(15471601). B. Heiligenberg, near Pfullendorf, S Baden, Ger.; Frhr. zu Waldburg; abp. and elector of Cologne; elected December 1577; ordained priest March 1578; Prot. 1582; granted Protestantism and RCm equal rights; married 1583. His defection and marriage led to the War of Cologne, which devastated Westphalia and ended with Romanists as victors.
(18381925). B. St. Johann(is), Estonia; Ger. Luth. realist painter following style of the old Nürnberg and Flemish schools. Works include mural paintings in the monastery at Loccum, Ger.; The Crucifixion; The Last Supper; The Ascension.
(17831847). Poet, philos., hist., hymnist; b. Ransäter, Värmland, Swed.; educ. Uppsala; prof. hist. Uppsala. Influenced by I. Kant* and Ger. idealists (e.g., F. W. J. von Schelling* and G. W. F. Hegel*), but remained conservative till ca. 1838, when influenced by Eur. revolutions, industrialism, and the changing Am. scene to become a pol. and soc. liberal. Deeply religious throughout life. Works include Svenska folkets historia (History of the Swedes); Thorild; Föreläsningar öfver menniskans historia. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 4.
(Geyler von Kaisersberg; 14451510). The Ger. Savonarola; b. Schaffhausen, Switz.; to Kaysersberg, Upper Alsace, 1448; educ. Freiburg U.; lectured there on Aristotle* and grammar; studied theol. in Basel 1471; influenced by J. de Gerson*; preacher at Strasbourg. Criticized civil and ecclesiastical corruption; suggested reforms to council, but remained in theol. of Middle Ages; criticized humanism; upheld indulgences, good works; works placed on Index* of Prohibited Books by Paul* IV.
(August 8, 1893November 7, 196 2). B. Sioux City, Iowa; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1915; pastor, Wenona, Pekin, and River Forest, Illinois; occasional speaker Luth. Hour (see Radio and Television Evangelism, Network, 6). Contributed to (The) American Lutheran and This Day; other works include Make Yours a Happy Marriage; Horizons of Hope; Where God Meets Man; Old Truths for a New Day; God's Answer.
F. Diekamp, Analecta patristica (Rome, 1938).
(171569). B. Hainichen, Saxony; studied theol. at Leipzig; asst. to his father; ill health and shyness combined to redirect his life; after further studies at Leipzig he became prof. at Leipzig. Works include Leben der schwedischen Gräfin von G.; comedies; songs, fables. Hymns include Jesus lebt, mit ihm auch ich.
In Luth. terminology, a pub. confession* of sins made by an assem. with the pastor. In RC terminology, conf. made by an individual in which he surveys his entire life, or a considerable part of it, confessing also sins previously confessed.
(North inserted 1876). 1. This body owed its existence to the 1866 disruption of The Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. of the US of N. Am. (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The). In the face of the rising tide of confessionalism (see United States, Lutheran Theology in the, 59) the Gen. Syn. had received into membership the Melanchthon* Synod 1859 and the Franckean* Synod 1864. The delegates of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania protested the admission of the Franckean Syn., withdrew from the sessions of the Gen. Syn., and founded the Philadelphia Sem. in opposition to lax confessionalism at the Gettysburg Sem. (see also Ministry, Education of, X MN; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22).
2. At the 1866 conv. the Gen. Syn. refused to seat the Pennsylvania Ministerium delegates, whereupon the Ministerium severed its connection with the Gen. Syn. and a few weeks later issued a fraternal* address. In response, a conv. was held at Reading, Pennsylvania, December 1214, 1866, with delegates present from 5 groups hitherto mems., of the Gen. Syn.: Ministerium of New York, Eng. Syn. of Ohio, Ministerium of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh Syn., and Minnesota* Syn. (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15, 22, 24), and from the Joint Syn. of Ohio (see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 45), Eng. Dist. Syn. of Ohio (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 19), Syn. of Wisconsin (see Wisconsin Synod), Michigan* Syn., Iowa Syn. (see Iowa and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of, 45), Ev. Luth Syn. of Can. (see Canada, B 7; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 1), Norw. Syn. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8), and Missouri Syn. (see Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, The). At this convention C. Porterfield Krauth's* Fundamental* Principles of Faith and Church Polity were unanimously adopted. Of the 13 groups represented by delegates at the 1866 conv., 11 were represented at the organization meeting at Fort Wayne, Indiana, November 2026, 1867: Ministerium of Pennsylvania, Ministerium of New York, Pittsburgh Syn., Eng. Syn. of Ohio, Syn. of Wisconsin, Eng. Dist. Syn. of Ohio, Michigan Syn., Minnesota Syn., Syn. of Can., Iowa Syn., and the Joint Syn. of Ohio. Of these, the Iowa Syn. and the Joint Syn. of Ohio did not enter into voting membership of the Gen. Council (see Four Points). The Norw. Syn. and the Missouri Syn. had withdrawn from the movement. The Ev. Luth. Syn. of Illinois and Other [Adjacent] States (see Illinois, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of, b), organized 1867, also joined the Gen. Council 1867.
3. The Syn. of Wisconsin left the Gen. Council 1869 because of disagreement regarding the Four Points. The Swed. Augustana Syn. (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 10) joined the Gen. Council 1870. The Minnesota Syn. and the Illinois Syn. left the Gen. Council 1871 and helped form the Synodical* Conference 1872. The Michigan Syn. left the Gen. Council 1887 because of disagreement regarding the Four Points. Most of the Texas Syn., admitted 1868, withdrew 1894 and joined the Iowa Syn. as a dist. 1896; the minority ultimately became part of the ULC (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 28). By 1872 the Eng. Syn. of Ohio had disbanded.
Following syns. also joined the Gen. Council: Indiana Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. 1872 (see also Indiana Synod [II]); Holston Syn. 1874 (requested approval to withdraw 1884 to help form The United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the South; see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 29); Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of the Northwest 1893 (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 17); Man. Syn. 1897 (see also Canada, B 14); Pacific Syn. 1901 (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 20); New York and New Eng. Syn. 1903 (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15); Nova Scotia Syn. 1903 (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 18); Cen. Can. Syn. 1909 (see also Canada, B 4).
Leading men in the Gen. Council: G. H. Gerberding,* J. A. W. Haas,* H. E. Jacobs,* C. Porterfield Krauth,* G. F. Krotel,* W. J. Mann,* W. A. Passavant,* T. E. Schmauk,* B. M. Schmucker,* J. A. Seiss,* A. Spaeth,* C. A. Swensson.*
4. Doctrinal basis of the Gen. Council: the Unaltered Augsburg Confession in its original sense as throughout in conformity with the pure truth of which God's Word is the only rule; the other Luth. Confessions are, with the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, in the perfect harmony of one and the same scriptural faith (Const. of the Gen. Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. Principles of Faith and Church Polity. Of Faith, VIII, IX). In relation to congs, the Gen. Council was a legislative body and considered conformity to its decisions a moral obligation. But despite its strictly Luth. confessional basis the Gen. Council never issued a declaration satisfactory to strict Luths. regarding the Four Points. According to the Akron-Galesburg Rule (see Galesburg Rule), non-Luths, may under certain circumstances be admitted to the Lord's Supper, and there were exceptions to the rule Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran ministers only. Its declaration on chiliasm (see Millennialism) left room for the finer kind, and, though its declaration on secret societies agreed with Luth. principles, its practice did not agree with its principles. The teachings of some leaders of the Gen. Council on ordination, the ministerial office, conversion, predestination, the inspiration of Scripture, evolution, etc., were not always in harmony with the Bible and the Luth. Confessions; yet the Gen. Council did not take such men to task.
5. Home miss. work of the Gen. Council was carried on throughout the US, esp. in the Northwest and Can., and reached even to Alaska. The theol. sem. of J. Paulsen* at Kropp, Ger., furnished many Ger. pastors (see Kropp Seminary).
6. The Gen Council conducted a miss. among the Telugus in India and, with the United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the South, also in Japan. The Augustana Syn. had an indep. miss. in China; other Augustana Syn. for. miss. fields included Puerto Rico and Afr.
