(180479). B. Olvenstedt, near Magdeburg, Ger.; studied theol. at Halle; pastor St. Andreas, Erfurt; imprisoned twice for refusal to use official Agenda (opposed its Ref. tendencies); permitted to emigrate with mems. of congs. at Erfurt, Magdeburg, and elsewhere; to Am. 1839; settled at Buffalo, New York; pastor there ca. 40 yrs.; founded Martin Luther Coll., Buffalo, New York, and The Syn. of the Luth. Ch. Emigrated from Prussia (see Buffalo Synod). Ed. Die Wachende Kirche.
J. A. Grabau, Lebenslauf des Ehrwürdigen J. An. A. Grabau (Buffalo, New York, 1879).
(18751949). RC hist. of medieval philos.; b. Winterzhofen, near Berching, Bavaria; priest 1898; prof. theol. Eichstätt 1906, philos. Vienna 1913, theol. Munich 1918. Works include Thomas Aquinas; Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode; Mittelalterliches Geistesleben; Der hl. Albert der Grosse.
Good will and favor shown to one who can plead no merit*; particularly, the love of God in relation to the sinner as such. There may be love, but not grace, bet. equals or bet. a judge and an innocent person. Grace implies mercy or compassion for one who has by every right forfeited his claim on love. Such is the grace of God to the sinner. It is free because it is not grounded in any worthiness of man (Ro 11:6). Any admixture of merit or deserts, as constituting a claim on mercy, destroys the very essence of grace. Merit and grace are mutually exclusive.
Grace is universal. The entire world is its object. God became incarnate in Christ for the benefit of all men; He died for the atonement of the sins of all; all have been pronounced righteous through His resurrection; the invitation or call of grace is intended for all. No one is excluded from the salvation which grace has provided.
The grace of God is revealed (1) in the sending of His Son into the flesh, (2) in the justification of the sinner who accepts Jesus Christ as his Substitute in Judgment, and in the conversion of the sinner, and (3) in his glorification (resurrection, eternal life). This doctrine of grace gives assurance to Christian faith. Its promises are certain.
Grace is resistible, since it is offered to us through certain means (see Grace, Means of). Scripture constantly warns not to reject salvation.
Saving grace, in Christian theol., has been distinguished in its various operations as prevenient, inasmuch as by means of outward circumstances and associations, particularly through the outward hearing of the Word, the Holy Spirit would prepare the heart for conversion; as operative, inasmuch as it generates faith; as cooperative, inasmuch as it is active in the Christian, jointly with the regenerated will, to produce good works.
Scripture also uses the word grace in the sense of a gift possessed by man, 1 Ptr 4:10. This, properly a result of divine grace and not, as in its original sense, a divine quality or attitude, has been called infused grace. The RC Ch. teaches justification by infused grace (gratia* infusa); see also Grace, Means of, I 8.
E. Jauncey, The Doctrine of Grace, up to the End of the Pelagian Controversy, Historically and Dogmatically Considered (London, 1925); J. Moffat, Grace in the New Testament (New York, 1931); T. Hoyer, The Grace of God, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, Missouri, 1947), 200234; O. Hardman, The Christian Doctrine of Grace (London, 1937); T. F. Torrance, The Doctrine of Grace in the Apostolic Fathers (Edinburgh and London, 1948); C. Moeller and G. Philips, The Theology of Grace and the Oecumenical Movement, tr. R. A. Wilson (London, 1961); K. Rahner, Nature and Grace: Dilemmas in the Modern Church (New York, 1964).
I. Doctrine in gen.
1. Definition. The term means of grace denotes the divinely instituted means by which God offers, bestows, and seals to men forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation. Properly speaking, there is but 1 means of grace: the Gospel of Christ (Ro 1:1617); but since in the Sacraments (see Sacrament and the Sacraments) the Gospel appears as the verbum visibile (visible Word; Ap XIII 5; Augustine* of Hippo, Tract 80 on Jn 15:3; see also par. 6 below) in distinction from the verbum audibile (audible Word), it is rightly said that the means of grace are the Gospel and the Sacraments. The Law, though also a divine Word and used by the Holy Spirit in a preparatory way to work contrition,* without which there can be no saving faith (see Faith, 2), is not, properly speaking, a means of grace (see Law and Gospel). It is the very opposite of a means of grace, namely a ministration of death, 2 Co 3:7. Prayer is not a means of grace, but faith in action.
2. Basis of the means of grace. There are means of grace because there is, 1st, Christ's objective justification (see Justification, 5) or reconciliation* (2 Co 5:1921) and, 2d, Christ's institution. In other words, there is forgiveness for all through Christ's active and passive obedience. Christ wants this forgiveness to be offered and conveyed to all men through the Gospel and the Sacraments (Mt 28:1920; Mk 16:15; AC V, VIII).
3. Twofold power of the means of grace. The means of grace have an offering or conferring power, by which God offers to all men forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation (Mt 18:20; 26:28; Acts 2:38; 20:24; FC SD II 57), and an operative or effective power, by which the Holy Spirit works, strengthens, and preserves saving faith (Ro 1:16; 10:17; 1 Co 4:15; 2 Co 2:1417; 3:56; 1 Th 2:13; 1 Ptr 1:23; FC SD II 56).
4. Importance of the means of grace. The doctrine of the means of grace, part of the doctrine of the Word, is a fundamental doctrine (see Fundamental Doctrines). God bestows His saving grace only through the Word and with the external and preceding Word (nisi per verbum et cum verbo externo et praecedente, SA-III VIII 3; Jn 8:3132; Ro 10:1417). Therefore the Bible inculcates faithful adherence to the Gospel and the Sacraments administered according to Christ's institution (Mt 28:1920; Jn 8:3132; Acts 17:11; Tts 1:9). Because of the strong emphasis on the Word in the Luth. Confessions, Holy Scripture has rightly been called the Formal* Principle of the Reformation.
5. Means of grace and the Luth. Ch. The doctrine of the means of grace is a distinctive feature of Luth. theol., which owes to this cen. teaching its soundness, strong appeal, freedom from sectarian tendencies and morbid fanaticism, coherence, practicality, and adaptation to men of every race and degree of culture. Acc. to Luth. doctrine the means of grace are unchanging, sufficient, and efficacious. The efficacy of the means of grace does not depend on the faith, ordination, gifts, or intention of the administrator. Hearers of the Word, communicants, and subjects of Baptism derive no benefit from the means of grace unless they have faith (the receiving means; the hand reached out to accept blessings offered in the conferring means); but it does not follow that faith makes the means of grace effective. The Word is effective per se; the Sacraments are Sacraments by virtue of Christ's institution. Faith does not belong to the essence of the means of grace; it is itself a blessed work through the means of grace by the power of the Holy Ghost (Ro 10:1417; Eph 1:1920).
The Luth. Confessions take a decisive stand against enthusiasts, who teach that the Holy Spirit works in the hearts of men without the Word and Sacraments (SA-III VIII 313; LC II 3462; FC Ep II 13). See also Enthusiasm.
6. Means of grace have the same effect. The Sacraments have the same effect as the spoken or written Word because they are nothing else than the visible Word (see par. 1 above), that is, the Gospel applied in sacred action in connection with the visible signs. For this reason the Sacraments offer, convey, and seal to the recipients forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation just as the Gospel does when it is spoken, contemplated, or read. It is therefore not in agreement with Scripture to ascribe to Baptism (see III below) regeneration exclusively and to the Lord's Supper (see IV below), as a special function, the implanting of the germ of the resurrection body. Also the Gospel regenerates when it is read, preached, or contemplated in the heart (1 Ptr 1:23).
7. Calvinism* and the means of grace. Calvinism rejects the means of grace as unnecessary; it holds that the Holy Spirit requires no escort or vehicle by which to enter human hearts. The Ref. doctrine of predestination* excludes the idea of means which impart the Spirit and His gifts to men, the Holy Spirit working effectively only on the elect. Acc. to Ref. teaching, the office of the Word is to point out the way of life without imparting that of which it conveys the idea. Ref. theol. regards Word and Sacraments as necessary because of divine institution. They are symbols of what the Holy Spirit does within as He works immediately (i. e. without means) and irresistibly. Enthusiast doctrine of the Anabaptists* and of the many sects since their day regarding the inner light, gen. identified with the baptism of the Holy Spirit and the 2d conversion, has its root in this specifically Ref. doctrine of the immediate working of the Holy Spirit. See also Enthusiasm.
