and sons; encouraged sons Solomon and Ambrose to est. a printery at New Market, Virginia The Book of Concord was pub. in Eng. by the Henkel press 1851.
3. Solomon Henkel (November 10, 1777August 31, 1847), Philip Augustus Henkel (September 23, 1779October 9, 1833), Ambrose Henkel (July 11, 1786January 6, 1870), Andrew Henkel (October 21, 1790April 23, 1870), David Henkel (May 4, 1795June 15, 1831), and Charles Henkel (May 17 [or 18], 1798February 2, 1841), sons of Paul Henkel, became Luth. ministers, except Solomon, who was a doctor and main organizer, later owner, of the printery. Philip, b. Hampshire, Virginia, pastor North Carolina, opened a sem. 1817 which was short-lived; helped organize Ev. Luth. Tennessee Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16). David, b. Staunton, Virginia, gen. regarded as the most gifted mem. of the Henkel family, was pastor North Carolina; his miss. journeys extended into Kentucky and Indiana. Andrew and Charles were pastors in Ohio; Charles tr. AC into Eng. in the early 1830s. Ambrose learned the printing trade as a young man; one of the founders of the Henkel Press ca. 1805; its first publisher and ed.; tr. SC into English. Polycarp C. Henkel (August 23, 1820September 29, 1889), b. near Conover, North Carolina, son of David, was pastor in North Carolina and at Gravelton, Missouri; 1st pres. Concordia* Coll., Conover. Socrates Henkel (March 22, 1823June 20, 1901), b. near Conover, North Carolina, son of David; was Tennessee Syn. pastor New Market, Virginia, 185095; prominent in connection with pub. of Luth. books. Eusebius Schultz Henkel (July 26, 1811December 17, 1874), b. near Lincolnton, Lincoln Co., North Carolina, son of Philip Augustus, was ordained 1831; mem. Tennessee Syn.; settled in Indiana; traveling miss.; helped organize Indiana* Syn. (I); helped form Union* Syn. of the Evangelic Luth. Ch. and became its pres. 1860.
The Henckel Family Records, ed. E. O. Henkel (New Market, Virginia, 192639); The Henckel Genealogy, 15001960: Ancestry and Descendants of Reverend Anthony Jacob Henckel, comp. W. S. Junkin and M. W. Junkin (Spokane, Washington, 1964); The Henkel Memorial, ed. A. Stapleton and E. O. Henkel (York, Pennsylvania, and New Market, Virginia, 191019); History of the Lutheran Church in Virginia and East Tennessee, ed. C. W. Cassell, W. J. Finck, and E. O. Henkel (Strasburg, Virginia, 1930); B. H. Pershing, Paul Henkel: Frontier Missionary, Organizer, and Author, Lutheran Church Quarterly, VII (April 1934), 125151, also in CHIQ, VII (January 1935), 97120; W. J. Finck, Paul Henkel, the Lutheran Pioneer, LQ, LVI (July 1926), 307334; T. Graebner, Diary of Paul Henkel, CHIQ, I (April 1928), 1620 (July 1928), 4347, and Paul Henkel, an American Lutheran Pioneer in Missions, Organization, and Publicity, CHIQ, V (July 1932), 5863; W. E. Eisenberg, The Lutheran Church in Virginia, 17171926 (Roanoke, Virginia, 1967). HGC
(bap. Johannes; 1640ca. 1701). B. Ath, Belg.; Fr. RC explorer and miss.; accompanied Robert Cavalier de La Salle (164387; Fr. explorer) to Can. 1675; traversed Great Lakes region; explored Upper Mississippi region; returned to Fr. 1682.
(from Gk. heis, henos, one, and theos, God). Term coined by F. M. Müller* (who used it as a synonym for kathenotheism*) to designate a sort of monotheistic polytheism* that recognizes the existence of many gods, but emphasizes the worship of one of them. See also Monolatry.
(113389). Called Curtmantle because of his short mantle. King of Eng. 115489. Convened the council 1164 that adopted the Constitutions of Clarendon.* Engaged in controversy with Thomas à Becket.* See also Popes, 9.
(Henry of Navarre; Henri de Navarre; Henry the Great; 15531610). King of Navarre as Henry III 157289; king of Fr. 15891610, 1st of Bourbon line; brought up as Calvinist; joined Huguenots* in religious war 156870; ended war with Holy League (see Holy Leagues and Alliances, 3) by renouncing Protestantism for RCm 1593; signed Edict of Nantes* 1598. See also France, 9, 10.
(10501106). King of Ger. and Holy Roman emp. 10561106; engaged with Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) in investiture* controversy; excommunicated and declared deposed by Gregory 1076; absolved after penance at Canossa 1077; excommunicated again 1080; declared Gregory deposed; crowned emp. 1084 by Clement III (Guibert, or Wibert, of Ravenna; ca. 10301100; b. Parma, It.; antipope 10801100).
(Henricus de Gandavo; ca. 121793). Doctor solemnis; Summus doctorum; Doctor reverendus; Doctor digressivus. B. probably near Ghent, Neth.; scholastic philos.; canon Tournai 1267; archdeacon Bruges (Brugge) 1276, Tournai 1278; taught theol. at Paris. Works include Quodlibeta; Summa theologica (unfinished).
(Henry of Hesse the elder; ca. 1325 [some say 1340]1397). Doctor conscientiosus. B. perhaps Hainbach, near Langenstein, Hesse; outstanding scholar; lectured on nominalist philos. at Paris 1363; supported council over pope (see Councils and Synods, 7); driven from Paris; became mystic-ascetic writer and defender of papacy; prof. Vienna 1384. Wrote encyclopedic, soc., exegetic, and dogmatic works.
(12th c.). Inveighed first in Lausanne and Le Mans, later in Albi and Toulouse, Fr., against corruption and abuses in the ch.; denied original sin; emphasized personal responsibility and simple, ev. life; promoted teachings of Pierre de Bruys*; arrested twice; followers called Henricians.