Sems. of the Gen. Council and its syns. included Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Maywood (first at Lake View), Chicago, Illinois; Waterloo, Ont., Can.; Portland, Oregon (moved to Seattle, Washington); Rock Island, Illinois See also Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary; Ministry, Education of, X L, N, T.
Classical institutions of collegiate grade of the Gen. Council and its syns. included Muhlenberg, Allentown, Pennsylvania; Thiel, Greenville, Pennsylvania; Wagner, Rochester (moved to Staten Is.), New York; Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.; Augustana, Rock Island, Illinois; Bethany, Lindsborg, Kansas; Gustavus Adolphus, St. Peter, Minnesota; Uppsala, E. Orange, New Jersey; Weidner Institute, Mulberry, Indiana; Ev. Luth. Coll., Saskatoon, Sask. See also Ministry, Education of, VIII A, B.
Within the Gen. Council there were many orphanages and other charitable institutions maintained either by dist. syns. or private assocs. Many of them owed their existence to the labors of W. A. Passavant.* The Gen. Council also conducted an immigrant and seamen's miss. (see Immigrant and Emigrant Missions; Seamen's Homes). J. D. Lankenau* est. the Mary J. Drexel Home in Philadelphia 1888.
7. At its conv. October 2429, 1917, the Gen. Council approved the plan to merge with the Gen. Syn. and the United Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the South into The United* Luth. Ch. in Am. The merger was consummated November 1918, but the Swed. Augustana Syn. did not enter it. In 1917 the Gen. Council, including the Augustana Syn., numbered 14 syns., 1,680 pastors, 2,564 congs., and 524,259 conf. mems.
Die Synode von Pennsylvanien und die letzte Versammlung der General-Synode zu Fort Wayne, Indiana (Philadelphia, 1866); Proceedings of the Convention Held by Representatives from Various Evangelical Lutheran Synods in the United States and Canada Accepting the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, at Reading, Pennsylvania, December 12, 13, and 14, AD 1866 (Pittsburgh, 1867); Verhandlungen der Kirchenversammlung bestehend aus Delegaten verschiedener Evangelisch Lutherischen Synoden in den Vereinigten Staaten und Canada, welche sich zur Ungeänderten Augsburgischen Confession bekennen. Gehalten in Reading, Pennsylvania, vom 12. bis 14. December 1866 (Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1867); H. E. Jacobs, The General Council, The Distinctive Doctrines and Usages of the General Bodies of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States, 4th ed., rev. and enl. (Philadelphia, 1914), pp. 93126; A. Spaeth, The General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, The Lutheran Church Review, IV (April 1885), 81126; S. E. Ochsenford, Documentary History of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America (Philadelphia, 1912).
(Allgemeiner Evangelisch-Protestantischer Missionsverein). Also known as Weimar Mission; founded 1884 in Weimar, Ger., after a committee meeting 1883 in Olten, Switz.; sent E. Faber* to China; other work began 1885 in Tokyo, Jap.; work in China ended 1951/52. Joined by Grench East Asia Mission after WW I. Name changed 1929 to Ostasienmission (East Asia Mission). Theol. and pol. differences, beginning 1933, led to a post-WW II division into indep. bds. See also East Asia Mission, French; East Asia Mission, German; East Asia Mission, Swiss.
1. Organized at the October 2224, 1820, conv. at Hagerstown, Maryland; 1820 constitutional name: The Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States of North America, changed 1869 to The General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America. Other names used include Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US; Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US of Am.; Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US of N. Am. It was the 1st fed. of Luth. syns. in America. Syns. participating in the organization of the gen. body: Maryland-Virginia Syn., New York Ministerium, North Carolina Syn., and Pennsylvania Ministerium (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11, 15, 16, 22, 23, 29).
2. The idea of a gen. body, apparently first suggested 1807 by J. H. C. Helmuth,* was promoted since ca. 1812 esp. by G. Schober* and C. A. G. Stork* of the North Carolina Syn. and took definite shape in the Planentwurf adopted 1819 in Baltimore by the Pennsylvania Ministerium (sometimes called the mother syn.) and representatives of other syns. The Tennessee Syn. (see also Henkels, The; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16) objected to the organization on doctrinal grounds; the Ohio Syn. (see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of) did not join the movement for practical reasons. Eleven pastors and 4 lay delegates attended the organization meeting. The New York Ministerium withdrew after the 1st meeting because of lack of interest and was not again represented till 1837.
3. The Pennsylvania Ministerium receded from the Gen. Syn. 1823 because it feared centralized authority and because some of its congs, feared infringement of their liberties; it did not return till 1853. It was due chiefly to efforts of S. S. Schmucker* that the Gen. Syn. survived its critical initial yrs. When the Pennsylvania Ministerium withdrew, a new syn. was formed W of the Susquehanna R., the Syn. of W Pennsylvania (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22, 23; abbreviated ULC, Syns. of in rest of this par.), which joined the Gen. Syn. 1825. The Hartwick* Syn. joined 1831; the SC Syn. (see also ULC, Syns. of, 27) joined 1835; the New York Ministerium returned 1837; the Virginia Syn (see also ULC, Syns. of, 29) joined 1839. Other syns. joined as follows: Syn. of the West* 1841; Eng. Dist. Syn. of Ohio 1843 (called East Ohio Syn. of the Evangelical Lutheran Ch. from 1857; see also Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 4, and ULC, Syns. of, 19); E Pennsylvania Syn. 1843 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 22, 23); Allegheny Syn. 1843 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 23); Western Virginia Syn. 1843 (see also Synods, Extinct; ULC, Syns. of, 29); Miami* (Ohio) Syn. 1845 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 8, 19); Illinois Syn. 1848 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 7); Wittenberg* Syn. 1848 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 19); Ev. Luth. Syn. of the Southwest* 1848 (see also Kentucky Synod, 2; Synods, Extinct); Olive Branch Syn. 1850 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 8); Pittsburgh Syn. 1853 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 24); Texas Syn. 1853 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 28); N Illinois Syn. 1853 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 7); Pennsylvania Ministerium returned 1853; Cen. Pennsylvania Syn. joined 1855 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 23); Eng. Dist. Syn. of Ohio 1855 (the minority group that continued as a dist. 1840 when the majority of the dist., which was organized 1836, resolved to become indep.; see also Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 4; ULC, Syns. of, 19); Kentucky* Syn. 1855; N Indiana* Syn. 1857 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 8); Iowa Syn. 1857 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 9); S Illinois Syn. 1857 (see also Illinois, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Southern; ULC, Syns. of, 7); Melanchthon* Syn. 1859; Ev. Luth. Syn. of New* Jersey (I) 1862: Franckean* Syn. 1864 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 15); Minnesota Syn. 1864 (see also Minnesota Synod, 1); Susquehanna Syn. 1866 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 23); Ev. Luth. Syn. of New* York 1868 (see also ULC, Syns, of, 15); Cen. Illinois Syn. 1868 (see also Illinois, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Central); Kansas Syn. 1869 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 3); Nebraska Syn. 1875 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 3); Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Maryland* and Adjacent States 1875; Swed. Ansgarius Syn. 1875 (see also Evangelical Covenant Church, The); Wartburg Syn. 1877 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 30); Middle Tennessee* Syn. 1879; California Syn. 1891 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 21); Rocky Mountain Syn. 1891 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 25); Ger. Nebraska Syn. 1893 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 3); Syn. of New York 1909 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 15; W. Virginia Syn. 1913 (see also ULC, Syns. of, 31).
4. Admission of the liberal Melanchthon Syn. 1859 contributed to reasons for withdrawal of conservative Scands. (Swedes) from the N Illinois Syn. 1860 (see also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 8). In 1863, because of the Civil War, the S syns. (North Carolina, SC, Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia) withdrew and the Georgia Syn. (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 5), organized The Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the Confederate* States of Am. Reception of the un-Luth. Franckean Syn. 1864 led to disruption of the Gen. Syn. The Pennsylvania Ministerium withdrew 1866 and helped form the Gen. Council 1867. See also General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in (North) America, 2.