8. RCm and the means of grace. RCm emphasizes 7 sacraments as means of grace. The Council of Trent* (Sess. VII, Canons on the sacraments in gen., 6 and 8) taught that these sacraments confer grace ex opere operato (see Opus operatum) on those who do not put an obstacle in the way. RC theologians differ on questions pertaining to sacramental grace, e.g., some regard it as identical with sanctifying grace, others hold that it is a special type of sanctifying grace. Grace bestowed by the sacraments is often described in RCm as a spiritual quality infused by God into the soul (see also Gratia infusa). Baptism, acc. to RCm, wipes out original sin* in the baptized. See also Sacraments, Roman Catholic.
9. Necessity of the means of grace. The means of grace are necessary because of Christ's command and because they offer God's grace. God has not bound Himself to the means of grace (Lk 1:15, 41), but He has bound His ch. to them. Christians dare not regard as unnecessary the Sacraments and the preaching of the Word (Mt 28:1920; Lk 22:19; 1 Co 11:2328), as some enthusiasts do. But Luth. theol. does not assert an absolute necessity of the Sacraments, since faith and regeneration can be worked by the Holy Spirit in the hearts of men through the Word without the Sacraments. Mere lack of the Sacraments does not condemn, but contempt for them does (Lk 7:2930).
II. Law and Gospel.
1. Distinction bet. Law and Gospel. The terms Law and Gospel are used at times in a wide sense for the entire body of Bible doctrine (Ps. 1:2; Mk 1:1). But in a narrow sense Law and Gospel are contradictory or opposite, one threatening and condemning, the other promising and for. giving (Ro 3:1931). The Law, in its proper sense, is the Word which reproves all sins (FC SD V 2). The Gospel is the joyous message of God's grace in Christ Jesus toward all sinners (Jn 3:16). This distinction between law and Gospel is an especially glorious light that is to be maintained with great diligence in the church so that, according to St. Paul's admonition, the Word of God may be divided rightly (FC Ep V 2).
2. Moral Law and ceremonial laws. The ceremonial laws of the OT have been abolished (Cl 2:1617), but the Moral Law (see Decalog) is in force to the end of time (Mt 5:18). The Moral Law, however, determined by the law of love (Mt 22:3540), must not simply be identified with the Decalog as given in the OT (Ex 20; Dt 5), since that contains ceremonial elements, meant only for the Jews (e.g., Dt 5:15). The Ten Commandments (Ex 34:28; Dt 4:13; 10:4) must direct our conduct inasmuch as they serve the principle of love (Ro 13:8) and are restated in the NT (Mt 19:1819; Ro 13:9). The 3d Commandment, Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, is omitted in the NT; this shows that emphasis no longer rests on the day, but on sanctifying through the Word (LC I 78102).
3. Use of the Law and the Gospel. The use of the Law is 3-fold. The Luth. Ch., in accord with Holy Scripture, confesses: The law of God serves (1) not only to maintain external discipline and decency against dissolute and disobedient people, (2) and to bring people to a knowledge of their sin through the law, (3) but those who have been born anew through the Holy Spirit, who have been converted to the Lord and from whom the veil of Moses has been taken away, learn from the law to live and walk in the law (FC SD VI 1). H. C. Schwan,* A Short Exposition of Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism (see also Catechetics, 11), question 91: What purposes does the Law, then, serve? First, it checks, in a measure, the coarse outbursts of sin, and thereby helps to maintain outward discipline and decency in the world. (A curb) Secondly, and chiefly, it teaches man the due knowledge of his sin. (A mirror.) Thirdly, it leads the regenerate to know what are truly good works. (A rule.) From the hour when Adam and Eve fell into sin to the end of this present world there never was, nor is, nor will be a man conceived and born in the natural way who could by his own efforts satisfy the demands of the Law and stand in the presence of God by virtue of his own righteousness. All are guilty, under condemnation, deserving of, and liable to punishment at the hands of God, whose Law they have broken and whose sovereign majesty they have offended (Ro 3:2223). That is the last word the Law has to say to the sinner. It leaves him with the threat of divine retribution.
The Gospel of Jesus Christ, in its proper sense, is the glad tidings of forgiveness, peace, life, and joy, the eternal divine counsel of redemption, of which Christ Himself ever was, is, and will be the living center, the very heart and soul. The Gospel, just as the Law, though in a different and opposite way, has a 3-fold use: (1) The Law teaches the knowledge of sin; the Gospel imparts forgiveness of sin; (2) the Law teaches what good works are; the Gospel produces true joy and zeal to do good works; (3) the Law checks sin outwardly, but increases sin inwardly; the Gospel destroys sin both outwardly and inwardly. The difference bet. the Law and Gospel may be put thus: The Law prescribes; the Gospel inscribes, and The Law kills the sinner, but not sin; the Gospel kills sin, but not the sinner. See also Law and Gospel.
III. Baptism as a means of grace.
1. Baptism instituted by Christ. Baptism was instituted by Christ (Mt 28:1819) and is to be used as a means to impart forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation till the end of time. Its visible element is water (1 Ptr 3:2021); nothing else may be substituted. The mode of applying water is an adiaphoron (see Adiaphora), the Gk. term baptizein meaning not only immersing but also washing, sprinkling, and pouring (Mk 7:34; Acts 1:5 cf. 2:1617; Eph. 5:2526; Heb 9:10 [washings, literally baptisms] cf. Nm 19:13, 19; Didache 7:13).
2. Purpose of Baptism. It works forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all who believe this, as the words and promises of God declare (SC IV 6). Acc. to Scripture, Christ sanctifies His ch. with the washing of water by the Word (Eph 5:2526). Baptism makes disciples of men (Mt 28:19); it saves (1 Ptr 3:21); it is a washing of regeneration (Tts 3:5) by which men are born again (Jn 3:56). Through Baptism we put on Christ, that is, His merits and righteousness, by the very faith which, by application of the Gospel, it creates in the heart (Gl 3:2627); for Baptism is pure Gospel, not Law, and hence it does not save mechanically (see Opus operatum), but by faith, which receives the blessings Baptism offers and which is worked by this Sacrament; the Gospel is both the means of creating faith and the foundation of faith. Baptism also unites the baptized with the Triune God, for we are baptized into communion with the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost (Mt 28:19) as also into communion with Christ (Gl 3:27). And by Baptism we are buried with Christ into death, that is, through Baptism we partake of the merits which Christ procured for the whole world by His vicarious suffering and death (Ro 6:35). Baptism, as the application of the saving Gospel, is, therefore, a true means of grace. How can water do such great things? It is not the water indeed that does them, but the word of God which is in and with the water, and faith, which trusts such word of God in the water (SC IV 910). Baptism is a means of grace because it is not simple water only, but it is the water comprehended in God's command and connected with God's word (SC IV 2), the Gospel promise of salvation. Those who have fallen from baptismal grace should remember that God's promises of forgiveness, life, and salvation remain unshaken; they should return penitently to the Gospel covenant est. by God with the baptized in and through Baptism.
3. Meaning of Baptism. By Baptism we are buried with Christ into death and arise with Him to newness of life (Ro 6:4). What does such baptizing with water signify? It signifies that the Old Adam in us should, by daily contrition and repentance, be drowned and die with all sins and evil lusts and, again, a new man daily come forth and arise, who shall live before God in righteousness and purity forever (SC IV 1112).
4. Infant Baptism. Baptism in the NT is the counterpart of circumcision in the OT (Cl 2:1112), and in the OT infants were circumcised (Gn 17:12; Lv 12:3). In the NT families were baptized (Acts 16:15, 33; 18:8; 1 Co 1:16); in Acts 2:3841 Baptism is connected with the promise to your children. Christ's command to baptize all nations certainly also included infants (Mt 28:1920). The need for infant regeneration is clear (Ps 51:5; Jn 3:6; Eph 2:3). Baptism is the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost (Jn 3:37; Tts 3:5). Christ desires to have also little children brought to Him for the blessings of His grace (Mk 10:14). Little children can believe (Mt 18:26).
