(August 17, 1887June 10, 1940). Black leader; b. St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica; printer's apprentice at age 14; worked in Costa Rica, Panama, and London; influenced by Duse Mohammed Ali (Egyptian nationalist) and by B. T. Washington's* Up from Slavery; returned to Jamaica 1914; organized the Universal* Negro Improvement Assoc. August 1, 1914; to NYC 1916; est. a Harlem branch of UNIA 1917; pub. Negro World; est. Negro Factories Corp. and Black Star Steamship Line; convicted 1923 of using mails to defraud after collapse of Black Star Line; imprisoned; sentence commuted 1927; deported to Jamaica; moved to London 1934. Leader of Back-to-Africa Movement. See also African Orthodox Church, The.
E. D. Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Madison, Wisconsin 1955).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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