5. From its beginning the Gen. Syn. did not adhere to strict Luth. confessionalism (see Fellowship, B; Lutheran Confessions, D 2). The Bible and the Confessions of the Luth. Ch. were not mentioned in its const.; that the omission was intentional is evident from the fact that the Gen. Syn. remained silent in regard to its confession despite vigorous protests of the Tennessee Syn. and its refusal to join the Gen. Syn. on that account. Yet the Gen. Syn. served as a rallying point for those who wanted to be Luth.; it fostered a Luth. self-consciousness and helped prevent submergence of Lutheranism in Am. sectarianism. In opposition to rationalism in the NY Ministerium it confessed Jesus Christ as the Son of God, and ground of our faith and hope, thus acting as check on inroads of Socinianism.*
6. On the other hand, the platform of the Gen. Syn. was so broadly evangelical that it lost sight of some essentials of Lutheranism. The AC was recognized as a Luth. Conf., but distinction was made bet. fundamental and non-fundamental doctrines. S. S. Schmucker, theol. leader of the Gen. Syn. for ca. 40 yrs., repeatedly said that the AC was not to be followed unconditionally; its binding force was limited expressly to fundamentals. The confessional statements of the Gen. Syn. from 1820 till 1864, when the disruption of the Gen. Syn. began, may be summarized: The fundamental doctrines of the Bible, i. e., the doctrines in which all evangelical (non-Socinian) Christians agree, are taught in a manner substantially correct in the AC The doctrines concerning baptismal regeneration and the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Lord's Supper, e.g., were rejected. The Ref. view of the Christian Sabbath was gen. adopted. See also American Lutheranism.
7. Those who defended the Confessions were decried as Henkelites (after the Henkels*) and Symbolists.* In 1855 S. S. Schmucker prepared the Definite* Synodical Platform, which included a substitute for the AC B. Kurtz* sponsored it in the Lutheran Observer. But a confessional reaction that had begun to set in ca. 10 yrs. earlier (see United States, Lutheran Theology in the, 5) prevented gen. adoption of this document and even induced the Gen. Syn. 1864 to propose a constitutional amendment (see York Amendment) requiring syns. applying for membership to receive and hold the Augsburg Confession, as a correct exhibition of the fundamental doctrines of the Divine Word, and of the faith of our Church founded upon that Word; this amendment became part of the const. 1869. In course of time the official doctrinal basis of the Gen. Syn. conformed more and more to that of the Luth. Ch. In 1895, at Hagerstown, Maryland, the Gen. Syn. defined the unaltered Augsburg Confession as throughout in perfect consistence with the Word of God. In 1901, at Des Moines, Iowa, the Gen. Syn. resolved that to make any distinction between fundamental and so-called non-fundamental doctrines in the Augsburg Confession is contrary to that basis as set forth in our formula of confessional subscription. In 1909, at Richmond, Indiana, the Gen. Syn. resolved that the General Synod in no wise means to imply that she ignores, rejects, repudiates or antagonizes the Secondary Symbols of the Book of Concord, On the contrary, she holds those Symbols in high esteem, regards them as a most valuable body of Lutheran belief, explaining and unfolding the doctrines of the Augsburg Confession, In 1913, at Atchison, Kansas, all Symbols of the Luth. Ch. were formally and officially adopted, thus paving the way for merger with the Gen. Council. Still there remained a wide gap bet. formal adoption and actual recognition of the Confessions; un-Luth, doctrine and practice were tolerated without official censure. Freemasons among clergy and laity occupied positions of trust and honor in the Gen. Syn. Leading men of the Gen. Syn. included D. H. Bauslin,* J. A. Brown,* J. G. Butler* (b. 1826), F. W. Conrad,* L. A. Gotwald,* C. Philip Krauth,* C. Porterfield Krauth* (until 1866), B. Kurtz.* F. P. Manhart,* J. G. Morris,* W. M. Reynolds,* J. W. Richard,* D. F. Schaeffer,* S. S. Schmucker,* J. A. Singmaster,* S. Sprecher,* V. G. A. Tressler,* M. Valentine,* G. U. Wenner,* E. J. Wolf.*
8. Besides Home Miss. work carried on chiefly through dist. syns., the Gen. Syn. conducted a miss. at Guntur, India, and another in Liberia, Afr. Educational institutions included Carthage* Coll., Pennsylvania Coll. (see Gettysburg Coll.), Gettysburg* Sem., Hamma* Divinity School, Hartwick* Sem., Martin* Luther Sem. (Lincoln, Nebraska), Midland* Coll., Susquehanna* U., Arthur G. Watts* Mem. Coll., Western* Sem., Wittenberg Coll. (see Universities in the United States, Lutheran, 7). Other institutions included a number of homes for orphans and the aged, and a deaconess motherhouse at Baltimore, Maryland
9. In 1918 the Gen. Syn. entered the merger of various Luth. bodies, which had its origin in the movement for a joint celebration of the 1917 Reformation Quadricentennial. Largely as a result of action by laymen the planning committee resolved April 18, 1917, to issue a call for union of the General Synod, the General Council and the United Synod of the South, together with all other bodies one with them in their Luth. faith. The Gen. Syn. approved this plan in Chicago June 23, 1917. The merger was consummated in NYC November 1418, 1918. At the time of this merger the Gen. Syn. consisted of 24 dist. syns., ca. 1,440 pastors, ca. 1,850 tongs., ca. 370,300 confirmed mems. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The.
E. L. Hazelius, History of the American Lutheran Church, from Its Commencement in the Year of Our Lord 1685, to the Year 1842 (Zanesville, Ohio. 1846); S. S. Schmucker, The American Lutheran Church, Historically, Doctrinally, and Practically Delineated, in Several Occasional Discourses, 5th ed. (Philadelphia, 1852); J. L. Neve, The Formulation of the General Synod's Confessional Basis (Burlington, Iowa, 1911); J. A. Singmaster. The General Synod, The Distinctive Doctrines and Usages of the General Bodies of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 4th ed., rev. and enl. (Philadelphia, 1914), pp. 3668; V. Ferm, The Crisis in American Lutheran Theology (New York, 1927); E. J. Wolf, History of the General Synod and Lutheranism in the General Synod, The Quarterly Review of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, XIX (July 1889), 420458. and XXI (April 1891), 285303; Our General Synod, The Evangelical Review, V, No. 18 (October 1853), 239280.
See General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 4; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 5; United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South, The.
See also Indiana Synod (1).
Repository in synagog for sacred objects and discarded or defective books and papers.
(d. 471). Patriarch Constantinople 458471; opposed monophysitism. Works include commentaries on books of the Bible.
MPG, 85, 16111734.
(Georgios Scholarios; ca. 1405ca. 1472). Byzantine scholar; lay theol.; patriarch Constantinople 1453ca. 1466. Present at Council of Florence, where he advocated reuniting E and W Chs. After returning E he became leader of the opponents of union. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, B 1; Florence, Council of, 1; Russia, 2.
MPG, 160, 249774.
MPL, 58, 9791120.
Term used in the Vulgate for non-Jews. Non-Jews were admitted gradually into the ch., Acts 10:4448. Miss. work was first done among gentiles at Antioch, Acts 11:1920. Thereafter gentile Christianity soon exceeded Jewish converts in numbers.
(18751944). B. Castelvetrano, Sicily; It. philos.; prof. Naples, Palermo, Pisa, Rome; reformed It. educ. system; founded Giornale critico della filosofia italiana. Held reality is pure act of thinking in which 3 moments are distinguishable: subject, object, synthesis of these. Art is subjectivity and religion objectivity.
(ca. 152066). B. Cosenza, Calabria, It.; anti-Trinitarian; championed Tritheism*; to Geneva ca. 1556 but left under pressure to subscribe to a confession emphasizing the Trinity*; attacked J. Calvin's* doctrine of the Trin. in Antidota; charges against him of blasphemy and mocking the Ref. Ch. led to his execution. See also Socinianism, 1.