IV. Lord's Supper as a means of grace.
1. Names of this Sacrament. Names by which this Sacrament is known are derived partly from Scripture (Breaking of Bread, Mt 26:26 and 1 Co 10:16; Holy Communion, 1 Co 10:1617; Lord's Table, 1 Co 10:21; Lord's* Supper, 1 Co 11:20; Eucharist [from Gk. eucharistesas, when He had given thanks], 1 Co 11:24), partly from ch. usage (e.g., Sacrament of the Altar). See also Mass.
2. Institution of the Lord's Supper: Mt 26:1728; Mk 14:2224; Lk 22:1920; 1 Co 11:2325. These accounts agree in all essentials, but supplement each other in details. All quote Christ's words: This is My body. With regard to the cup, Mt and Mk emphasize the blood of the NT, given with the cup; Lk and Paul stress the blessing given with the cup, the forgiveness of the new covenant, procured by the blood of Christ, which is offered to the communicant in the Sacrament.
3. Real Presence. The words of institution, Take, eat; this is My body, clearly state: With this bread I give you My body. So these words are explained 1 Co 10:16. There is no transubstantiation* of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, nor any consubstantiation* or impanation.* In, with, and under the bread and wine a communicant, also an unbelieving communicant (1 Co 11:2729), receives Christ's true body, given into death, and His true blood, shed for sins. This is the point of controversy bet. Luths. and Ref. The question is not whether Christ is present acc. to His divine nature in the Sacrament, or whether the soul by faith is united with Christ (spiritual eating and drinking), or whether the believing communicant receives the merits of Christ's shed blood by faith (all of which is acknowledged as true by both Luths. and Ref.). In Luth. terminology the eating and drinking of Christ's body and blood in, with, and under the bread and wine is called sacramental* eating and drinking. The Ref. deny that the words of instit. should be taken in a literal sense, or that in, with, and under the bread and wine the true body and blood of Christ are really present (Real Presence, a mystery). The Ref. teach instead the real absence of Christ's body and blood in the Sacrament by resorting to a figurative, or symbolical, interpretation. Karlstadt* sought the figure in this, H. Zwingli* in is (making is mean represents), J. Calvin* and others in body (making body mean the sign of My body), and others (e.g., W. Bucanus,* B. Keckermann,* and H. Zanchi*) in the entire statement. The multifarious attempts to pervert the proper sense of the words are but so many evidences of the persistent refusal of the words to yield to perversion. See also Altar Fellowship; Lutheran Confessions, A 2 (b); Sacramental Union.
4. Elements in the Sacrament. The heavenly elements in the Sacrament are the true body and the true blood of Christ; the earthly elements are true bread and true wine, for which no substitutes should be used, since the use of any substitute makes void, or at least renders uncertain, the Sacrament (Mt 26:29; Mk 14:25; Lk 22:18; 1 Co 11:21). Jesus used not unfermented grape juice but wine, used in the OT on festive occasions (Gn 14:18; Jb 1:13; Is 5:12). Bread and wine are received in a natural manner; the body and blood of Christ, though received orally, are received in an incomprehensible, supernatural manner (no Capernaitic* eating; FC SD VII 64). The Sacrament should be received by all communicants sub utraque specie (under both kinds), acc. to Christ's instit. In RC practice the celebrating priest receives the bread and wine, other communicants usually only bread (sub una specie, under 1 kind).
5. Purpose of the Lord's Supper. The Lord's Supper is essentially an application of the Gospel, with all its spiritual blessings, in a sacred act. It offers, conveys, and seals to the communicant forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation; strengthens faith; promotes sanctification through strengthening of faith; increases love toward God and the neighbor; affords patience in tribulation; confirms hope of eternal life; and deepens union with Christ and His mystical body, the ch. (1 Co 10:17). It also serves a confessional purpose (Acts 2:42; 1 Co 10:2021; 11:26). All these blessings are mediated through the Gospel-promise in the Sacrament (Given and shed for you for the remission of sins) and are apprehended by faith in the divine promise. The words This do in remembrance of Me do not mean merely that the communicant is to remember the absent Christ, who atoned for his sins; they invite the communicant to accept the forgiveness offered in the Sacrament (Do this in remembrance of Me means: remember Christ's blessings and accept them by faith; cf. Ap XXIV 72). The Lord's Supper differs from the preaching of the Gospel, which is addressed to all hearers, believers and unbelievers, and from Absolution,* which is individually addressed to believers, to the believers as a penitent group, in that the Sacrament offers forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation individually to each communicant under pledge of Christ's body and blood, received with the bread and wine. Since the Sacrament may be received unto damnation (or judgment; 1 Co 11:29), close* Communion should be observed, the pastor as the steward of the mysteries of God (1 Co 4:1) admitting only such as are able to examine themselves (1 Co 11:28). JTM
J. T. Mueller, The Means of Grace, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus. Ohio, 1947), pp. 265288, Christian Dogmatics (St. Louis, 1934), and Holy Baptism, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 394422; C. F. W. Walther, The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, tr. W. H. T. Dau (St. Louis, 1929): J. M. Reu, Die Gnadenmittellehre (Chicago, 1917); F. R. Zucker. Circumcision and Baptism, CTM, XV (April 1944). 245259; W. Geihsler, The Law and the Gospel, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 105123; E. E. Pieplow, The Means of Grace, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 322346; S. W. Becker, The Gospel, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 347366; A. E. Neitzel, The Sacraments, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 367393; R. Prenter, Luther on Word and Sacrament, More About Luther, ed. G. L. Belgum, D. T. Nelson, and J. C. Bale (Decorah, Iowa, 1958); E. B. Koenker, Worship in Word and Sacrament (St. Louis, 1959); H. Sasse, This Is My Body: Luther's Contention for the Real Presence in the Sacrament of the Altar (Minneapolis, 1959); Meaning and Practice of the Lord's Supper, ed. H. T. Lehmann (Philadelphia, 1961); K. Aland, Did the Early Church Baptize Infants? tr. G. R. Beasley-Murray (London, 1963); J. Jeremias, Infant Baptism in the First Four Centuries, tr. D. Cairns (Philadelphia, 1961), The Origins of Infant Baptism, tr. D. M. Barton (Naperville, 1963), and The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, tr. N. Perrin (New York, 1966); A Short Exposition of Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism (St. Louis, 1912); E. J. Kilmartin, The Eucharist in the Primitive Church (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1965); bibliography under Dogmatics.
Prayers asking blessing before or giving thanks after eating (Jn 6:11; Acts 27:35).
(pen name Lorenzo Gracián; 160158). B. Belmonte, near Calatayud, Sp.; author; Jesuit 1619; influenced F. W. Nietzsche* and A. Schopenhauer.* Works include El criticón, a philos. novel that evaluates civilization on basis of its effects on a savage.
(from Fr. gradin, step). Ledge above and behind altar on which cross, candlesticks, and other ornaments may be placed.
Part of traditional Christian worship service, bet. Epistle and Gospel readings; originally called responsorium or responsorium graduale; it was intoned by the precentor (see Cantor) on the steps (Lat. gradus) of the altar* or ambo* from which the Epistle was read. Texts of the graduals are from Scripture, usually from Ps. In Luth. chs. the gradual may be replaced by a hymn or other fitting music. In many chs. only the Hallelujah* is used. See also Ambrosian Music.
(Gräbner; July 10, 1849December 7, 1904). Son of J. H. P. Graebner*; b. Frankentrost, Michigan; educ. Conc. Coll., Ft. Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; instructor Lutheran High School (later called Walther* Coll.), St. Louis, 1872; prof. Northwestern* Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, 1875; prof. Wisconsin Syn. theol. sem., Milwaukee, 1878; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1887. Visited Australia, New Zealand, and Europe 1902. Works include Dr. Martin Luther; Half a Century of Sound Lutheranism in America; Geschichte der Lutherischen Kirche in America; Oatlines of Doctrinal Theology. Ed. Evangelisch-Lutherisches Gemeinde-Blatt (see Wisconsin Synod, 4); Der Lutheraner; Theological Quarterly.
