(17531826). B. Frankfurt am Main; prof. Altdorf 1785, Jena 1804; studied under J. G. Eichhorn (see Eichhorn, 2); demanded separation of Biblical theol. and dogmatics; applied a myth* concept to the OT in which myth is considered a form of thought and expression of primitive man.
(Heb. hero, man, or champion of God). Heavenly messenger sent to Daniel to interpret the vision of the ram and the he-goat (Dn 8) and to communicate the prophecy of the 70 weeks (Dn 9). Announced the birth of John the Bap. to Zacharias and to Mary and that of the Savior to Mary (Lk 1:1137). Ordinarily spoken of as an archangel, his superior dignity being deduced both from the august nature of his messages and from the phrase stand in the presence of God (Lk 1:19). See also Angels, Good.
(Gabrielli; ca. 151086). B. Venice, It.; organist, composer; taught his nephew G. Gabrieli* and H. L. Hassler*; organist St. Mark's, Venice; master of polyphony; representative of Venetian* school of ch. music. Works include madrigals, motets, and compositions for organ and instrumental ensembles. See also Toccata.
(Gabrielli; 1557ca. 1612). B. Venice; nephew of A. Gabrieli*; taught M. Praetorius* and H. Schütz*; organist St. Mark's, Venice; pioneer composer of baroque ch. music and of independent orchestrated instrumental music; master of polyphony.
(18731928). B. Ardrossan, Scot.; educ. Oxford; to Cairo, Egypt, ca. 1899 as CMS miss. to Muslim. Works include Christianity and Islam; Egyptian Colloquial Arabic; The Muslim Idea of God; The Reproach of Islam; The Phonetics of Arabic.
(Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus; d. 311). Son-in-law of Diocletian*; father-in-law of Maxentius*; uncle of Galerius Valerius Maximinus*; b. near Sardica, Thrace (or Serdica, Dacia), now Sofia, Bulgaria; Roman emp. 305310/311. See also Persecution of Christians, 4.
1875 ruling at Galesburg, Illinois, of the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. regarding pulpit and altar fellowship. The words fundamental errorists in the 1868 Pittsburgh* Declaration were explained 1870 in answer to a question of the Minnesota Syn.: In employing the terms 'fundamental errorists,' in the declarations made at Pittsburgh, it [the Council] understands, not those who are the victims of involuntary mistake, but those who wilfully, wickedly, and persistently desert, in whole or in part, the Christian faith, especially as embodied in the Confessions of the Church Catholic, in the purest form in which it now exists on earth, to wit: the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and thus overturn or destroy the Foundation in them confessed; and who hold, defend and extend these errors in the face of the admonitions of the Church, and to the leading away of men from the path of life.
At Lancaster, Ohio, 1870, C. Porterfield Krauth* made a verbal statement on the meaning of the Pittsburgh Declaration. At Akron, Ohio, 1872, he was asked to put his explanation into writing. The result was the Akron Rule, adopted by the 1872 convention: I. THE RULE is: Lutheran pulpits are for Lutheran ministers only. Lutheran altars are for Lutheran communicants only. II. The Exceptions to the rule belong to the sphere of privilege, not of right. III. The Determination of the exceptions is to be made in consonance with these principles by the conscientious judgment of pastors, as the cases arise.
At Galesburg 1875 the Council declared: The rule, which accords with the word of God and with the confessions of our Church, is: 'Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran ministers onlyLutheran altars for Lutheran communicants only.' The question, raised by the New York Ministerium, whether the 1875 Galesburg addition to the 1872 Akron Rule (viz., which accords with the word of God and with the confessions of our Church) did not practically annul points II and III of the Akron Rule regarding exceptions was answered by the Council at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1889: Inasmuch as the General Council has never annulled, rescinded or reconsidered the declarations made at Akron, Ohio, in the year 1872, they still remain, in all their parts and provisions, the action and rule of the General Council.
See also Concelebration.
S. E. Ochsenford, Documentary History of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America (Philadelphia, 1912); J. Deindörfer, Geschichte der Evangel.-Luth. Synode von Iowa und anderen Staaten (Chicago, 1897).
(15641642). B. Pisa, It.; astronomer, physicist. His views brought him under the suspicion of the Inquisition* 1611 and 1632; condemned 1633; recanted under threat of torture. Tried to harmonize Scripture with the findings of science*; made many discoveries in astronomy and physics.