Class of penitents (see Penitential Discipline) in the early ch. that were permitted to be present and kneel in the 1st part of worship services but were dismissed before the Missa* fidelium. See also Missa catechumenorum.
1. Christian geog. deals with geog., life, and hist. of Bible lands, esp. Palestine; furnishes the setting for Bible hist.; esp. its archaeol. aspect brings to life the domestic, soc., pol., and religious life of past ages.
2. Chronology of Christian geog. may be divided into 4 periods. The 1st begins with Constantine* I granting Christianity legal standing and imperial support and continues through the 18th c. To satisfy the stream of pilgrims visiting holy sites and places in Palestine, legends and traditions were developed.
4. The 2d period, ca. 1800ca. 1890, continued topographical interest. Journeys of E. Robinson* in 1838 and 1852 and his writings began the scientific approach. In the 2d half of the 19th c. the Palestine* Exploration Fund (inc. London, Eng., 1865) sponsored surveys and explorations of Palestine. Claude Reignier Condor (18481910) and Horatio Herbert Kitchener (18501916) were important participants. Achievements of Robinson and the Fund formed the basis of all later topographical work.
5. Various excavations were carried on in this period. Charles Warren (18401927; Brit. archaeol.), Selah Merrill (18371909; Am. Cong. clergyman; archaeol.), Charles Clermont-Ganneau (18461923; Fr. orientalist), and Hermann Guthe (18491936; Ger. geographer; archaeol.) were among those active in topographical and excavational exploration.
6. The 3d period covered ca. 18901914. It saw the beginning of the development of 2 basic principles of modern scientific archaeol.: stratigraphy and typology. The former is the study of the physical relationships of man-made objects in light of the strata in which they are found; the latter is classification of these objects based on comparative study of types. In the excavation of Tell el-Hesi (perhaps Eglon), F. Petrie* developed and applied these principles by setting up a chronological scheme for dating objects and strata. Among excavations of this period were those at Gezer (Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister [18701950; Irish archaeol.]) and Samaria (George Andrew Reisner [18671942; Am. Egyptologist] and Clarence Stanley Fisher [18761941; Am. hist. architect]). Frederick Jones Bliss (18591937; Am. archaeol.), Duncan Mackenzie (18591935; Scot. archaeol.), Charles Leonard Woolley (18801960; Eng. archaeol.), Thomas Edward Lawrence (18881935; Brit. archaeol.), E. F. M. Sellin,* Nathaniel Schmidt (18621939; Am. orientalist), Carl Watzinger (18771948; Ger. archaeol.), Warren Joseph Moulton (18651947; Am. archaeol.), and others explored and excavated in this period.
7. The 4th period began 1920. It has seen development of stratigraphy and typology. Aside from educ. institutions, the Am. and Brit. Schools of Oriental Research have contributed much to archaeol. development.
8. Important excavations were made at Megiddo, Beth-shan, Tell Beit Mirsim, Jericho, Lachish, Jerash (Gerasa), and Mounts Ophel and Zion. An increasing number of minor excavations were made. N. Glueck* made an extensive survey of Biblical sites in E Palestine. Other archaeologists of this period include Félix Marie Abel (18781953; Fr. Biblical scholar and Palestinian geog.), W. F. Albright,* J. Garstang,* Elihu Grant (18731942; Am. archaeol.), M. G. Kyle,* Louis Hugues Vincent (18721960; Fr. Biblical scholar and Palestinian archaeol.), and George Ernest Wright (b. 1919; Am. educator and archaeol.; Presb. clergyman). EHK
The Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible, rev. ed. G. E. Wright and F. V. Filson (Philadelphia, 1956), pp. 914, 111117; G. A. Barton, Archaeology and the Bible, 5th ed. (Philadelphia, 1927), pp. 89117; W. F. Albright, The Present State of Syro-Palestinian Archaeology, The Haverford Symposium on Archaeology and the Bible, ed. E. Grant (New Haven, Connecticut, 1938), pp. 146; C. C. McCown, The Ladder of Progress in Palestine (New York, 1943); D. Baly, The Geography of the Bible (New York, 1957) and Geographical Companion to the Bible (New York, 1963).
(d. ca. 303 AD). Patron saint of Eng. and of the Order of the Garter; legendary figure allegedly of noble Cappadocian descent; perhaps a Christian martyr; development of his cult in the E led to inclusion of his effigy in the Russ. czars' coat of arms; legend of his combat with a dragon to liberate a princess arose ca. 12th c., possibly founded on the myths of Perseus and Siegfried.
(150753). B. Dessau, Ger.; canon at Merseburg 1518; studied at Leipzig; priest 1524; became Lath. after his mother's death June 1530; coadjutor in spiritual affairs at Merseburg 1544; did not join Schmalkaldic* League; favored Leipzig Interim*; known for piety, love of peace, gentleness, and benevolence.
(14841543). Called The Pious and The Confessor. B. Ansbach (formerly Onolzbach), Ger.; margrove of Brandenburg; helped his brother Albert* of Prussia Lutheranize Prussia; aided the Reformation in Silesia and Ansbach; protested at Speyer 1529. See also Lutheran Confessions, A 2.
(14711539). B. Dresden, Ger.; duke of Albertine Saxony; welcomed M. Luther's* Ninety-five Theses* and attacked the corruptions of the ch.; fiercely opposed Luther's doctrine of grace and rejection of the Council of Constance*; persecuted Luths.; sponsored Leipzig* Debate 1519; banned Luth. publications; pub. a NT See also Pack, Otto von.
(August 21, 1847March 27, 1927). B. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; educ. Thiel Coll. and Muhlenberg Coll. (see Ministry, Education of, VIII A 7, 11); ordained 1876; pastor and miss. in Pennsylvania, Ohio and North Dakota; founder and 1st pres. Syn. of the Northwest, pres. Chicago Syn. (see United Lutheran Church, Synods of, 20, 8); prof. Chicago Luth. Sem. and Northwestern Luth. Sem. (see Ministry, Education of, XI B 6, 10). Works include The Way of Salvation in the Lutheran Church; Life and Letters of W. A. Passavant, DD; The Lutheran Pastor; The Lutheran Catechist; The Lutheran Church in the Country; Lutheran Fundamentals; R. F. Weidner.
G. H. Gerberding, Reminiscent Reflections of a Youthful Octogenarian (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1928).
(October 17, 1582August 17, 1637). Archtheologian of Lutheranism; uncle of J. A. Quenstedt*; b. Quedlinburg, Ger.; attended school at Quedlinburg till 1598. At the age of 15 he went through a critical illness and severe depression, during which he expected to die. This experience permanently deepened his piety and increased his understanding of Christian tribulation. His pastoral adviser, J. Arnd,* persuaded him to study theol.; throughout life Gerhard regarded him as his father in God.
When the plague swept through Quedlinburg, Gerhard entered school at Halberstadt 1598; attended univs. at Wittenberg (1599, philos., theol.; 1601, medicine), Jena (1603, theol.), and Marburg (1604, theol.); returned 1605 as student and lecturer to Jena, where he received his doctorate in theol. November 13, 1606. In summer 1606 he had been made supt. at Heldburg under duke John* Casimir of Coburg; ordained August 14, 1606; gen. supt. Coburg 1615; prof. Jena; advisor to churchmen and statesmen.
Gerhard was the most influential of 17th c. Luth. theologians. He was an early participant in the renewal of Aristotelian metaphysics that began in Ger. univs. ca. 1600. He decisively influenced Prot. theologians to study the ev. character of pre-Reformarion Christianity. In the doctrine of Scripture he made a significant advance by treating Scripture not as the object of faith but as the principium (basis) of theol. knowledge. The doctrine of justification is treated (as it was by the Reformers) as the articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae (the article with which the ch. stands or falls).