(d. 1379). B. perhaps Nördlingen, Ger.; secular priest; preacher; leader of Friends* of God: at Basel 133949; assoc. with J. Tauler* and Rulman* Merswin. Tr. of Mechthild* of Magdeburg's Das fliessende Licht der Gottheit from Low Ger. into High Ger. ascribed to him; noted for correspondence with M. Ebner.*
(Heinrich von Segusia; b. before 1200; d. ca. 1271). B. Susa (ancient Segusia, or Segusio), It.; studied law at Bologna; taught at Paris, Fr.; abp. Embrun, Fr., 1250; cardinal-bp. Ostia, It., ca. 1262.
(Hendrik van Zutphen; Heinrich von Zütphen; [Moller? Muller? Müller?]; Henricus Zutphaniensis; Supphenus; 14881524). Early Luth. martyr.* Augustinian monk; studied at Wittenberg 1508; lived in same monastery bldg. as M. Luther*; prior Augustinian monastery Dort 1516; went to Wittenberg 1520; prior Antwerp 1522; imprisoned 1522; forcibly freed by the people; to Bremen November 1522; captured and burned at Meldorf, Dithmarschen, December 11.
(14911547). Tudor king of Eng. (150947); joined Holy League against Fr. 1511; appointed T. Wolsey* lord chancellor 1515; received title Defender of the Faith from pope 1521 for Assertio septem sacramentorum, directed against M. Luther*; in conflict with pope because latter refused to grant him divorce from Catherine of Aragon; dismissed Wolsey 1529: appointed T. More* chancellor 1529; secured from Parliament the Act of Supremacy 1534 (see Church and State, 9), creating a nat. ch. with king as head; closed monasteries and confiscated their property. See also Anglican Confessions, 1, 9; Cajetan; Clement VII, 2; England, B 14; Holy Leagues and Alliances; Luther Controversies of, c.
(182079). B. Kassel, Ger.; prof. Marburg; upheld a Melanchthonian Ref. theol. as proper heritage of Hesse in opposition to A. F. C. Vilmar's* confessional Lutheranism; follower of F. D. E. Schleiermacher.*
(ca. 540ca. 470 BC). The Obscure; the Weeping Philosopher. B. probably Ephesus; metaphysician; held that the world order is an eternal changing fire; panta rhei (Gk. all things flow). See also Dialectic; Philosophy; Time.
(ca. 575641). B. Cappadocia; E Roman emp. 610641; defeated by Persians who took Syria 613614, Palestine 615, Egypt 616; Constantinople besieged. Defeated Persians 623628; lost Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, and Egypt to Mohammedans 635641. His efforts for reform were opposed by nobles and the ch. See also Ecthesis; Serbia.
(17761841). B. Oldenburg, Ger.; educ. Jena; tutor Interlaken, Switz.; prof. Königsberg and Göttingen; developed and systematized J. H. Pestalozzi's* idea of psychologizing education. Held that the end and aim of education is to develop moral character. Character depends on knowledge; ideas act as forces; will, desire, interest, and feeling are grounded in intellectual activity; content of the mind largely regulates behavior; hence the teacher's duty to supply dominant thoughts and ideas in educative instruction. Absorption and reflection make the mind many-sided; necessary steps: clearness, association, system, method; clearness was later divided into preparation and presentation and system and method were renamed generalization and application; this resulted in Five Formal Steps. In these steps the teacher first prepares the pupil by recalling such ideas as will make the mind receptive for new material, which is then presented; new material is assoc. with other ideas that may suggest themselves; then gen. conceptions are formed and applied. Works include Allgemeine Pädagogik; Psychologische Untersuchungen.
(15621627). B. Fraustadt, Poland; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder and Leipzig; asst., later pastor Fraustadt; called the little Luther because of his outstanding preaching; hymnist. Works include Evangelische Herz-Postille; hymns include Valet will ich dir geben, an acrostic on his given name.
(ca. 15831648). B. Eyton-on-Severn, Eng.; brother of G. Herbert*; educ. Oxford; 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury; diplomat, soldier, hist., philos. Held that there are 5 innate religious Common Notions: there is a God; He ought to be worshiped; virtue and piety are essential to worship; man should repent of his sins; there are rewards and punishments in this life and in the future life. Works include De veritate; De causis errorum; De religione gentilium. See also Deism, III 1.
(15931633). B. Montgomery, Wales; brother of E. Herbert*; educ. Westminster School and Cambridge; rector Fugglestone and Bemerton; devotional poet; main theme was metaphysical love and glorification of God. Works include The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations; A Priest to the Temple.
(17441803). B. Mohrungen, E Prussia; critic, philos., educ., and preacher; gen. supt., court preacher, and pres. of high consistory Weimar; raised to the rank of a noble ca. 1802; influenced by I. Kant* (his teacher) and J. G. Hamann*; influenced J. W. v. Goethe,* J. P. F. Richter,* and other romantic writers; moving spirit in Sturm und Drang. Saw beauty and character in 16th-c. chorales and sought to preserve purity and antiquity of texts; regarded ch. hymns as true folk songs that deepened religious feeling. Prepared the way for the science of comparative philol. and modern comparative religion*; influenced developing Ger. nationalism and historiography; evolutionist after the manner of G. W. Leibniz,* but approached views of C. Darwin.* Ed. Volkslieder; other works include Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Sprache; ldeen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit; Lieder der Liebe; Vom Geist der Ebräischen Poesie. See also Historicism, 2; Philosophy. HFB
R. T. Clark, Jr., Herder: His Life and Thought (Berkeley, California, 1955); B. v. Wiese, Herder: Grundzüge seines Weltbildes (Leipzig, 1939); R. R. Ergang, Herder and the Foundations of German Nationalism (New York, 1966); J. K. Fugate, The Psychological Basis of Herder's Aesthetics (The Hague, Neth., 1966).