K. Kretzmann, The Reverend Doctor Augustus Lawrence Graebner, 18491904, CHIQ, XX (July 1947), 7993.
(Friedrich; Gräbner; October 8, 1862June 5, 1949). Son of J. H. P. Graebner*; b. St. Charles, Missouri; educ. Northwestern* Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Sedalia, Missouri, 1885, Topeka, Kansas, 1889, Bay City, Michigan, 1897; to Australia 1903; dir. Conc. Coll. and Sem., Murtoa, 1904, (Unley-Malvern) Adelaide 1905; resigned as dir. 1939 but continued as pres. of the theol. faculty and as teacher till the end of 1941.
(Gräbner; July 7, 1819May 27, 1898). B. Burghaig, near Kulmbach, Bavaria; studied theol. under J. K. W. Löhe*; under Löhe's direction he led a group of emigrants to Am. 1847 and founded Frankentrost, Michigan; pastor Roseville, Michigan, 1853; founded a cong. at Mount Clemens, Michigan; pastor St. Charles, Missouri, 1859.
(Gräbner; September 22, 1879November 13, 1950). Son of A. L. Graebner*; b. Milwaukee, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained at St. Charles, Missouri, April 7, 1901; miss. at large Okla; pastor Cushing, Okla, 1901, Oklahoma City, Okla, 1902; prof. St. John's Coll., Winfield, Kansas, 191022; lawyer 1914; prof. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 192227; pres. Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota, 192746. Works include The Lord's Prayer and the Christian Life.
(Gräbner; November 23, 1876November 14, 1950). Son of A. L. Graebner*; b. Watertown, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; instructor Walther* Coll., St. Louis, Missouri, 18971900; instructor Lutheran Ladies' Sem., Red Wing, Minnesota, 190006; ordained 1902 as mem. of The Syn. for the Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (Synoden for den Ev. Luth. Kirke i Amerika; see Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, The); asst. pastor Trin. Ch., Red Wing, Minnesota, 190206; miss. for Norw. Syn. in Irving Park, Chicago, Illinois, 190608; pastor Jehovah Ch. (Mo. Syn.), Chicago, 190813; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 191350; active in many religious, civic, and cultural organizations. Works include The Borderland of Right and Wrong; Church Bells in the Forest; Concordia Seminary; The Dark Ages; A Dictionary of Bible Topics; Essays on Evolution; The Expository Preacher; God and the Cosmos; Handbook for Congregational Officers; A Handbook of Organizations; The Historic Lutheran Position in Non-Fundamentals; Inductive Homiletics; Is Masonry a Religion?; Letters to a Masonic Friend; Pastor and People; The People; The Pastor as Student and Literary Worker; Dr. Francis Pieper; The Pope and Temporal Power; Prayer Fellowship; The Problem of Lutheran Union, and Other Essays; Prophecy and the War; The Secret Empire; Spiritism; The Story of the Augsburg Confession; The Story of the Catechism; Touring with God; A Treatise on Freemasonry; War in the Light of Prophecy. Coauthor Popular Symbolics; Toward Lutheran Union. Ed. The Annotated Pocket New Testament; Illustrated Horne Journal; Lutheran Herald; Der Lutheraner; The Lutheran Witness; The Bible Student. Coed. What Lutherans Are Thinking. Assoc. ed. CHIQ; The Cresset. Dept. ed. L. u. W.; Homiletic Magazine. ARS
(Graumann; Poliander; 14871541). B. Neustadt an der Aisch, Middle Franconia, W Bavaria, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; rector Thomasschule, Leipzig; secy of J. Eck* at Leipzig* Debate, but adopted the cause of the Reformation because of M. Luther's* appeal to Scripture and conscience; preacher Würzburg, Nürnberg, and Mansfeld; pastor Königsberg 152541. Wrote Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren, the oldest Luth. hymn of praise, based on Ps 103.
A. Old Testament. The hist. of Heb. grammar begins roughly with the 9th c. AD, when Saadia* ben Joseph (ca. 882942) laid the foundation for a science indep. of the Masoretes (see Masora[h]). The prince among his successors was David ben Joseph Kimchi (ca. 1160ca. 1235), who paved the way for hist. and critical study of the Heb. language. The father of Christian Heb. grammarians is J. Reuchlin* (14551522); A. Schultens* (16861750) and Nikolaus Wilhelm Schröder (172198) laid the foundations for comparative grammatical methodology. Their most illustrious successor is H. F. W. Gesenius*; the 1st ed. of his Hebräische Grammatik was pub. 1813; the 28th appeared 1909; a beginning of the 29th was issued by G. Bergsträsser* 1918, 192629. The 2d ed. of George Wolseley Collins' (ca. 184695) Eng. tr., Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, rev. by Arthur Ernest Cowley (18611931) appeared 1910, with corrections in reprints since 1946. Other works include G. H. A. Ewald,* Ausführliches Lehrbuch der hebräischen Sprache des Alten Bundes, 8th ed. (1870); B. Stade,* Lehrbuch der hebräischen Grammatik (1879); F. E. König,* Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache, 3 vols. (1881 to 89); A. B. Davidson,* An Introductory Hebrew Grammar (1884; 25th ed. rev. John Mauchline 1962); Jacob Weingreen, A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew (1939); Alexander Sperber, A Historical Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (1966).
B. New Testament. S. Glass(ius)* in Philologia sacra (162336) pioneered in undertaking a systematic description of the peculiarities of NT diction. G. Pasor* broke fresh ground 1655 with Grammatica graeca sacra Novi Testamenti domini nostri Jesu Christi, but NT Gk. grammar remained fettered in Heb. associations until J. G. B. Winer,* whose Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms (1822) saw 7 eds. and was tr. into Eng. 1825. Papyri discoveries moved G. A. Deissmann* to write Bibelstudien (1895) and Neue Bibelstudien (1897). A new era broke for NT interpretation. Much literature on the NT written before 1900 became obsolete. A grammar was begun by J. H. Moulton.* The 1st vol. appeared 1906; a 2d, ed. Wilbert Francis Howard, appeared in 3 parts 191929; the 3d vol., ed. Nigel Turner, appeared 1963. A. T. Robertson* issued A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (the Big Grammar). It has largely been superseded by J. A. Debrunner's* eds. of F. W. Blass,* Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch (1896; 9th ed. 1954), available in Robert W. Funk's 1961 rev. and tr., A Greek Grammar of the New Testament, and Other Early Christian Literature. For special problems of syntax Ernest De Witt Burton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek (1888; 3d ed. 1898) and Charles Francis D. Moule, An Idiom Book of New Testament Greek (1953; 2d ed. 1959) should be consulted. See also Robinson, Edward; Thayer, Joseph Henry.
(181592). B. Hausjärvi, Fin.; educ. Helsinki (Helsingfors); prof. ethics and dogmatics Helsinki 185475; credited with initiating the modern period of systematic theol. in Fin. Works include Den kristliga dogmatiken; Den kristliga sedeläran. See also Dogmatics, B 9.
(1779 [some say 1785]1838). B. Bengal, India [some say Inverness, Scot.]; educ. Cambridge; lawyer 1807; MP 1818; supported emancipation of Jews; Privy Councillor 1831; Judge Advocate Gen. 1832: Gov. of Bombay 1834. Hymnist: hymns include Oh, Worship the King and Savior, When in Dust to Thee.
(February 23, 1704March 25, 1783). B. Senftleben, Moravia; to Count N. L. v. Zinzendorf's* estate at Berthelsdorf, later called Herrnhut, 1728; traveling miss. in Ger., Swed., Lapland, Greenland; bp. Moravian Ch. 1756.
(Gret[t]er; Greth; ca. 150157). B. Gundelsheim, near Heilbronn, Ger.; schoolmaster at Heilbronn 1527 on recommendation of J. Brenz*; pastor Herrenberg, later at Cannstatt; court preacher of Duke Ulrich*; influential reformer.
(actual grace). RC term for supernatural assistance from God which helps man perform acts leading to salvation; identified with gratia adjuvans. See also Gratia increata; Gratia infusa; Gratia praeveniens.
(accompanying grace), Grace which accompanies free will.
(grace freely given; grace rendering acceptable). Acc. to RC theol., the supernatural grace of Christ, existing invisibly in the soul, tends either to the salvation of the person in whom it inheres or, through him, to the sanctification of others. The former is grace which makes acceptable (gratia gratum faciens); the latter is grace freely given (gratia gratis data), the term based on Mt 10:8: Freely ye have received, freely give. Gratia gratum faciens is intended for all; gratia gratis data is ordinarily the charism of prophets, apostles, and priests, though it occurs also in others.