Works include Patrologia; Loci theologici, in which he combined the pattern of P. Melanchthon's* topical (local) arrangement with methodology developed by G. Zabarella*; Meditationes sacrae, his most popular work, which, tr. into all major Eur. languages, attained a circulation next in order to the Bible and Thomas* á Kempis' Imitatio Christi; Confessio catholica, a model for ev. studies of pre-Reformation RC thought; Schola pietatis. RPS
E. R. Fischer, Vita I. Gerhardi (Leipzig, 1723); B. V. Hägglund, Die heilige Schrift und ihre Deutung in der Theologie Johann Gerhards (Lund, 1951); R. P. Scharlemann, Thomas Aquinas and John Gerhard (New Haven, Connecticut, 1964); E. Troeltsch, Vernanft und Offenbarung bei Johann Gerhard und Melanchthon (Göttingen, 1891); J. Wallmann, Der Theologiebegriff bel Johann Gerhard und Georg Calixt (Tübingen, 1961).
1. (162168). B. Jena, Ger.; son of J. Gerhard*; prof. theol. Jena. Works include oriental and theol. studies; ed. his father's Patrologia and Schola pietatis. 2. (16621707). B. Jena, Ger.; son of 1; prof. Giessen. Works include Kurtze Untersuchung eines unlängst herausgekommenen Büchleins unter dem Titul Der Luterisch- und Reformirten Religion Einigkeit.
(Geert Zerbolt van Zutphen; Gerhard Zerbolt, 136798). B. Zutphen, Neth.; priest and librarian of Brethren* of the Common Life at Derenter. His De reformatlone virium animae and De spiritualibus ascensionibus influenced Spiritual* Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola.*
(160776). B. Gräfenhainichen, bet. Wittenberg and Halle, Ger.; studied theol. in Wittenberg 162842; candidate of theol. and tutor in Berlin 164351; provost Mittenwalde 1651; pastor Berlin 1657; dismissed 1666 for refusal to sign syncretistic (see Syncretism) edicts of Frederick William (Great Elector) of Brandenburg (162088; elector 164088); declined opportunity to return 1667; archdeacon Lübben 1669; hymnist.
Outward circumstances of his life are gloomy. (wife and 4 children preceded him in death), but his hymns are full of cheerful trust, sincerely and unaffectedly pious, benign and amiable, reflecting firm grasp of objective realities but also transition to modern subjectivism.
Wrote 14 Lat. and 134 Ger. hymns; many have been tr., including I Will Sing My Maker's Praises; O Lord, How Shall I Meet Thee; All My Heart This Night Rejoices; Now Let Us Come Before Him; A Lamb Goes Uncomplaining Forth; Upon the Cross Extended; O Sacred Head, Now Wounded; Awake, My Heart, with Gladness; Oh, Enter, Lord, Thy Temple; Jesus, Thy Boundless Love to Me; Commit Whatever Grieves Thee; Now Rest Beneath Night's Shadow.
E. Kochs, Paul Gerhardt (Leipzig, 1926); T. B. Hewitt, Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody (New Haven, Connecticut, 1918); H. Petrich, Paul Gerhardt (Gütersloh, 1907); W. Nelle, Paul Gerhardt: Der Dichter und seine Dichtung (Leipzig, ); Paul Gerhardt, sein Lebenseine Lieder: Karl Hesselbachers Paul GerhardtDer Slinger frählichen Glaubens, ed. S. Heinzelmann (Neuffen, Ger., 1963).
MPL, 193, 4611814.
(Gerlac Peters; Gerlach Petersz: Gerlacus Petri; 13781411). B. Deventer, Neth.; lay theol. of the Brethren* of the Common Life; sent by Florentius* Radewijns into Windesheim monastery ca. 1400; exponent of devotio* moderna in Neth. Wrote Soliloquium and Breviloquium.
(15461612). B. Knittlingen, Württemberg; studied at Tübingen; Luth. embassy pastor at Constantinople 157378; active in unity efforts of Tübingen theologians with Jeremias* II (see also Crusius, Martin). Works include De contemplatione coenae Domini and polemical works against Reformed and RC theologians. See also Schweigger, Solomon.
(ca. 496576). B. Autun, Fr.; bp. Paris 555; took part in councils at Paris (557, 573) and Tours (566); adviser of Frankish king Childebert I (son of Clovis* I; reigned 511558); legendary elements gathered around his life.
MPL, 72, 55111.
(Der Deutsche Evangelische Kirchenverein des Westens; Verein is variously tr. in contemporary documents, e.g., society, association, conference, synod, union). Founded October 1840 by H. Garlichs,* L. E. Nollau,* G. W. Wall,* and others at Gravois Settlement, near St. Louis, Missouri The constitutional assem. was held near St. Charles, Missouri, May 1841.
The Kirchenverein considered itself related to the Ev. Ch. est. by the Prussian* Union. Its mems. acknowledged the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the Word of God and the only norm of faith, and the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures found in the symbolical books of the Ev. Luth. and the Ev. Ref. Ch. of Ger. insofar as they agree. Confessional statements mention Augsburg Confession, Luther's and Heidelberg Catechisms. Where the Confessions disagree, mems. were to adhere to the passages of Holy Scripture bearing on the subject and retain freedom of conscience. The 1st issue of Friedensbote, organ of the Kirchenverein, appeared January 1850. In 1866 the name of the Kirchenverein was changed to Deutsche Evangelische Synode des Westens (German Evangelical Synod of the West). Increasing favorable use of the term synod made inappropriate the old name, which was changed 1877 to Deutsche Evangelische Synode von Nord-Amerika (German Evangelical Synod of North America).
See also United Church of Christ, II B.
Organized April 1853 to promulgate Ger. Bibles and NTs in complete and correct eds. Held quarterly meetings and a Bible festival September 22. Only Luths. in good standing were admitted to membership.
Est. in the early 1880s at Chicago, Illinois, by The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; discontinued 1898; became a Ger. dept. in Western* Theol. Sem., Atchison, Kansas, 1898. See also Neve, Juergen Ludwig; Severinghaus, John Dietrich.
(Deutsche Theologie; Theologia deutsch). Book written ca. the end of the 14th or beginning of the 15th c. and containing a summary of fundamentals of Christian religion, a noble booklet of the right understanding concerning Adam and Christ, and how Adam should die and Christ arise in us, as Luther puts it, who pub. the tract as a fragment 1516 and in complete form 1518. It is a product of Ger. mysticism.* Its unknown author, apparently active at Frankfurt, is often referred to as the Frankfurter (or Frankforter).
(Germanus I; ca. 634ca. 733). B. Constantinople; patriarch Constantinople 715ca. 730; promoted Quinisext* Synod; opposed Emp. Leo* III's iconoclasm; supported veneration of icons; promoted cult of Mary. Works include De haeresibus et synodis. See also Acathistus.
MPG, 98, 9454.
(family name Strenopoulos; 18721951). B. Eastern Thrace; educ. Constantinople; Gk. Orthodox metropolitan Thyatira; leader of E Orthodox ecumenical delegations; held that all chs. compose the one body of Christ.
For current information see CIA World Factbook. A. Early Christian Hist.. 1. Christianity entered Ger. possibly as early as the 2d c. and spread in the Roman provinces of Ger. in the 3d c.; Gothic invasions 3d-6th c. led to a return to paganism. Subsequent missionaries to the Alemanni* include Fridolin (largely a shadowy figure, said to have been an Irish Celt of the 6th or 7th c.), Columban* (see also Celtic Church, 8; preached among the Alemanni ca. 610), Gall,* and Pirmin.* Christianity entered the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum before the time of Constantine* I and spread after Constantine I and Theodosius* I. Agil* and Eustace* came soon after 615 but had little success. Emmeram* was active in the 7th or 8th c., Rupert* and Kilian* of Würzburg ca. the end of the 7th c., and Corbinian* in the 1st part of the 8th c. Amandus* helped introd. Christianity among the Frisians. Wilfrid* evangelized south Saxons. Willibrord* is said to have been active throughout N Ger. Boniface* was active in Bavaria, Hesse, and Thuringia in the 8th c.