A. Heaven (Eternal Life). 1. Eternal, or everlasting, life, the gift of God through Christ* Jesus, is the end of faith, the ultimate object of a Christian's hope and striving (Ph 3:1314; 2 Ti 4:68). The Bible describes eternal life as a kingdom (Lk 12:32), a paradise (Lk 23:43), an unfading inheritance (1 Ptr 1:4), a rest for the people of God (Heb 4:9), Abraham's bosom (Lk 16:22), a marriage supper (Rv 19:9), a crown of life (Rv 2:10), to picture under earthly symbols the ineffable joys and pleasures of heaven.
2. Scripture represents heaven as a place, a house with many mansions (Jn 14:2), everlasting habitations (Lk 16:9), a city (Heb 11:10), a new heaven and a new earth (2 Ptr 3:13; Rv 21:1). It makes no attempt to locate heaven. All human efforts to do so must fail.
3. Essentially eternal life is immediate, uninterrupted fellowship with God. To be with God is to be in heaven (Ps 16:11; Lk 23:43). The saints in light are with God and with His Son (Jn 17:24). They see God face to face, as He is, and know God even as they are known; their knowledge of God and His wonderful works will no longer be partial, but perfect and complete (1 Co 13:912; 1 Jn 3:2).
4. This blissful fellowship is unbroken by time, unmarred and undisturbed by sin or any of its disrupting consequences (Ps 16:11; Jn 3:16). Pain, sorrow, tears, tribulation, hunger, thirst, and death will be no more (Rv 7:1617; 21:4). In heaven the elect will sing the praises of God and their exalted Redeemer (Rv 5:913). The divine image will be fully restored (Ps 17:15; Heb 12:23). The glory that will be revealed surpasses human understanding (2 Co 12:4) and far outweighs the suffering of this present time (Ro 8:19). It is a blessedness beyond compare (2 Co 4:17).
5. The body of believers will share in the glory of everlasting life. Transformed to resemble the glorified body of their Redeemer, the body will be free from weakness, dishonor, and corruption (Ph 3:21; 1 Co 15:4254). The white robes mentioned Rv 7:914 are symbols of the sinlessness effected through the cleansing power of Christ's blood. The institution of marriage will be abolished (Mt 22:30). In glory the believers will be equal to the angels of God (Lk 20:36). Whether the redeemed will recognize each other in heaven is not stated explicitly but may be inferred from the story of the Transfiguration, which says that the disciples recognized Moses and Elijah (Mt 17:34).
6. Though Scripture ascribes full salvation to all believers (Jn 3:16), there will be degrees of glory in accord with the difference of the works that the believers performed on earth (1 Co 3:8; 2 Co 9:6). It is futile and needless to speculate in what this difference of glory consists. This we know, that a believer enjoying a greater measure of glory will not be envied by those who have less. It is inherent in eternal life with its absolute perfection that the difference in glory will not give rise to any evil thoughts.
B. Hell (Eternal Punishment). 1. The doctrine of eternal punishment, repugnant to natural man, has been repudiated by errorists (e.g., Origen,* Universalists*) but is clearly revealed in Scripture. To deny this doctrine is to reject the authority of Scripture.
2. Acc. to the Bible, the unbelievers will be damned (Mk 16:16). They will be punished with everlasting destruction (2 Th 1:9), the damnation of hell (Mt 23:33). This punishment is variously described as unquenchable fire (Mk 9:4348), outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth (Mt 8:12), a prison from which there is no escape (Mt 5:2526).
3. As regards the question whether the fire of hell (Mt 25:41 et al.) is a material fire or not, restraint is in order. Since other expressions are used to depict the suffering of the lost (e.g., their worm does not die, Mk 9:48; they shall be cast out into outer darkness, Mt 8:12), all of them may well be understood figuratively. The description that the Bible gives of hell is to express in terms taken from human experience the unspeakable torments of body and soul of the damned. Whatever has been said about the awful doom of the wicked is intended to call sinners to repentance and warn them of the wrath to come.
4. As the essence of heaven is fellowship with God, so the essence of hell is exclusion from this fellowship. Deprived of the blissful presence of God and the glory bestowed on the believers (2 Th 1:9; Mt 25:41), the unbelievers will languish in the company of the evil spirits to bemoan, in abject despair, their willful impenitence during the time of grace and their unalterable condemnation (Mt 8:12). This punishment, which is never alleviated, will be eternal in the 2-fold sense that it suffers no interruption (Lk 16:2426) and has no end (Mk 9:48). Degrees of punishment are clearly taught Mt 11:2224; Lk 12:4748. Those who spurned the proffered grace and knew the Lord's will, will be punished more severely than those who never heard the Gospel. Hypocrites who devour widows' houses and for a pretense make long prayer shall receive the greater damnation (Mt 23:14). Wherein this difference consists has not been revealed, and we should not presume to know.
5. To identify the destruction of the wicked with annihilation (see Annihilationism) has no warrant in Scripture. if the punishment of the wicked consisted in their outright annihilation, the Bible could not speak of it as everlasting destruction (2 Th 1:9). Acc. to Ro 2:89 tribulation and anguish await those who do not obey the truth; acc. to Jn 3:36 the wrath of God abides on those who do not believe the Son. Neither could be predicated of men who cease to have a conscious existence. Destruction or perdition, when contrasted with life, denote not cessation of existence, but eternal misery, the loss of everlasting blessedness (Ph. 1:28).