(uncreated grace; created grace). Acc. to RC theol., uncreated grace is God Himself, inasmuch as He gives Himself to man. God is Love toward us, His creatures, so that from eternity He loves us, the Son of God became incarnate, and the Holy Ghost was poured out. Created grace is distinguished from God, who essentially is Grace, as the created gift of grace (donum gratiae) given to man as actual grace (see Gratia actualis) or as habitual grace (see Gratia habitualis).
(infused grace). Acc. to RC theol., grace is a supernatural quality infused by God into the soul for salvation through the merits of Jesus Christ. This grace is of 2 kinds: 1. Sanctifying grace confers on the soul a sharing in the life of God; makes men holy, adopted children of God and temples of the Holy Ghost; gives the right to heaven. See also Gratia habitualis. 2. Actual grace enlightens the mind and strengthens the will to do good and avoid evil. See also Gratia actualis.
(Flavius Gratianus; 359383). B. Sirmium, Pannonia; Roman emp. 375383; E emp. 378; in his reign orthodox Christianity became dominant throughout the Roman Empire; severe in dealing with heathen and heretics. See also Theodosius I.
(natural grace). Grace which comes to man from creation. Distinguished from gratia supernaturalis (supernatural grace) which comes to man in a supernatural way through the redemption.
(operating grace). Grace which generates faith; distinguished from gratia cooperans (cooperating grace) which is active in believers to produce good* works jointly with the regenerated will.
(prevenient grace). Grace which precedes conversion. Referred by Luths. to outward circumstances (e.g., hearing of the Word) by which the Holy Ghost prepares the heart for conversion. In RCm it is often gratia* actualis. Distinguished from gratia subsequens (subsequent grace) which follows conversion.
(resistible grace). Luths. are among those who teach that saving grace is resistible because it is offered through means. Others (e.g., Ref.) teach that God imparts grace without means and that such grace is irresistible (gratia irresistibilis). See also Pelagian Controversy, 3.
(universal grace). Term used to describe the belief (e.g., of Luths. and Armimans) that God's grace embraces all men, i. e., that He earnestly wills the salvation of all; distinguished from gratia particularis (particular grace), the belief (e.g., of Ref.) that God's grace does not embrace all but only some.
(180572). B. Lille, Fr.; RC priest, philos., and educ.; prof. Sorbonne 1863; opposed papal infallibility* but accepted the dogma when it was promulgated; sought God through feeling rather than reason. See also Oratorians, 3.
(183593). B. Heringen on the Werra, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Erlangen, and Marburg; Luth. theol.; prof. Königsberg. Works include Ursprünge and Ziele unserer Kulturentwicklung; Entwicklungsgeschichte des neutestamentlichcn Schrifttums; Biblische Theologie des Neuen Testaments; Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu; coed. Beweis des Glaabens.
(February 6, 1814November 10. 1864). B. Wörlitz, Ger.; Luth. theol.; educ. Leipzig; dir. Dresden-Leipzig Miss. Soc. 184460 (see Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission); in India 184953; advocated considerate toleration of the caste system. Works include Bibliotheca tamulica; Unterscheidungslehren der verschicdenen Christlichen Bekenntnisse.
(ca. 1703 [some say 1701]1759). Tenor singer; composer; b. Wahrenbrück, Ger.; educ. Kreuzschule, Dresden; Brunswick Opera tenor 1725: asst. conductor there 1726; entered service of Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia at Rheinsberg 1735; conductor Berlin Royal Opera 1740. Works include Der Tod Jesu; operas; concertos; motets. See also Passion, The.
(180972). B. Bishop's Wearmouth [Sunderland], Eng.; educ. Eton and Oxford; consecrated Angl. bp. Cape Town, Afr., 1847, arrived Cape Town 1848; metropolitan S. Afr. 1853. See also Colenso, John William; Hottentots.
Declaration ratified 1935 by Universalists, who believe in God as eternal and all conquering Love, spiritual leadership of Jesus, supreme worth of human personality, authority of truth, power of men to overcome evil and est. the Kingdom of God.
Widespread religious revival resulting chiefly from work of C. and J. Wesley* and G. Whitefield* in Eng. (the movement there is also called Evangelical Awakening) and of T. J. Frelinghuysen,* J. Edwards,* and Whitefield in Am. The revivals* ran ca. 1725ca. 1750 in Am. and ca. 1740ca. 1815 in Eng.
Chief is. of United Kingdom of Gt. Brit. and N. Ireland; comprises England,* Scotland,* and Wales.* The name Gt. Brit. was adopted May 1, 1707, at the full const. union of Eng. and Scot. See also Celtic Church.
(ca. 14981526). B. Zurich, Switz.; patrician; scholar; educ. Basel, Vienna, Paris; follower of H. Zwingli.* Mennonites originated in Switz. and the Neth.; Grebel founded the Swiss group at Zurich 1525. See also Mennonite Churches.
(Gretchaninoff; 18641956). Russ. composer; b. Moscow; studied music at Moscow and St. Petersburg; prof. Moscow conservatory; to Paris 1925; to US 1939; US citizen 1946; known esp. for ch. music. Works include Missa oecumenica; Domestic Liturgy; Samson; Lullaby.
(Gk. name: Domenikos [or Kyriakos] Theotokopoulos; variants in Sp. and It.; 15411614). Painter; b. probably Candia, Crete; to Venice, It., perhaps ca. 1560/66; probably pupil of Titian*; influenced by Il Tintoretto*; perhaps to Rome, It., ca. 1570; to Toledo, Sp., ca. 1576. Regarded by some as one of the last of the great religious artists. Works include Annunciation; Adoration of the Shepherds; Mary Magdalen in Penitence; St. Sebastian.
(Hellenic Rep.). Area: ca. 51,000 sq. mi. S part of Balkan peninsula, with the Peloponnesus peninsula as its S tip; ca. 5th c. BC2d c. AD the seat of advanced classical civilization but marked by heathenism esp. in Corinth at the beginning of the Christian era. Paul first preached the Gospel in Eur. at Philippi (Acts 16:940). Official ch.: Gk. Orthodox. Other religions: Islam 2%; Jewish 1.1%; others .9%. See also Eastern Orthodox Churches.
1. The origins of Gk. religion are largely still obscure. Three tendencies: personification of natural forces (e.g., Naiads, dryads), survival of primitive magic and taboo, and the continuity of a primitive cult of the dead (hero worship). Gk. religion throughout its hist. was concerned with sanctity of places and of human life and purification of men.
2. By the time of Homer, if not earlier, Gk. religion was fairly well fixed in the form of the Olympic pantheon. Traditional gods: Zeus (god of the sky; supreme god), Poseidon (god of the sea), Hades (god of death and the underworld), Hera (sister and wife of Zeus), Athena (virgin goddess; patroness of cities; goddess of war). Ares (god of battle), Apollo (god of music and prophecy), Hephaestus (god of fire), Aphrodite (goddess of love and beauty), Demeter (goddess of vegetation), Hermes (god of flocks; messenger of gods), and Artemis (goddess of hunting and virginity). This state religion was a rationalizing of religious feeling, primarily ritualistic, not moral.
3. As time went on, religion underwent modifications and additions; most were completed by the end of the OT (a) Philosophic religion, emphasizing ethics, challenged the anthropomorphic nature of the gods (e.g., Xenophanes,* Stoicism,* Euhemerus*). Epicureanism* tried to show that gods were not concerned with men. (b) Religious accretions, more or less official, came in. Gods such as Dionysus (god of wine) and Bendis (similar to Artemis) had come in early. Prior to the NT many E religions gradually made their way into the Gk. world, e.g., Isis* worship from Egypt, Mithraism* from Persia. These religions emphasized immortality and afterlife. (c) These more or less gen. religious beliefs involved countless folk beliefs, many of which survived longer than the official religion.
See also Mystery Religions.
M. P. Nilsson, A History of Greek Religion, tr. F. J. Fielden, 2d ed. (New York, 1949) and Geschichte der griechischen Religion, I, 3d ed. (Munich, 1967), II (Munich, 1950); A. M. J. Festugiere, Personal Religion among the Greeks (Berkeley, California, 1954); G. Murray, Five Stages of Greek Religion (London, 1935). EK
(183682). B. Birkin, Yorkshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. philos. Oxford 1878; idealist; opposed agnosticism*; held that self-consciousness cannot be derived from material forces; explained consciousness of being part of a larger whole as evidence that the whole was created by absolute mind.
