(18691948). Father of the Nation. Called Mahatma (Greatsouled). B. Porbandar, Kathiawar, W India; educ. in India and London; lawyer in India; to S Afr. 1893; worked for liberties of S Afr. Indians against white rulers; developed concept of nonviolent resistance which he called satyagraha (soul-force or truth-force); helped found Indian Opinion, a weekly journal pub. at Phoenix Farm (small settlement he est. near Durban), center of his activity in Natal, S Afr.; to Eng. 1914; to India, arriving Bombay January 9, 1915; applied organized satyagraha repeatedly in home rule movement; elected sole executive authority by Indian Nat. Congress 1921; tried to integrate the untouchables; worked for understanding bet. Hindus and Muslim; opposed partition of India; taught that happiness for all was to be achieved through fearlessness, truth, and nonviolence; assassinated on way to prayer. Works include Hind Swaraj: An Autobiography. Ed. Young India; Navajivan; Harijan.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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