6. The meaning of eternal has been called into question on the ground that the Gk. word aionios, tr. by eternal or everlasting, does not denote endlessness. Aionios (from aion, age) is a relative term and may mean age-long, enduring for a time only, but it can also mean everlasting, endless, and it clearly has this meaning in all passages that speak of the destiny of men in the hereafter. The temporal is contrasted with the eternal (aionios) 2 Co 4:18; 1 Ptr 1:2325. When judgment is pronounced, the wicked will go into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into life eternal (Mt 25:46). The same Gk. word is used in both sentences. If aionios denotes endlessness in the one, it must have the same meaning in the other. The punishment of the wicked is unending misery and woe (Mk 3:29).
7. The same passages that unequivocally teach the eternity of punishment rule out as unscriptural the teaching of the ultimate salvation of all men. 1 Co 15:22, Eph 1:10, and Rv 21:5 cannot be adduced as proof for the final salvation of all, for when the Scriptures speak of the ultimate goal of the world's hist., they refer only to the blessed perfection of the faithful. 1 Co 15:28 and related passages teach the final victory of the kingdom of God, the subjugation of all the enemies of Christ; they do not state that all these enemies will be converted to God.
8. No physical location of hell is intended by what Scripture says of the habitation of the wicked. Hell is where God reveals Himself in His vindictive justice to the finally impenitent.
9. One of the objections raised to the doctrine of eternal punishment is that it is inconsistent with the love of God to condemn men to unending perdition. But it must be remembered that while God is a God of love, His love is only one of His attributes. Justice is also one of His attributes. Since God is a perfect being, we find in Him the perfect and harmonious expression of all His attributes. It is significant, too, that the most solemn and explicit declarations of eternal punishment recorded in Scripture were spoken by the forgiving and compassionate Savior (Mt 25:41, 46; Mk 9:4348). Some hold that it is unworthy of a just God to punish men with everlasting condemnation. But how can man presume to determine the justice of the infinite God acc. to human conceptions of justice? (Ps. 19:9; Is 55:9; Ro 11:33).
C. Definition of Biblical Terms. 1. Heaven is (1) the vaulted expanse of the sky with all things in it (Heb 1:10), the aerial heavens or sky where clouds and tempests gather (Mt 16:2), the starry heavens (Heb 11:12); (2) the dwelling place of God (Mt 5:34; 23:22; Acts 7:49) and His holy angels (Mt 18:10; 24:36), to which Christ ascended (Acts 1:911), the eternal home of all believers (Mt 5:12; 1 Ptr 1:4).
2. Paradise. This word, perhaps of Persian origin, denotes (1) a garden or park, e.g., the Garden of Eden (Gn 2:817); (2) the heavenly Paradise, home of the saints of God (Lk 23:43; 2 Co 12:4 [RSV 3]; Rv 2:7).
3. Sheol. The etymology of this word, occuring 65 times in the Heb. OT, is still obscure. M. Luther* tr. it Hölle in all places except Gn 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; in these passages he tr. it with Grube. The KJV tr. it with grave, hell, and pit. Since the derivation of the word is uncertain, the context must determine the meaning in each case.
(a) Sheol may mean the resting place of man's mortal remains (Jb 17:16; Is 38:10).
(b) Sheol may mean realm of the dead, into which all enter who depart this life, righteous as well as wicked (e.g., Gn 37:35; Jb 7:9; Ps 16:10; 31:17; 89:48). In this sense it is a gen. term used very much like Eng. the hereafter or the beyond. The phrase to go down into Sheol means to die, to depart from the land of the living. But it should be noted that when the righteous are said to descend into Sheol, their fate beyond is never taken into account. The hope of the pious in the OT is expressed differently, e.g., Ps 73:24.
(c) Sheol may mean the place where God's judgment overtakes evildoers. In this sense Sheol receives such as are taken away in God's anger. Korah's rebel band went down to Sheol because they had provoked the Lord (Nm 16:30, 33). Harlots go to Sheol (Pr 5:5). The anger of the Lord burns to the depths of Sheol (Dt 32:22). Acc. to Ps 49 all men die physically, righteous as well as ungodly (v. 10), but there is a difference in their existence in the hereafter. The confidence of the Psalmist is exressed in the words They (i. e. the wicked) are laid in Sheol (KJV the grave), death shall feed on them, but God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol (KJV the grave); for He shall receive me (vv. 1415). Clearly there is a sharp contrast bet. the doom of the ungodly and the glorious hope of the believer, who hopes to rest securely in the hands of God; cp. Ps 73.
4. Hades (perhaps derived from the Gk. word for unseen). In non-Biblical Gk. literature this term denotes the realm of the dead. In the LXX Hades is used almost exclusively for Sheol. In the NT it means realm of the dead (Acts 2:27, 31; Rv 20:1314) or (e.g., Lk 16:23) a place where unbelievers suffer. When the rich man found himself in Hades, he was not in an intermediate state, but in torments.
5. Gehenna was the Gk. name of a deep, narrow valley SW and S of Jerusalem; the Heb. name was ge hinnom, valley of Hinnom; the meaning of Hinnom is obscure. It was the scene of the sacrifice of children to the idol Moloch (2 K 23:10). Later it was used for disposal of refuse by fire. By transfer of thought the name Gehenna came to denote the abode of the wicked after death (e.g., Mt 5:22, 29; 10:28; Mk 9:43, 45; Lk 12:5; Ja 3:6).
6. Abyssos. A Gk. word derived from an adjective meaning bottomless, unbounded, denotes (1) the deep, or primeval waters (LXX Gn 1:2); (2) the depths of the earth as a symbol of great distress and anguish of soul (Ps 71:20); (3) the abode of the dead (Ro 10:7); (4) hell, as the abode of evil spirits presided over by Apollyon, identified by many with Satan (Rv 9:12, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3).
7. Tartaros. This Gk. word is not in the Bible, but a related verb form occurs 2 Ptr 2:4. In Gk. mythology Tartaros is an underground prison, regarded as the abode of the wicked dead where they suffer punishment for their evil deeds; its corresponds to Gehenna (see par. 5 above) as a name for hell.