(18251900). B. Groveville, New Jersey; educ. Lafayette Coll. (Easton, Pennsylvania) and Princeton (New Jersey) theol. Sem.; conservative Presb.; pastor Philadelphia 1849; prof. Princeton 185196; ch. Am. OT Company of Anglo-Am. Bible Rev. Committee. Works include Moses and the Prophets; General Introduction to the Old Testament; The Unity of the Book of Genesis; A Grammar of the Hebrew Language.
(technically correct name: Kalaallit Nunaat). Area: ca. 840,000 sq. mi. World's largest is.; since 1953 an integral part of Den.; under home rule since 1979. Discovered 9th or 10th c.; rediscovered and explored 16th and 17th c. H. P. Egede (see Egede, 1) est. miss. 1721 near Godthaab on the W coast; the Ev. Luth. Ch. (ca. 35,000 mems.) is connected with the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Den.; other chs. include Swed. Free Missions, Seventh-day Adventists, and Jehovah's witnesses. See also Eskimos; Missions Bibliography.
(17831853). Jurist, educ.; b. Newburyport, Massachusetts; active in Maine; prof. Harvard 183348. Works include Examiration of the Testimony of the Four Evangelists by the Rules of Evidence Administered in the Courts of Justice, with an Account of the Trial of Jesus.
(January 13, 1811December 21, 1885). B. Frederick, Maryland; studied theol. under D. F. Schaeffer*; Luth. pastor in Ohio and Pennsylvania; leader in early Luth. syns. in both states; 1st ed. Lutheran Standard.
(17501831). B. Vého, near Lunéville, Fr.; bp. Blois 17911802; worked for removal of special privileges of the nobles and the ch., for civil rights of Jews and colored people, and for freedom of Negro slaves; supported Civil Constitution of the Clergy (see France, 5).
Gregory* XIII ordered the Julian* calendar revised. The revision (also called New Style) reckoned October 5, 1582, as October 15 and c. yrs. as leap yrs. only when divisible by 400. It followed the system developed by Aloysius Lilius (or Luigi Lilio Ghiraldi), astronomer and physician of Naples, and verified and completed by Christopher Clavius (15371612), Bavarian Jesuit astronomer and mathematician. See also Easter Dates.
A. 1. Gregorian chant, also called plainsong, plainchant (cantus planus), choral chant (cantus choralis), is the unisonous, diatonic, worship music developed in the Christian Ch. for the Lat. liturgy, assoc. by tradition with Gregory I (see Popes, 4), under whom existing melodies were collected and ed. by ch. musicians, esp. the schola cantorum, which he is said to have founded or reorganized. The term cantus firmus, sometimes used in reference to Gregorian chant, denotes an unchanged melody to which a harmonic setting of one or more voices may be added. As the chant spread through Eur. and to Eng., schools were est. acc. to the Roman model at various places, e.g., Metz, Fr., and St. Gall, Switz. The golden era of the chant, the high point of Gregorian, dates ca. 600ca. 1100. Then followed a period of preservation and transition. Measurable decline began ca. 1300. Mensurable music, polyphony, harmony, instrumental music, and the operatic style, all in turn contributed to decay of the chant. Changes in method of chanting and simplification of melodies robbed the chant of its characteristic rhythm. Restoration began ca. 1850. Benedictine monks at Solesmes, Fr., tried to recapture the original melodies and method of chanting, but the Solesroes theory was gen. rejected in Ger. toward the end of the 19th c.
2. Gregorian chant is used in varying degrees in Luth. and Angl. chs. It was adapted for use in the Ger. Mass* (see also Chant; Mass [Music]); many later Ger. ch. orders followed suit, weathering pietistic and rationalistic movements. In the 19th c. renewed interest in the chant was manifested in Ger. and America. F. J. C. Lochner* wrote Der Hauptgottesdienst der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche to restore it in Am. Plainsong settings were used in The Psalter and Canticles Pointed for Chanting to the Gregorian Psalm Tones (1897) and The Choral Service Book (1901), ed. H. G. Archer and L. D. Reed. Some Luth. chs. use plainsong for certain parts of the service; some have issued special eds. of Gregorian chant for the complete service. Scand. Luth. chs. also adopted Gregorian chant for the vernacular. The Swed. plainsong service is esp. noteworthy.
3. The Angl. Ch. and the Prot. Episc. Ch. followed J. Marbeck's* example of The Booke of Common Praier Noted (1550) and have adapted plainsong to the Eng. language extensively since 1850, chiefly as a result of work done by the Plainsong and Mediaeval Soc. (founded London, Eng., 1888) and such men as C. W. Douglas,* T. Helmore,* and A. Hughes.* CaB
B. The present repertoire of Gregorian chant includes ca. 3,000 melodies. Rhythmically free, Gregorian chants are based largely on prose texts taken from Ps. Some are simple and syllabic, others melismatic and involved. Tonalities used are modal, not maior or minor. The claim formerly made that Gregorian chant is pure and absolute ch. music has been gen. discarded. Gregorian chant has elements akin to the music of various religious and pagan cultures. It is the finest chant music the world has ever known. WEB
G. M. Suñol, Text Book of Gregorian Chant According to the Solesmes Method, tr. G. M. Durnford (Tournai, Belgium, 1930); A. F. Klarmann, Gregorian Chant (Toledo, Ohio, 1945); D. [Franz] Johner, A New School of Gregorian Chant, tr. H. S. Butterfield (New York. 1906); A. Mocquereau, Le nombre musical Grégorien, 2 vols. (Rome, 1908, 1927); O. Brodde, Evangelische Choralkunde, Leiturgia, ed. K. F. Müller and W. Blankenburg, IV (Kassel, 1961). 343557; W. Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana, 1958); E. J. Wellesz, Eastern Elements in Western Chant, 2d ed. (Copenhagen, 1968).
MPG 98, 5251228.
(18461917). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Princeton, New Jersey, and Leipzig, Ger.; moved to Leipzig 1873; pastor of Am. Chapel, Leipzig, 187879; Ger. citizen 1881; prof. U. of Leipzig 1889; joined Ger. army WW I; killed in Fr. Works include Canon and Text of the New Testament.
(ca. 15491603). Doctor doctorum; b. Medina del Campo, Sp.; Jesuit dogmatician; wrote extensively in confessional struggle in Germany. Works include Analysis fidei catholicae; Commentarii theologici.
(Gregorios Thaumaturgos, i. e., Gregory the Wonder-worker: ca. 213ca. 270). B. Neocaesarea (modern Niksar, Turkey); bp. Neocaesarea; pupil and admirer of Origen*; zealous and successful miss.; attended syn. at Antioch ca. 264 which condemned Paul* of Samosata; in the course of time a wealth of legends attributed miracles to him. Works include Exposition of Faith, a statement of Trinitarianism.
(Gregor[ius] Illuminator: Phoster; der Erleuchter; Armenian: Lusaworitsch; estimates of the yr. of his birth range from ca. 240 to ca. 257 and of his death from ca. 325 to ca. 337). B. Valarshapat, or perhaps Carsarea in Cappadocia; reputed founder of Armenian Ch. (see Armenia); several forms of Christianity had already entered Armenia and it remained for Gregory to be largely instrumental in making Christianity the national religion; bp. (catholicos*) Armenia.
(Angelo Corrario or Correr; ca. 13271417). B. Venice; pope 140615; elected by Roman cardinals in opposition to Benedict XIII (see Benedict XIII, 1); deposed at council of Pisa,* but refused to step aside; abdicated at council of Constance.* See also Schism, 8.
Southernmost of W Indies, 90 mi. N of Venezuela; includes the S Grenadines. Area: ca. 133 sq. mi. Formerly a Brit. colony; indep. 1974. Ethnic groups: Black 84%, mixed 11%. Languages: Eng, Fr.-Afr. patois. Religions: RC 64%, Angl. 22%. See also Caribbean Islands, E 5.