2. Two Anglo-Saxon monks, apparently both called Hewald (or Herwald) and distinguished as the fair and the dark, engaged in unsuccessful miss. work among the Saxons near the end of the 7th c. Charlemagne* imposed Christianity on the Saxons in ca. 33 yrs. of military campaigns 772ca. 805; the spiritual work was done by representatives of the ch. in bishoprics at Bremen, Verden, Minden, Münster, Paderborn, and Osnabrück, and later at Hildesheim and Halberstadt. Christianity was spread 919973 by Henry* I and Otto* I among Wends in Holstein, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and parts of Saxony and Lusatia chiefly by conquest, compulsion, and colonization. Pomerania submitted 1121 to Boleslav III (10861138; Wry-mouthed; king of Poland 110238) and Otto* of Barnberg est. the ch. 112428. The Gospel was first brought to the Prussians (Letts) 997 by Adalbert* of Prague; ca. 1209 the monk Christian* came to the Prussians. The crusade of the Teutonic Knights (see Military Religious Orders, c) and their allies ended 1283, with most of the Prussians slain and Christianity est. by real missionaries.
B. Germany and the Luth. Ch. Orders that supplied followers of M. Luther* include Augustinian* Hermits, Benedictines,* Carmelites,* Dominicans,* Franciscans,* and Premonstratensians.* M. Zell began ev. preaching in Strasbourg 1521; a 1523 resolution of the city council permitted only ev. preaching. Henry* of Zutphen began ev. preaching in Bremen 1522. Melchior Mirisch, an Augustinian prior who had studied at Wittenberg, began ev. preaching at Magdeburg 1522, and N. v. Amsdorf* with C. Cruciger (see Cruciger, 1) organized the Reformation there 1524. By 1535 Bremen, Brunswick, Goslar, Göttingen, Rostock, Hamburg, Lüneburg, and Hanover had declared for the Reformation. John* the Constant issued a directive August 16, 1525, making Ernestine Saxony ev. The ch. in Hesse adopted the principles of the Saxon* visitation 1528. George* of Brandenburg-Ansbach successfully undertook the Reformation in his Franconian territories. Other Ger. provincial chs. that followed the same or a similar pattern include those of Nürnberg, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ostfriesland, Schleswig, Holstein, and Silesia. Albert* of Prussia introd. the Reformation in Prussia. Other areas wen for the Reformation included Württemberg, Augsburg, Anhalt, Pomerania, Westphalia, Albertine Saxony, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Quedlinburg, Naumburg, Brunswick, the Palatinate, and Cologne. By 1555 Prots. were as strong as RCs See also Augsburg, Peace of; Reformation, Lutheran.
C. Later Developments.
1. RCs tried hard to halt the spread of Lutheranism and reconquer lost ground. Activity of Jesuits and of the courts of Austria and Bavaria, virulent persecution and suppression of Protestantism, and the Thirty* Years' War saved a large portion of Ger., esp. S Ger., for Rome. (See also Counter Reformation.) Areas that became Calvinistic in the 2d half of the 16th c. and early in the 17th c. include the Palatinate, Bremen, Nassau, Anhalt, Lippe-Detmold, and Hesse-Cassel. John* Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, turned Ref. 1613, but the people remained Luth.
2. Union bet. Luths. and Ref. in Prussia was decreed and effected 1817 by Frederick* William III, with gen. approval; Luths. and Ref. united also in Nassau, Baden, the Palatinate, Anhalt, and to some extent in Hesse. The new ch. thus brought into existence was called Evangelical. But some Luths. and some Ref. refused to have anything to do with it. See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in; Prussian Union.
3. Before WW I the Luth., Ref., and Ev. Chs. in Ger. were organized as state chs., their govt. gen. being in the hands of consistories (see Consistory) and supts, appointed by the secular governing body, which provided, in greater part, for the support of the congs, out of the nat. revenues and more or less controlled ch. affairs. The const., of the Ger. Rep., adopted at Weimar August 1919 by the Nat. Assem., declared ch. and state separate and all religious denominations equal (religious freedom having been est. already during the time of the Empire by the several state constitutions and by imperial law). There is no longer a state ch. But many among the clergy and laity seem to desire some kind of state support and control and a Volkskirche (People's Ch., Nat. Ch.), which the masses would regard as their ch.
4. Paul von Hindenburg (18471934; field marshall; pres. of the Rep. 192534) protected the rights of the ch. Adolf Hitler (18891945) came to power as chancellor January 1933. It was at first felt that the rights of chs. would be protected also by him. A wave of religious revival followed. Ludwig Müller (18831945; a leader of Deutsche Christen) was elected Bp. of the Reich September 1933. His attempt to unite the Ger. Prot. chs. in harmony with Nazi (National Socialist) party principles led to opposition by Martin Niemöller (b. 1892; leader of Pfarrernotbund) and others. Opposition to Nazi control of the ch. led to surveillance by police, arrests, imprisonment, and execution. Activities of chs., schools, and military ministries were curtailed. By the end of WW II the chs. were exhausted. See also Barmen Theses; Kirchenkampf; Socialism, 3.
WW II led to the division of Germany:
5. Hardships endured during WW II drew Prot. groups closer together. Efforts were made to unite all Ger. Prots. The EKD (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland) was organized July 13, 1948, as a fed. of Luth., Ref., and Ev. (or United) chs. The VELKD (Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche Deutschlands) was organized July 8, 1948; its purpose is to strengthen Luth. consciousness through an organic union of all Luths. Of the 27 chs. in EKD (as of 1962), 13 are Luth.: the chs. of Saxony, Hanover, Bavaria, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia, Mecklenburg, Hamburg, Braunschweig, Lübeck, Schaumburg-Lippe, Württemberg, Eutin, and Oldenburg (all except the last 3 belong to VELKD); 12 Union (or United) chs.: Berlin-Brandenburg, Province of Saxony, Pomerania, Silesia, Westphalia, Rhineland, Hesse-Nassau, Kurhessen-Waldeck, Baden, the Palatinate, Anhalt, and Bremen (Luths. predominate in Pomerania, Berlin-Brandenburg, Crown Province of Saxony, Rhineland, Silesia, Westphalia, Hesse-Nassau, Kurhessen-Waldeck, Anhalt, and Bremen); 2 Ref.: NW Ger. and Lippe. See also Union Movements, 89.
6. Free conferences at Bad* Boll, Ger., were arranged 1948 by representatives of the LCMS and Luth. chs. in Ger. These conferences were a Begegnung (meeting of minds). The conferences were enlarged for 1949 to include representatives of additional Luth. groups in Eur. and Am.
See also Roman Catholic Church, The, D 1011.
A. Hauck, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands. 5 vols. in 6, 8th ed. (Berlin, 1954); K. Brandi, Deutsche Reformation und Gegenreformation, 2 vols. (Leipzig, ); J. Lortz, Die Reformation in Deutschland, 2 vols., 3d ed. (Freiburg, 1949); R. Seeberg, Die Kirche Deutschlands im neunzehnten Jahrhundert, 2d ed. (Leipzig, 1904); Die evangelische Christenheir in Deutschland: Gestalt und Auftrag, ed. G. Jacob (Stuttgart, ).
1. Before the monarchy in Ger. was abolished 1918, the state ch. was controlled by the govt. One result was much interference by the state in the ch. Confessionalism was destroyed in many chs. by rationalism* and unionism.* In the 19th c. some Luths. organized free chs. for the sake of confessionalism and to avoid state control. The oldest of these chs. is the Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch. (also called Breslau Syn.), which originated 1830 in Prussia when Frederick* William III ordered enforcement of the union decreed 1817 and use of a unified Agende (see also Prussian Union). In Breslau, J. G. Scheibel* refused to conform. Many ch. mems. and some pastors in Silesia joined him. Among those that joined were G. P. E. Huschke* and H. Steffens.* For more than 10 yrs. the Old Luths. were persecuted by the state. Many went overseas (see Australia, BC; Buffalo Synod, 1). In 1845 they were granted toleration by the Generalkonzession (see Frederick William IV).