H. Ebeling, Der Menschheit Zukunft,- 2d ed. (Zwickau, 1913 ); T. Kliefoth, Christliche Eschatologie (Leipzig, 1886); C. E. Luthardt, Die Lehre von den letzten Dingen, 2d ed. (Leipzig, 1870); R. Seeberg, Ewiges Leben? (Leipzig, 1915); A. Althaus, Die letzten Dinge (Verden, 1858); P. Althaus, Unsterblichkeit und ewiges Sterben bei Luther (Gütersloh, 1930) and Die letzten Dinge, 4th ed. (Gütersloh, 1933); J. A. West, What the Bible Teaches About the World Beyond (Burlington, Iowa, 1939); L. F. Gruber, What After Death? (Burlington, Iowa, 1925); E. C. Pautsch, Eternal Life, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946); W. F. Wolbrecht, The Doctrine of the Last Things, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946); E. C. Fendt, The Life Everlasting, What Lutherans Are Thinking (Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 307322; G. Beiderwieden, Heaven (St. Louis, 1937); That Unknown Country, or What Living Men Believe Concerning Punishment After Death (Springfield, Massachusetts, 1891).
Bantu tribe (ca. 50,000) in cen. South-West Afr. and NW Bechuanaland Protectorate; evangelized in the 19th c. by the Rhenish* Miss. Soc. and the Finnish* Miss. Soc. See also Africa, B 8; Hahn, Karl Hugo. (181895).
Heresy hunter; opponent of heretics.
Student of heresy; opponent of heresy.
(from Gk. hairesis, act of choosing, then chosen opinion; §). 1. Used in the LXX for choices that are either good or bad (e.g., Gn 49:5; Lv 22:18, 21). In F. Josephus,* Jewish War, II viii 2, it is used of either a party or a § (cf. Acts 5:17; 15:5; 24:5, 14; 26:5). The term is used in the NT in a condemnatory sense; heretics are contentious (1 Co 11:1619), deny the Lord, are pernicious, covetous, deceivers for gain, false teachers (2 Ptr 2:13), are subverted, sinners, and self-condemned (Tts 3:1011; cf. schism in 1 Co 1:10; 11:18; 12:25).
2. The term heresy occurs in Ignatius (see Apostolic Fathers, 2), Epistle to the Trallians, shorter version, vi, and Epistle to the Ephesians, vi. Justin* Martyr, Dialog with Trypho the Jew, LXXX, speaks of godless, impious heretics and their blasphemous, atheistical, and foolish doctrines. The later Fathers often use the term heresy. In earliest Christian times Jewish sects and Gk. schools were regarded heretics. In the 2d and 3d c. Gnostics (see Gnosticism) were the great heretics. Then came Monarchianism,* Montanism,* and rend=i0>Manichaeism.* Arianism,* Apollinarianism,* Pelagianism,* Nestorianism,* Monophysitism,* and Monothelitism* were outstanding heresics of the Nicene and post-Nicene era (see Christian Church, History of the, I 34).
3. In early Christian times charges of heresy were used in pol. maneuvering. As ch. organization developed into a pol. system, heresy was outlawed and suppressed. From ca. the end of the 4th c. into the 16th c. heresy was a capital crime. In the Middle Ages, heresies became in part protests of individuals against an est. order and included speculative thinkers (Cathari,* Amalricians*), mystics (J. Tauler,* H. Suso,* J. v. Ruysbroeck,* Thomas* à Kempis), enthusiasts (Franciscan Spirituals*), antisacerdotalists (Pierre de Bruys,* Henry* of Lausanne). J. Wycliffe* and J. Hus* were also considered heretics.
4. M. Luther* restored the term to its original meaning: Heresy is stubborn error in an article of faith in opposition to Scripture (WA 54, 288; 30 II, 422, 426); is an individually made doctrine and mode of living (WA 8, 389); springs from pride (WA 31 I, 333); cannot endure grace (WA 28, 574) and substitutes other works for those commanded by God (WA 32, 516); is not evolved from Scripture, but from perverted minds (WA 45, 647648; 18, 701); pretends to be Scriptural (WA 17 I, 363); refuses to listen or be opposed (WA 19, 610); sins against Holy Ghost (WA 19, 610; 2, 184); errs in a fundamental doctrine (WA 1, 391); errorists strive against recognized truth and their own conscience (WA 50, 545). (Cf. Ap IV 232, 242; SA II iv 7, III viii 9; Tractatus 38, 72; FC Ep XlI, SD VIII 17, XII 39).
5. J. Gerhard,* Loci theologici, XIII, pp. 222223: For one to be properly called a heretic, it is required (1) that he be a person received by the Sacrament of Baptism into the visible church; (2) that he err in faith ; (3) that the error conflict directly with the very foundation of faith; (4) that to the error be added malice and obstinacy, in which he stubbornly defends his error, though repeatedly admonished; (5) that he stir up dissensions and scandals in the church and rend its unity. C. F. W. Walther* summarized the teaching of Luther and the Luth. dogmaticians: A heretic (1) errs in a fundamental article; (2) brings about divisions; (3) continues in his perverse ways despite repeated admonitions and contrary to his own better knowledge and conscience. EL
G. Arnold, Unparteyische Kirchen- and Ketzer-Historic, von Anfang des Neuen Testaments biss auff das Jahr Christi 1688, 4 parts (Frankfurt, 16991700); A. Hilgenfeld, Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchristenthums (Leipzig, 1884); C. F. W. Walther, Die Stimme unserer Kirche in der Frage von Kirche und Amt, jubilee ed. (Zwickau, Ger., 1911), pp. 1014, and Die Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche, die wahre sichtbare Kirche Gottes auf Erden (St. Louis, Missouri, 1867), pp. 2425, 151152, tr. J. T. Mueller, The True Visible Church (St. Louis, Missouri, 1961), pp. 2029, 134; Studia Friburgensia, New Series, 10, ed. H. O. Löthi: J. Cahill, The Development of the Theological Censures After the Council of Trent (15631709) (Fribourg, Switz., 1955); Beiträge zur historischen Theologie, ed. G. Ebeling, 10: W. Bauer, Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum, 2d ed. G. Strecker (Tübingen, 1964); K. Rahner, On Heresy, tr. W. J. O'Hara (New York, 1964); J. Guitton, Great Heresies and Church Councils, tr. F. D. Wieck (New York, 1965); G. Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, 2 vols. (New York, 1967).