(18691926). B. Birmingham, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. Oxford; discovered, ed., and pub. many papyri* MSS Assoc. with A. S. Hunt*; their pub. findings include Fragments of an Uncanonical Gospel from Oxyrhynchus; New Sayings of Jesus and Fragment of a Lost Gospel from Oxyrhynchas.
(18491906). B. Sancreed, Cornwall, Eng.; educ. Birmingham; spent several yrs. in the Camcroons, W Afr., in the 1870s; explored rivers in the Congo basin; with others est. stations at Musuko, Vivi, Isangila, and Manyanga 1881.
(18651940). B. Parkgate, Cheshire, Eng.; joined Royal Nat. Miss. to [or for] Deep-Sea Fishermen 1889; med. miss. in Labrador 1892. Works include A Labrador Doctor; Forty Years for Labrador; Labrador: the Country and the People. See also International Grenfell Association.
W. M, Comber, Wilfred Grenfell, the Labrador Doctor (London, 1950); B. W. Miller, Wilfred Grenfell (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1965); J. T. Rowland, North to Adventure (New York, 1963).
(18771927). B. Mölln, Ger.; Prot. OT scholar and archaeologist; prof. Berlin; sided with H. Gunkel* in many literary-critical questions. Works include Der Messias; Mose und seine Zeit; Forscbungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments; Der Ursprung der israelitsch-jüdischen Eschatologie. Prepared with others Altorientalische Texte und Bilder zum Alten Testamente, 2 vols.; Handbnch zum Neuen Testament. Ed. Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 192427. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 13.
(Gretserus; Gretscher; 15621625). B. Markdorf, Ger.; d. Ingolstadt; Jesuit 1578; taught U. of Ingolstadt; active with A. Tanner* at the 1601 Regensburg* conf. Works include Geschichte der Bischöfe von Eichstädt.
(d. 1564). B. perhaps Padua; It. antitrinitarian leader; resided at Farges, near Geneva, after persecution at Padua and brief stays in a restless, vagrant life at Zurich, Geneva, Tübingen, Farges, and Bern. See also Socinianism, 1.
(17451812). B. Butzbach, Ger.; educ. Tübingen, Halle, and Leipzig; prof. Halle and Jena. Issued several critically annotated eds. of the NT; other works include Commentatio de imaginibus Judaicis; Historta editionum Novi Testamenti Graeci; Synopsis Evangeliorum Matthaei, Marci, et Lucae. See also Textual Criticism, 3.
(17341828). B. Marschalkenzimmern, near Sulz am Neckar, Ger.; pastor Stuttgart; mem. Stuttgart consistory; supranaturalist.* Ed. hymnbook; other works include Theologia dogmatica, which expresses a deistic conception of God.
(180791). B. Jena; educ. Jena; prof. and ch. councillor Jena; supranaturalist.* Works include Lexicon graeco-latinum in libros Novi Testamenti, based on Christian Gottlob Wilke (17861854), Clavis Novi Testamenti philological (2d ed., 1851) and tr., rev., and enl. by J. H. Thayer.* See also Lexicons, B.
(Gruenbergs; 18701962). B. Windau, Latvia; educ. Dorpat (Tartu); ordained 1899; pastor Lutrini and Windau; mem. Latvian parliament 1922; exiled by Nazis 1944; organized Latvian Luth. Ch. in Exile in Ger.; spent last yrs. at Esslingen, Ger.
The movement originated at U. of Utrecht under influence of Philip Willem van Heusde (17781839), a platonist, who held that Christianity is essentially love, which through fear of God tends to reconcile men with men as children of God. At Groningen there was a similar group that met for study of the NT This group was influenced by such men as L. Usteri,* A. D. C. Twesten,* K. Ullmann,* F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* G. E. Lessing,* and J. G. v. Herder.* Leaders included P. Hofstede* de Groot, Louis Gerlach Pareau (180066), and Johan Frederik van Oordt (17941852).
The Groningen school was reaction against intellectual systems of theol. It centered attention on the personality, work, and example of Christ. In Christology it approached Arian views: Christ is not God and man at the same time; His divine or spiritual nature is shared by God and man. It denied the doctrine of the Trinity. Christ did not die to atone for man's sin, but His death shows God's love and hence impels man to crucify sensual life. While Christianity is the highest religion, it is not the only true religionú The school denied the infallibility of the Bible and ascribed higher authority to NT than to OT Liberty in theol. matters was emphasized.
See also Mallinckrodt, Willem.
A. Köhler, Die Niederländische Reformirte Kirche (Erlangen, 1856); P. Hofstede de Groot, De Groninger Godgeleerden in hun eigenaardigheid (Groningen, 1855); periodicals: Waarheid in Liefde (183772); Geloof en Vrijheid (18671919); Nieuw Evangelisch Tijdschrift (1919 ).
(November 22, 1813February 7, 1898). B. Fredericia, Den.; North* Ger. Miss. Soc. miss. to India 1845; active in Rajahmundry, Ellore, Guntur, and the Palnaud; transferred 1850 to For. Miss. Soc. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. of the US (connected with The Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. of the US of N. Am. [see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The]); returned to Eur. 1865; pastor Hadersleben and Apenrade, Ger.
(September 29. 1852July 9, 1889). B. Guntur, India; son of C. W. Grönning*; educ. Leipzig, Erlangen, and Kiel; inspector Breklum* Miss. Soc. 1879; ordained 1885; to India 1885 as miss. of The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US of Am.
(Groet[e]; de Groot[e]; de Groet[e]; Geert; Gerrit; Gerardus Magnus; 134084). B. Deventer, Neth.; educ. at cathedral school of Deventer and at U. of Paris; evangelizing preacher in Holland and the Neth.; helped found Brethren* of the Common Life; leader of Devotio* moderna.
(150359). B. Soest, Westphalia, Ger.; studied law and theol. at Cologne; wrote Enchiridion Christianae institutionis, regarded by some RC theologians and cardinals as a suitable basis for reconciliation with Prots., but later placed on Index* of Prohibited Books; carried out Interim* at Soest and Bonn; active at Council of Trent* 155152. See also Regensburg Book; Regensburg Conference.
(September 26, 1834July 10, 1906). B. Frankfurt am Main, Ger.; educ. Conc. Coll. and Sem., Altenburg and St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Richmond, Virginia, 1856, Buffalo, New York, 1867, Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1880; pres. E. Dist., Mo. Syn.; vice-pres. Mo. Syn.
(nickname Greathead; ca. 11751253). B. Suffolk, Eng.; educ. Oxford and perhaps Paris; lecturer and chancellor Oxford; bp. Lincoln; called a harbinger of the Reformation; outstanding scholar; emphasized Scripture and preaching; like M. Luther,* he first expected help from the pope to correct abuses, but found that the papacy was a source of abuses. Known for open rebukes of both pope and king and for reform efforts.
(162761). B. Ilmenau, Ger.; educ. Rostock; prof. Rostock; under Brit. puritan and Presb. influences he advocated thorough reform of Luth. orthodox ch. Works include Wächterstimme aus dem verwüsteten Zion.
(February 18, 1890February 19, 1941). B. Fairfield, Minnesota; educ. Conc. Coll., Saint Paul, Minnesota, and the teachers' sem., Addison, Illinois; teacher Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 190820; 1st supt. of schools of S. Wisconsin Dist., Mo. Syn., 192024; asst. manager CPH 192431; active in Walther League (see Young People's Organizations, II 3) and Lutheran Laymen's League (see Lutheran Laymen's League, International). Works include PresentDay Tendencies and Their Influence on Our Schools (Concordia Teachers' Library, Vlll, Part III).
(17831857). B. Priessnitz, near Naumburg, Ger.; educ. Jena; pastor, supt., and prof. Leipzig; exponent of presbyteral and synodical ch. govt.; loyal to Lutheranism; 1st pres. Gustav-Adolf-verein.* Works include Quaestiones Philoneae; Über eine Reformation tier protestantischen Kirchenverfassung im Königreich Suchsen.