2. The movement spread steadily. By 1860 it numbered over 50,000, by 1918 over 60,000, with ca. 80 ministers serving ca. 180 congs. Its inner buildup was guided by Huschke. He created a const. according to which directire power is in the hands of the gen. ch. council, responsible to the gen. syn., the highest ecclesiastical authority. Cong. regulations are concerned with ev. ch.-discipline alongside doctrinal discipline. Elders are to aid pastors in spiritual care. A theol. sem. (18831945), a deaconess motherhouse, and support of the Leipzig* Ev. Luth. Miss. gave witness of active spiritual life.
3. Due to controversy about ch. polity, a number of individuals withdrew 186162 and formed the Immanuel Syn. 1864; reunion was achieved 1904. Soon after the end of WW II half of the congs. were dissolved, mainly the old original parishes in E Ger. provinces. The Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch. in 1968 numbered ca. 37,000 mems. Since the Luth. territorial chs. of Ger. joined the EKD (see Germany, C 5; Union Movements, 89) after WW II, the Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch. broke off ch. relations with them and allied more closely with other Free Churches. Church fellowship was est. January 1948 with the Ev.-Luth. Free Ch. and the Mo. Syn. In place of the abandoned Breslau Sem. a new theol. school was est.; it was dedicated at Oberursel June 13, 1948; it is operated by the Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch. and the Ev.-Luth. Free Ch.
4. The Ev.-Luth. Free Ch. has a double root. F. A. Brunn* left the Nassau Ch. 1846 with 26 families and in nearby Steeden founded a Free Luth. Ch. that was severely persecuted by the govt. But the 1848 revolution brought toleration. More Luth. congs. formed in Nassau. They joined the Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch. of Prussia, but after the withdrawal that led to formation of the Immanuel Syn. (see par. 3 above), they also withdrew. Brunn had est. contact with C. F. W. Walther* in the 1850s. After Walther's 1860 visit in Ger., Brunn founded a Proseminar in Steeden which sent 235 candidates to the Mo. Syn.
5. In Saxony 2 Luth. laymen est. Lutheranervereine (Luth. socs.) in Dresden, Planitz, and Zwickau. These socs. strengthened their mems. spiritually by studying the Luth. Confessions and writings of Walther, Brunn, et al. When the state ch. abolished the old confessional subscription of the clergy 1871, the socs. lost all hope of improving ch. circumstances. They withdrew from the state ch., united with Free Luth. congs., and called F. C. T. Ruhland,* of the Mo. Syn., to be their pastor. Soon other pastors were found in Ger., including H. Z. Stallmann,* O. H. T. Willkomm,* and K. G. Stöckhardt.* The Syn. of the Ev.-Luth. Free Ch. in Saxony was formed 1876; the words and Other States were added to the name when congs. at Steeden, Wiesbaden, Frankfurt, and Ansbach joined 1877.
6. Ruhland was the 1st pres. of this syn. According to its const., all spiritual power lay in the parish, but with syn., advisory, not legislative, exercising spiritual influence in overseeing doctrine and life. A conflict about predestination, beginning ca. 1880, and a 1906 conflict about justifying faith led to painful separations from the syn. In syn. convs. and pastoral confs., doctrinal discussions are of prime importance.
7. Free Luth. parishes in Hanover, E. Prussia, Den., and S Ger. joined. In 1968 the Ev. Luth Free Ch. numbered ca. 15,000 mems. Like the Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch., the Ev.-Luth. Free Ch. suffers under the division of Ger. The ch. press in the E was suppressed. Importing ch. leaflets from the W was prohibited. The parish school system had been abolished under the Nazis. But unity of faith and confession remained. The theol. sem. at Leipzig became the educational center for students of the E part of the ch.
8. The Indep. Ev. Luth. Ch. has its parishes in W. Ger. It came into being 194750 and is an alliance of 5 Luth. Free Chs., formerly indep., that exist as dioceses in the new church. 1968 membership ca. 21,000.
9. The oldest of the 5 chs. in the Indep. Ev. Luth. Ch. is the Ev. Luth. Free Ch. of Baden, where Karl Eichhorn (b. 1810 at Kernbach, Baden; educ. Halle; pastor Bolshelm; left Baden Est. Ch. and joined Luth. Free Ch. 1850; active in lhringen and Waldeck) led the struggle for the awakening of the Luth. Ch. Despite yrs. of persecution by the state, he succeeded in gathering a number of congs. The diocese of Baden has ca. 5,500 mems.
10. Two Luth. Free Chs. developed in Hesse against a complicated hist. background as Hessian and Lower Hessian dioceses. They contended for freedom of the ch. from the state and defended themselves against the unionistic ch. policy of the state ch. In 187375 they were separated from the state ch. and founded an indep., free ch. 1877. The Hessian Diocese has ca. 3,800 mems., the Lower Hessian Diocese ca. 1,600 mems.
11. The roots of the Hanover and the Hermannsburg-Hamburg-dioceses lie in the awakening movement connected with G. L. D. T. Harms.* His followers watched rationalistic and unionistic influences in the Luth. state ch. of the province of Hannover with growing anxiety, esp. after the land was annexed by Prussia in 1866. When a new marriage rite was introd. 1875, several pastors, including T. Harms,* refused to adopt it; among them was T. Harms,* brother and follower of G. L. D. T. Harms. They were dismissed from office and forsook the state ch., taking a large segment of their congs, with them. Unfortunately questions about ch. organization soon divided this Free Ch. The split became deeper when the Hermannsburg* Miss.; resumed closer relations with the state ch. 1890. The Hermannsburg-Hamburg Free Ch. continued to support the Hermannsburg Miss.; the Hanover Free Ch. est. its own miss. 1892 with headquarters in Bleckmar (see also Mission of the Evangelical Lutheran Free Churches). The Hanover Diocese has ca. 5,400 mems., the Hermannsburg-Hamburg Diocese ca. 4,600 mems.
13. The Ev. Luth. Confessional Ch. (Ev.-luth. Bekenntnis-Kirche in der Diaspora) began 1946 as Ev. Luth. Refugee Miss. Ch. (Ev.-luth. Flüchtlingsmissions-Kirche) and changed to its present name 1951. It consists of mems. of the former Ev. Luth. Free Ch. of Poland, founded 1924 in Lodz; made contact with the Wisconsin* Ev. Luth. Syn.; has ca. 3,400 mems.
14. The Luth. Free Chs. of Ger. are in pulpit and altar fellowship with each other. The Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch., the Ev. Luth. Free Ch., and the Indep. Ev. Luth. Ch. united 1958 to form the Work Union of Free Ev. Luth. Chs. in Ger. (Arbeitsgemeinschaft freier ev.-luth. Kitchen in Deutschland). These 3 chs. merged 1972/73 to form the Indep. Ev. Luth. Ch. (Selbstäindige Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche); the Ev. Luth. Confessional Ch. (13) did not enter the merger.