Baptism (see Grace, Means of, III) performed by heretics was a subject of controversy in the 3d-4th c. ch. The question was: Is heretical baptism, even if administered in the right form, true Baptism, or is it a mere ceremony? Cyprian* of Carthage held the latter view (Epistles 6974), which was shared by the Afr. Ch. Heretical baptism was rejected by several syns. at Carthage (e.g., 255256; see also Carthage, Synods and Councils of) and in Asia Minor. Stephen* I of Rome defended the validity of heretical baptism administered in the name of the Trinity.* This view prevailed. The Syn. of Arles* declared Trinitarian baptism by heretics valid; the 325 Council of Nicaea* recognized baptism of Novatians (see Novatianism) but rejected that of followers of Paul* of Samosata; the Syn. of Laodicea* did not require rebaptism of converts from Novatians and some other sects; a syn. at Carthage 348 sanctioned heretical baptism properly performed. Augustine* of Hippo defended the validity of heretical baptism as to form but denied it saving efficacy until the baptized person joined the true ch. If there is no absolute certainty on the validity of previous baptism, RCs gen. rebaptize conditionally. Luths. and most Prots. recognize Trinitarian baptism of other chs.
(182490). B. Würzburg, Ger.; RC theol.; defended papal infallibility; opposed J. J. I. v. Döllinger*; ch. hist.; cardinal 1879. Works include Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte; vols. 89 of K. J. v. Hefele's* Conciliengeschichte.
(Nicolaus Hermann; estimates of the yr. of his birth range from ca. 1480 to near the end of the 15th c.; d. 1561). B. Altdorf near Nürnberg, Ger.; teacher and organist Joachimstal ca. 1518; hymnist; composer. Works include text of Erschienen ist der herrlich' Tag; text and music of Lobt Gott, ihr Christen; and Die helle Sonn' leucht't jetzt herfür.
(18871962). B. Barmen, Ger.; prof. Breslau 1919, Greifswald 1926, Berlin 1953. Works include Gesammelte Studien zur Theologie Luthers and der Reformation; Luthers Theologie; Von der Klarheit der Heiligen Schrift.
(16431716). B. Namslau, Silesia; pastor and inspector Lissa, Posen; hymnist. Hymns include Wie kurz ist doch der Menschen Leben.
Founded 1849 by G. L. D. T. Harms* at Hermannsburg, Ger.; candidates given religious and vocational training; first missionaries sent out 1853 to Afr., the most important field of this soc. See also Harms, Theodor; India, 13; Michigan Synod, 4.
(101354). Hermann der Lahme (i. e. the Lame); Hermannus Contractus (i. e. the Cripple); Herimannus Augiensis. B. Saulgau, Ger.; monk of the Benedictine abbey at Reichenau (Lat. Augia dives); hist., poet, polymath. Works include Chronicon, a hist. of the Christian era to 1054; some sequences (see Sequence) have been ascribed to him.
(14771552). B. Wied, Ger.; count of Wied; abp. and elector Cologne; at first supported papacy* against M. Luther*; tried to correct abuses in Cologne beginning ca. 1536; called in M. Bucer* 1542, P. Melanchthon* 1543. His thoughts on reform are given in Von Gottes genaden unser Hermans Ertzbischoffs zu Cöln, unnd Churfürsten einfaltigs bedencken, warauff ein Christliche, in dem wort Gottes gegrünte Reformation anzurichten seye (drafted by Bucer and Melanchthon; pub. 1543). Some of his proposals found their way into the Book* of Common Prayer. Deposed and excommunicated 1546 by Charles* V and Paul* III.
1. Branch of theology* that deals with the study of the principles of interpretation; the theory of exegesis.* The term is derived from Gk. hermeneuein, used, with variations, for translate (Jn 1:38, 42; Heb 7:2) and explain (Lk 24:27). The Gk. word, in turn, probably goes back to the name of the god Hermes, who was credited with inventing language and had the task of communicating the things of heaven to men. In the days of Aristotle* the art of hermeneutics dealt with matters of rhetoric and translation. In the ancient ch. hermeneia included commentary on a text. The term was used by J. K. Dannhauer* and others to denote ars interpretandi (the art of interpretation). F. D. E. Schleiermacher* and W. C. L. Dilthey* limited the study of the theory of exegesis almost entirely to analysis of the problem of understanding.
2. Hermeneutics tries to point the way to removing distance bet. author and reader. The rules and principles are not a matter of caprice, but are determined by (a) the gen. laws of human thought and expression; (b) the nature, origin, form, and purpose of a book. Biblical hermeneutics tries to show how the meaning of the Bible may be determined and communicated.
3. Since gen. rules of expression and understanding are affected to some extent by the cultural situation in which the interpreter lives, interpretation has, in the course of its hist., been marked by various presuppositions and emphases. When the Gospel made contact with the Graeco-Roman Empire, it adjusted itself to the Platonic world view, a vertical distinction bet. the material and the realm of ideas (cf. letter and spirit, 2 Co 3:6). This situation gave rise to development of the allegorical method (see Exegesis, 35; Schools, Early Christian, 1, 4). See also Catena.