(October 18, 1823August 24, 1897). Luth. clergyman, educ., organizer. B. Grossbieberau, Hesse-Darmstadt, Ger.; studied at normal school, Friedberg; taught at Friedberg, Rottheim, and Lollar; became interested in J. K. W. Löhe's* work in Am.; studied theol. at Erlangen and Nürnberg: sent by Löhe to Michigan 1852; conducted training school for teachers at Saginaw 1852; because of controversies with pastors of Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The) he went to Iowa with J. A. Deindörfer* and reopened his school at Dubuque 1853; soon turned the school into a sem.; pres. of it till ca. 1874: helped organize Iowa* Syn. 1854; 1st pres. Iowa Syn. 185493; resumed training of teachers at orphanage at Andrew, Jackson Co., Iowa, 1878; this school was moved 1879 to Waverly, Iowa, where it was combined 1885 with the coll. that had been maintained in connection with the sem. at Mendota, Illinois; head of this school 187894. Wrote Die christliche Gemeindeschule.
(Huigh de Groot; Huig van Groot; 15831645). Father of International Law. B. Delft, Neth.; scholar, lawyer, politician; sided with Arminianism*; sentenced to life imprisonment 1619; escaped to Fr. 1621; Swed. ambassador to Fr. 163545. Tried to unite all chs. in Holland; used historicophilological methodology in Bible interpretation; originated governmental theory of atonement (see Atonement, Theories of, 5). Works include De jure belli ac pacis; Votum pro pace ecclesiastica; Annotationes ad Vetus et Novum Testamentum.
(Grüber; 16651728). Ev. theol.; b. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; diaconus at Grossbottwar, near Marbach, 1692; Luth. pasor at Hofen, near Lauffen on the Neckar, 1703; influenced by J. R. Hedinger*; deposed for his pietism and separatism 1706; to the Wetterau, Hesse, where he became leader of Inspirationists; hymnist. See also Amana Society.
(May 13, 1870December 5, 1941). Luth. pastor, prof., lecturer. B. near Reading, Pennsylvania; educ. Neff Coll., Philadelphia, Keystone State Normal School [called Kutztown State Coll. since 1927], Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, and Luth. Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia; pastor Utica, New York, and Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota; pres. Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem., Maywood, Illinois, 192641. Works include The Wittenberg Originals of the Luther Bible; Whence Came the Universe?; The Six Creative Days; What After Death?; The First English New Testament and Luther; Documentary Sketch of the Reformation; The Einstein Theory.
(August 28, 1795September 2, 1858). B. Ger.; pastor Reust, Ger., 1825; with G. H. Löber,* E. G. W. Keyl,* O. Fuerbringer,* and others he joined the new orthodox movement of M. Stephan* (17771846), though suspicious of Stephan; led contingent of Ger. immigrants 1839 to join Saxons in Perry Co., Missouri (see Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, The, II); pastor Paitzdorf (now Uniontown), Missouri, 184057; together with G. A. Schieferdecker* became involved in chiliastic controversy: resigned from ministry.
(Grün, Oliva Dorothea; June 20, 1883May 11, 1963). Chiao shih (Chinese for teacher). B. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. St. Louis and Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, Illinois; taught in St. Louis; taught in Hankow, China, school for girls and women 192126; supervisor of girls' dept. of orphanage at Enshih, taught religion in high school at Wanhsien; active in preparation of S. S. literature and other materials; denied reentry to China after 194950 furlough; worked alone in Taiwan* among displaced Christians from 1951; after Missouri* Syn. missionaries arrived, she worked with them to organize Sunday schools and women's Bible classes; to US 1960.
(18361924). B. Bärwalde, Neumark, Ger.; educ. Tübingen, Halle, Berlin; pastor Mörz, near Belzig, 18691913; founded Brandenburg miss. conf. 1879; missiologist. Works include Allgemeiner Missionsatlas.
(April 7, 1677March 19, 1720). B. Weissensee, Thuringia, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; taught in A. H. Francke's* institutions at Halle; miss. to India; supported by Dan. miss. soc.; arrived Tranquebar 1709; co-worker of B. Ziegenbalg.*
(Green Thursday). Ger. name for Maundy Thursday (see Church Year, 4, 8, 16). Origin of name is obscure. Suggested explanations include: 1. assoc. with a custom of giving penitents green branches on that day; 2. ref. to penitents readmitted that day as green; 3. eating green herbs that day to guard against disease; 4. use of green paraments in Ger. on that day, in contrast to other colors used on other days of that week. Because Rome used white paraments, the day was also called White Thursday
(May 1854March 21, 1903). Son of N. F. S. Grundtvig*; b. Den.; educ. Copenhagen as ornithologist; to Wisconsin 1881; influenced by T. Helveg* for ministry; ordained by The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. 1883; pastor Clinton, Iowa, 1883; led in organizing Dan Folk Soc. (Dansk Folkesamfund) 1887; returned to Den. 1900. Compiled Sangbog for det danske Folk i Amerika; other works include ornithological papers.
(17831872). B. Udby, Zealand, Den.; Luth. bp.; poet; educator; 1810 trial sermon attacked rationalism and espoused Luth. orthodoxy; asst. to his father; pastor Praestö 1821, Vartov Hosp. Ch., Copenhagen, 1839; bp. 1861 but without see. Held that the Word heard in the ch. through the ages, esp. the Apostles' Creed, rather than written Scripture, was the Living Word given to the ch. by Christ Himself. By this Word and in the sacraments God meets the individual in the ch. Grundtvig's system of govt. stressed autonomy of the local cong.; est. Folk High School. Hymns tr. into Eng. include Built on the Rock the Church Doth Stand and God's Word Is Our Great Heritage; other works include Decline of the Heroic Life in the North; Rhyme of Roskilde; Songs for the Danish Church. His son Svend Hersleb (182483) was noted philologist and folklorist. See also Adult Education; Denmark, Lutheranism in, 8.
H. Koch, Grundtvig [Danish], (Copenhagen, 1943); P. G. Lindhardt, Grundtvig: An Introduction (London, 1951); E. D. Nielsen, N. F. S. Grundtvig: An American Study (Rock Island, Illinois, 1955); J. Knudsen, Danish Rebel: A Study of N. F. S. Grundtvig (Philadelphia, 1955).
(180278). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Stuttgart and Tübingen; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher*; court chaplain, court preacher, prelate Stuttgart; active in reforms of liturgy, hymnal, and ch. const.: ed. Christliches Kunstblatt für Kirche, Schule and Haus; other works include Niklaus Manuel, Leben und Werke eines Malers and Dichters, Kriegers, Staatsmanns und Reformators im 16. Jahrhundert.
(Mathis [Mathes; Mathias; Matthäus] Gothar[d]t Nithar[d]t [Neithardt]; opinions on yr. of birth range from 1455 to 1480; d. 1528). B. probably Würzburg, Ger.; painter. Works include Isenheim altarpiece; Mocking of Christ; various Crucifixions.
(February 19, 1827January 13, 1897). B. North Bjert, near Kolding, Den.; joined the Staerke jyder (Strong Jutlanders) movement formed ca. 1800 in opposition to rationalism; taught school at Hedensted and Egtved; soldier 1848; studied theol. at the school of the Basel* Miss. Soc. 185154; dismissed because of his refusal to embrace a compromising confessional position; plans to become a miss. did not materialize; travels in Den. 1855 led him to conclude that basic Christian doctrine was neglected in the est. ch.; organized the Ev. Luth. Free Ch. of Denmark* November 4, 1855. Ed. En Röst i Örken 185679, Evangelisk-luthersk Maanedsskrift 187995; Sandhed til Gudfrytighed (E. Pontoppidan's* explanation of the SC); other works include Psalmebog for Den evang.-luth. Frikirke i Danmark; Hvad laerer den evang.-luth. Frikirke.
(Grynaeus; Gryner). 1. Simon (14931541). B. Ve(h)ringen, Sigmaringen, Ger.; prof. Gk. 1524, Lat. 1526 Heidelberg; prof. Gk. Basel 1529, later also NT; helped reform Württemberg and the U. of Tübingen (see also Blarer, Ambrosius; Schnepf[f], Erhard); helped draw up the First Helvetic Confession 1536 (see Reformed Confessions, A 6); took part in Wittenberg* Concord discussions and Colloquy of Worms.* 2. Thomas (151264). Nephew of 1; teacher Bern; secretly espoused Luth. cause. 3. Johann Jakob (15401617). Son of 2; originally adherent of S. Sulzer* and J. Andreä,* he repudiated the FC and the Luth. doctrine of the Lord's Supper; with son-in-law A. Polanus* von Polansdorf gave Basel Ref. character.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.
Content Reproduced with Permission