E. Bingmann, Geschichte der hannoverschen evang-luth. Freikirche (Celle, 1924); F. Brunn, Mitteilungen aus meinem Leben (Zwickau, n. d.); G. Froböss, Drei Lutheraner an der Universität Breslau (Breslau, 1911) and Die Evangelischlutherischen Freikirehen in Deutschland, 2d ed. (Leipzig, 1913); G. Herrmann, Vorgeschichte und Anfänge der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Freikirche in Sachsen und anderen Staaten, Lutherischer Rundblick, VIII (1960), 1231; A. Lückhoff, Die lutherischen Freikirchenverfassungen in Deutschland (Lüchow, 1960); G. Malschner-Maliszewski, Die evangelisch-lutherische Bekenntniskirche in der Diaspora, Viele GliederEin Leib, ed. U. Kunz (Stuttgart, 1953), pp. 4043; A. Mie, Die lutherischen Freikirchen in Deutschland (Molzen, n. d.); K. Müller, Die selbständige evangelischlutherische Kirche in den hessischen Landen (Elberfeld, 1906); G. J. S. Nagel, Unsere Heimatkirche, 2d ed. (Breslau, 1924); J. Nagel, Die evangelischlutherische Kirche in Preussen und der Staat (Stuttgart, 1869) and Die Errettung der evang-luth. Kirche in Preussen (Erlangen, 1869); J. G. Scheibel, Actenmässige Geschichte der neuesten Unternehmung einer Union zwischen der reformirten und lutherischen Kirche, vorzüglich durch gemeinschaftliche Agende in Deutschland, und besonders in dem preussischen Staate, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1834); K. Wicke, Die hessische Renitenz (Kassel, 1930); Eine kleine Kraft, ed. M. Willkomm (Zwickau, 1921); W. Wöhling, Geschichte der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Freikirche in Sachsen u. a. St.. (Zwickau, 1925); Continuing in His Word (Milwaukee, 1951), pp. 251260. GR (tr. EH)
(181590). B. Vaihingen, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; held positions in state ch. at Stuttgart beginning 1849, finally as chief court preacher and mem. high consistory; eloquent preacher; poet. Works include spiritual lyrics (e.g., Palmblätter; Pfingstrosen).
(18671923). B. Nijmegen, Neth.; court preacher in Holland; pub. of his Liturgy contributed to liturgical revival in the Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk; he tried to develop a new approach to justification and Christology; considered material world not creation of God but the result of error in the originally created ethical world.
(official family name: Yserman; 15341612). B. Amersfoort, Dutch province of Utrecht; weaver; joined Mennonite movement ca. 1556; persecuted at Amersfoort 1559; fled to Hoorn, Dutch province of N. Holland, 1559; ordained 1559. Leader of less strict Frisian Mennonites. Works include Verantwoordinghe op die seven Artyckelen.
(Jean Charlief; Johannes Arnaudi de Gersonio; ca. 1363ca. 1429). Doctor christianissimus; b. Gerson (Jarson), near Rethel, Fr.,; educ. Reims and Paris; disciple and friend of P. d'Ailly (see Ailly, Pierre d'); chancellor U. of Paris 1395.
Drawn to the problem of papal schism, Gerson influenced the Councils of Pisa* and Constance.* Pol. turmoil in Fr. and hostility of Jean sans Peur (John the Fearless; 13711419; duke of Burgundy 140419), whose theory of tyrannicide Gerson dared to oppose, kept Gerson from returning to Fr. He spent some time in Bavaria and Austria and concluded his life in pastoral and literary activities at Lyons, Fr.
Gerson was equally at home in ecclesiastical politics. philos., and the cure of souls, and was a renowned orator. His chief concern was that the people, both educated and simple, would live truly pious lives. He sought to blend his nominalism* with a simple mysticism,* in an attempt to achieve a kind of religious experience in which all could participate. A moderate conciliarist (see Councils and Synods, 7), he supported the Gallican way in the papal schism and called for the abdication of the incumbents. He has with some reason been spoken of as a prereformer, but he held that for salvation man must do what is in him.
Works include sermons; ecclesiastical, mystical and pastoral treatises; devotional writings. Editions include Opera Omnia, ed. L. E. Dupin, 5 vols. (Antwerp, 1706); Oeuvres Complétes, ed. P. Glorieux (Paris, 1960 ).
J. L. Connolly, John Gerson: Reformer and Mystic (Louvain, 1928); W. Dress, Die Theologie Gersons (Gütersloh, 1931) and Gerson und Luther, ZKG, LII (1933), 122161. DGS
1. the Great (1256-perhaps ca. 1302). Ger. mystic; placed in convent of Helfta, near Elsieben, at age 5; famed for visions; exponent of devotion to Sacred* Heart of Jesus. Works include Legatns divinae pietatis; Exercitia spiritaalia. See also Mechthild of Hackeborn. 2. of Hackeborn (ca. 123292). Abbess of convent at Rodersdorf, Ger. (convent moved to Helfta 1258); sister of Mechthild* of Hackeborn. 3. of Nivelles (ca. 626659). Abbess of convent at Nivelles, Belg.; regarded as patroness of travelers.
(Gervasius and Protasius). Traditional martyrs; patrons of Milan, It.; nothing definite is known about them; even their existence has been questioned; said to have suffered under Nero (see Persecution of Christians, 3); Ambrose* discovered their alleged bodies in the ch. of SS. Nabor and Felix, Milan, and transferred them to the Basilica of St. Ambrose, Milan.
im Sinne der Kirche. See Neuendettelsau Mission Society.
(17861842). B. Nordhausen, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt and Göttingen; Prot.; Hebraist; rationalist; prof. Halle 1810; attacked by K. F. O. v. Gerlach* and E. W. Hengstenberg* in Evangelische Kirchenzeitung. Works include Hebräische Grammatik; Thesaurus philologicus criticus linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae Veteris Testamenti; Der Prophet Jesaia. See also Buhl, Frants Peder William; Lexicons, A.
(160173). B. Esbeck, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt and Jena; pastor Brunswick 1629; court chaplain Hildesheim 1636; chief court preacher and gen. supt. Hanover 1642; accomplished theologian; hymnist; with D. Denicke* ed. Hanoverian hymnal; adapted old hymns to the style of M. Opitz.* Hymns include Wenn meine Sünd' mich kränken. See also Bible History.
(Gese; Göse; Göss; perhaps ca. 1560ca. 1614). Luth. choral composer; b. Müncheberg, Ger.; studied theol. at Frankfurt an der Oder; cantor Müncheberg 1582, Frankfurt an der Oder 1593. Works include Johannes-Passion.
(181991). B. Kirchheim unter Teck, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; pastor Grossaspach 1847; prof. systematic theol. and exegesis Göttingen 1864, Breslau 1871; mem. Silesian consistory; gen. supt. province of Posen; kenoticist (see Kenosis). Works include Die Lehre von der Person Christi.
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Beginnings date to gymnasium or academy classes taught at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 1827 by D. Jacobs,* a student at Gettysburg* Sem.; inc. 1832 as Pennsylvania Coll.; name changed 1921 to Gettysburg Coll. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 8; Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, VIII B; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 23.
(Aernout; Geulingx; Geulings; 162469). B. Antwerp, Belg.; Cartesian (see Descartes, René) philos.; educ. Louvain; prof. Louvain 164158; became Prot. (Calvinist) 1658; prof. Leiden 1665. Developed theory of occasionalism.* Works include Ethica; Metaphysica vera.
(March 16, 1812March 6, 1892). B. Zwickau, Saxony; educ. Zwickau and Leipzig; private tutor; joined Saxon Emigration 1838 (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, I 12); teacher Old Trinity, St. Louis, Missouri, till 1840, Johannesberg, Cape Girardeau Co., Missouri, 184044. Ordained October 23, 1844; pastor Lebanon, Wisconsin, 184460, Carlinville, Illinois, 186076, Serbin, Texas, 187692. Wrote Ger. primer used widely in Mo. Syn.
A. C. Stellhorn, Carl Ludwig Geyer, CHIQ, XII (1939), 312.
(18621929). B. Manau, Unterfranken; chief preacher St. Sebald Ch., Nürnberg, 1902; leader of liberal theol. with F. Rittelmeyer*; with Rittelmeyer founded journal Christentum und Gegenwart 1910 (it took the name Christenturn und Wirklichkeit 1923); later turned from Rittelmeyer; emphasized God's forgiveness.
1. Johan(nes) the Elder (161590). B. Romfartuna, Västmanland, Swed.; orthodox Fin. Luth. theol.; prof. Dorpat 164149; gen. supt. Livonia 166164; bp. Aabo 166490; advanced educ. of clergy and laity. 2. Johan(nes) the Younger (16471718). B. Dorpat; son of 1, whose work he continued; bp. Aabo 16901718; opposed pietism.* 3. Johan(nes) Nepos (16861733). B. Narva; son of 2; prof. Aabo 171021; bp. Borgaa 172133.
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