4. The Luth. Reformation included reformation in the art of Biblical interpretation. It proceeded from assumption of the perspicuity* of Scripture to application of 2 revolutionary principles: (a) the sense of a passage is a single one (sensus literalis unus est); (b) Scripture is its own interpreter (scriptura sacra sui ipsius interpres). M. Flacius* Illyricus formalized these principles 1567 in Clavis scripturae sacrae. The period of Luth. orthodoxy (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 35) has been characterized as a time of dogmatic exegesis, i. e., of interpreting the Bible in terms of doctrinal definitions and distinctions. Pietism* reacted to Luth. orthodoxy by a desire to provide a devotional spirit for interpretation. The Enlightenment* was characterized by interest in textual investigation and literary analysis, philos., and hist., and contributed to comparative religion. These trends influenced Biblical hermeneutics.
5. The 20th c. opened with a burst of activity that provided new translations, commentaries, dictionaries, grammars, and lexicons (see Bible Versions, L 1214; Commentaries, Biblical; Encyclopedias and Dictionaries; Grammars). The yrs. beyond the middle of the 20th c. found interpreters engaged in contest bet. those who follow the existential approach of R. Bultmann (see Demythologization; Existentialism) and others who see in his method of demythologizing a threat to the content and hist. base of Scripture. Most hermeneutical studies today are built on an awareness of the uniqueness of the Bible; an appreciation of its theol. aspects; a recognition of the needs of Israel and the early ch. in terms of worship, teaching, and preaching as providing occasion for creation of oral tradition and various literary materials which were used by the sacred writers in preparing the Biblical documents; and a strong desire to study the Scriptural materials in the light of their original milieu (Sitz* im Leben). This last emphasis has given rise to an interest in the life and practices of Judaism. MHS
F. W. Danker, Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study, 2d ed. (St. Louis, Missouri, 1966); K. Frör, Biblische Hermeneutik, 2d ed. (Munich, 1964); Biblical Authority for Today: A World Council of Churches Symposium on The Biblical Authority for the Churches' Social and Political Message Today, ed. A. Richardson and W. Sehweitzer (London, 1951); J. D. Smart, The Interpretation of Scripture (Philadelphia, 1961).
Philos. and theol. system which tried to reconcile RC theol. with the philos. of I. Kant.* Basically anthropocentric, it holds that the only sure knowledge is that of ideas in the mind. System received its name from G. Hermes,* who, in opposition to Kant, held that the existence of God and supernatural revelation could be rationally proved. Popular among RCs for a time. Some of Hermes' works were put on the Index* of Prohibited Books 1835.
(from Gk. eremites, living in the desert). Religious orders whose mems. lead solitary lives. Anchorite often synonymous with hermit; when distinguished, a hermit is one who has retired from human society, an anchorite is close to a religious community. Cenobites,* in contrast to anchorites and hermits, live in secluded communities. Hermits include Augustinian* Hermits, Camaldolese,* early Carmelites,* Carthusians,* Celestines (see Celestines, 1). See also Anthony; Paul of Thebes; Recluse.
(18461922). B. Melkow, Ger.; prof. systematic theol. Marburg 1879; followed philos. of I. Kant* and theol. of A. Ritschl*; held that the ch. should teach only those things which influence man. Works include Der Verkehr des Christen mit Gott.
(16751723). B. Bopfingen, Swabia (later Württemberg); educ. Altdorf and Halle; asst. to his father at Bopfingen; supt., preacher, mem. of consistory Idstein; prof. Halle; hymnist. Hymns include Lobe den Herren, o meine Seele.
(Friedrich Wilhelm; October 23, 1859August 26, 1930). B. Baltimore, Maryland; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pioneer miss. in Arkansas; pastor Carson, Kansas, Chicago, Illinois, Hammond, Indiana; 1st city miss. (St. Louis) of Mo. Syn. 1899; championed many miss. and charitable endeavors. Works include The Family Altar. See also Associated Lutheran Charities.
(Johann Heinrich; initial A. also occurs; November 3, 1840May 2, 1930). B. Louisville, Kentucky; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Aurora, Steele Co., Minnesota, 186568, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 186879, Plymouth, Wisconsin, 187992, Athens, Illinois, 18991922; prof. Conc. Theol. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 18921914; pres. Wisconsin Dist., Mo. Syn., 1891. Author: Evangelisch-Lutherische Katechetik.
(18221909). B. Hummendorf, near Kronach, Bav.; educ. Altdorf near Nürnberg; organist Munich 1843, cantor 1848, Conservatory prof. 1850; prof. Erlangen 1854. Works include Orgelschule; Die gebräuchlichsten Choräle der evangelischen Kirche; Evangelisches Choralbuch.
(180582). Ref. theol.; b. Basel, Switz.; educ. Basel and Berlin; began to teach at Lausanne, Switz., 1835; prof. there 1838, Halle 1847, Erlangen 1854. Ed. Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche; other works include Das Leben Ökolampadius' und die Reformation der Kirche zu Basel; Die romanischen Waldenser.
(Hesse; Hessus; 14901547). Reformer of Silesia; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; friend of M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon*; pastor Breslau 1523; founded All Saints Hosp., Breslau, 1526; hymnist. See also Moiban(us), Ambrosius.
(17411828). B. Zurich, Switz.; urged by F. G. Klopstock* and C. M. Wieland* to devote himself to poetry; 1760 asst. to uncle, Kaspar Hess, pastor Neftenbach; influenced by J. K. Lavater*; deacon Zurich 1777; pastor Zurich and supt. Canton Zurich 1795. Emphasized spiritual brotherhood of believers. Works include Geschichte der drey letzten Lebensjahre Jesu, sammt dessen Jugendgeschichte; Von dem Reiche Gottes.
(16771733). B. Swed.; nephew of J. Swedberg*; left Swed. for Am. 1711; Luth. pastor Christina (Wilmington) in the Swed. settlement on the Delaware 171323; returned to Swed. 172324; pastor Gaguäf, Västeraas, Swed. Works include Disertatio historica de Vandalis; Kort Berettelse Om Then Swenska Kyrkios närwarande Tilstaand i America Samt ofögripeliga tankar om thess widare förkofring. His brother Samuel came to Am. 1719; served chs. in Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania, 171923 and was Andreas' successor at Wilmington 172331; returned to Swed. 1731; pastor Romfertuna, Västeraas, Swed. See also Provost.
(Hesshusius; Heshusius; Hesshusen; 152788). Ev. theol.; educ. Wittenberg, Oxford, and Paris; supt. Goslar 1553; prof. Rostock 1556, expelled for opposing worldliness 1557; prof. Heidelberg 1557, deposed 1559 for refusing to subscribe to the Variata (see Lutheran Confessions, B 1); pastor Magdeburg 1560; deposed 1562 for opposing edict forbidding polemics; active in Wesel, Frankfurt am Main, and Strasbourg; court preacher Neuburg 1565; prof. Jena 1569; exiled 1573 by Elector August* of Saxony; bp. Samland (peninsula of former E Prussia) 1573; deposed 1577 on charges of false doctrine in Christology; prof. Helmstedt 1577; helped to deter Brunswick from accepting FC. Works include Vom Ampt und gewalt der Pfarrherr; Adsertio sacrosancti Testamenti Iesu Christi: contra blasphemam Calvinistarum exegesin [Exegesis perspicua et ferme integra controversiae de Sacra Coena]; commentaries See also Propst, Jakob.
(from Gk. hesychos, quiet). System of mysticism* in Eastern* Orthodox Ch.; propagated by monks of Mount Athos, Greece. Held that man, esp. through quiet of body and mind, could attain a vision of the Uncreated Light of deity (beatific vision) which was God's energy, but not His essence. When the system was attacked by the Calabrian monk Barlaam (ca. 12901350; b. Seminara, Calabria), it was vigourously defended by Gregorius Palamas (ca. 12961359; Gk. theol.; b. probably Constantinople) and ultimately accepted by the E ch.
MPG, 148; 150, 7711372; 151, 9678; 153.
(fl. perhaps ca. 300 AD). Jerome* (MPL, 23, 471; 29, 559) says that Hesychius prepared a revision of the LXX and the Gospels. Decretum Gelasianum (MPL, 59, 162 and 175): Evangelia quae falsavit Hesychius; apoc. May be the Hesychius who died as martyr under Diocletian* (Eusebius* of Caesarea, HE, VIII, xiii, 7).
(Haetzer; Hätzer; ca. 150029). B. Bischofszell, Switz.; educ. Basel and Freiburg; chaplain Wädenswil; also active in Zurich; Anabaptist; joined H. Zwingli* but broke with him; opposed doctrines of justification and infant baptism and Luth. doctrine of Lord's Supper; became spiritualist and opposed the ev. doctrine of Scripture and the deity of Christ. See also Socinianism, 1.
(18381904). B. Kragerö, Norw.; influenced as student by S. A. Kierkegaard,* C. P. Caspari,* and G. Johnson*; educ. Leipzig and Erlangen; pastor Christiania (Oslo); bp. Kristiansand 1889. Championed orthodoxy. Coed. Luthersk Kirketidende 187577, Luthersk Ugeskrift 187789; other works include Vantroens Vaesen; Kirken og Vantroen; Mod Strömmen; Svar; Sjaelesorg hos de Syge.
(Gigas; 151481). B. Nordhausen, Thuringia; friend of J. Jonas*; rector court school Pforta, near Naumburg, 154346; pastor Freystadt 154673, Schweidnitz 157381; hymnist. Hymns include Ach, lieben Christen! seid getrost!
(from Gk. hex, six, and teuchos, roll of writing material). Name given 1876 by J. Wellhausen* to 1st 6 OT books; his theory that they were compiled from the same sources has since been questioned.
(17891854). B. Leina, near Gotha, Ger.; pastor Töttelstädt 181827; court preacher Gotha 182732; supt. Ichtershausen 183254; poet. Works include songs for children, e.g., Weisst du, wieviel Sternlein stehen.
(John Christian Frederick; [Carl?]; July 10, 1793November 7, 1873). B. Helmstedt, Ger.; to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1807; studied theol. under J. H. C. Helmuth* and F. D. Schaeffer*; taught Zion School, Southwark, Philadelphia, 181315; attended U. of Göttingen 181516; licensed 1817 by Pennsylvania Ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22); itinerant preacher Crawford and Erie Cos., Pennsylvania, 181718; preacher Cumberland, Maryland, 181824; ordained Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1820; pastor Somerset, Pennsylvania, 182427, 183237; Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 182728; pres. West Pennsylvania Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22, 23) 1831. In 1837 the Central* Miss. Soc. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US sent him to explore the miss. possibilities in the Mississippi Valley. In 1840 the For. Miss. Soc. of the Gen. Syn. (see Lutheran Foreign Mission Endeavors in the United States, Early, 24) asked him to consider foreign miss. work. He consented; studied medicine and Skt. at Baltimore, Maryland, 184041; to India as agent of Pennsylvania Ministerium; worked at Guntur 184245; home miss. Baltimore 1847. For. Miss. Soc. of the Gen. Syn. assumed Guntur miss. 1846. Heyer left for India December 1847; arrived Guntur 1848; in the Palnad 184953; at Guntur 185355; to Rajahmundry 1855; miss. in Minnesota 185768; helped found Minnesota* Syn. 1860; in Ger. 186869; to India again 1869; chaplain, housefather Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 187273. See also Missions, 10.
E. T. Bachmann, They Called Him Father: The Life Story of John Christian Frederick Heyer (Philadelphia, 1942); A. R. Wentz, Father Heyer Planted a Church, The Lutheran Church Quarterly, XVI (1943), 3949; G. Drach, Father Heyer, the Pioneer, The Lutheran Church Quarterly, XI (1938), 187193.
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