(Cellach; Caillech; probably ca. 560probably ca. 645). B. Ireland; trained by Columban* at Bangor*; accompanied Columban to Gaul ca. 590; miss. to Suevians and Alemanni. Est. a hermitage ca. 613 on the Steinach R., Switz., where the Benedictine Monastery of St. Gall was est. ca. 720. See also Notker; Ratpert.
(17871851). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; studied in Fr.; brought Laurent Clerc (17851869; b. near Lyons, Fr.; deaf teacher of deaf*) to Am. 1816. Founded (Hartford) Connecticut Asylum (later called Am. Asylum, now Am. School for the Deaf) 1817; principal of this school 181730; chief objective was to bring Gospel to deaf.
Liturgical chants used 5th9th c. in Fr. Gaul; suppressed in favor of RC chants; examples preserved by absorption into RC rite, e.g., in the Good Friday liturgy: improperia, Crux fidelis, Pange lingua certaminis, and Vexilla regis. See also Chant.
Term applied to the polity in certain areas of the RC Ch., e.g., Ger. (see Febronianism) and esp. France. Gallicanism includes 2 primary principles: 1. Secular govt. is supreme in its own sphere; 2. papal jurisdiction, even in the sphere of religion, is subordinate to the collective episcopate. These principles were gen. maintained against papal absolutism 13th19th c. The Pragmatic* Sanction of Bourges, issued 1438, embodied, with modifications, 23 reformatory decrees of the Council of Basel* directed against extortionary and other arbitrary proceedings of the papacy. In particular, it declared the supremacy of the nat. ch. as against the papal ideal of universal rule. A prominent phase of Gallicanism grew out of the quarrel bet. Louis* XIV and Innocent* XI; the Fr. clergy supported the king and in 1682 issued 4 Gallican Articles drawn up by J. B. Bossuet*: 1. The authority of the pope is limited to spiritual matters; 2. the authority of a council is above that of the pope; 3. the authority of the pope is restricted by the laws, institutions, and usages of the Fr. Ch.; 4. doctrinal pronouncements of the pope are final and authoritative only with concurrence of the whole ch. in council. See also Church and State, 8; Concordat, 4, 5; France, 13; Roman Catholic Church, The, D 2; Ultramontanism.
(real family name: Han, or Hahn; ca. 151670). B. Köthen, Ger.; pastor and Reformation leader in Regensburg; opposed Interim* 1548; co-worker of M. Flacius* Illyricus in Magdeburg 1549; opposed adiaphorism of Wittenberg theologians and Reformed leanings of P. Melanchthon*; gave Flacius refuge 156266. Works include Disputation von Mitteldingen. See also Adiaphoristic Controversies.
Gambling has been defined as playing a game for money or other stakes. It involves a hazard or wager and unnecessary risk. Concern is not with unavoidable uncertainties of life but with calculated attempts to secure a stake at the expense of others. Gambling in this sense was practiced in most of the world since earliest times, though comparatively unknown in some areas, e.g., among native Australians, Papuan Melanesians, Siberians, and SE Africans. The practice or prohibition of gambling does not correlate with either surplus or scarcity of property. Legal codes reflect influential thought and practice at various times and places and vary widely on gambling.
Scripture does not speak directly to the matter of gambling but speaks of stewardship of life and possessions, which come from God. 1 Co 10:31 shows that God expects His gifts to be used to His glory. For Christians the problem of gambling does not lie in objects or amount involved but in motivation prompting one to seek gain at the expense of others in contrast to imperatives of Christian love in all things toward all men. The sinfulness of gambling is rooted in the sinfulness of man. Examination of soc. ethics of gambling must be conditioned by confrontation of man by God in Christ.
A. L. Kroeber, Anthropology, rev. ed. (New York, 1948), pp. 552553; C. Stocking, Gambling, Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, ed. E. R. A. Seligman and A. Johnson, VI (New York, 1931), 555558; R. Sommerfeld, What's Wrong with Gambling? (St. Louis, n. d.); G. W. Forell, Faith Active in Love: An Investigation of Principles Underlying Luther's Social Ethics (New York, 1954); E. C. Devereux, Jr., Gambling, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. D. L. Sills, VI (New York, 1968), 5362. RS
(171171). B. Puncheston, Pembrokeshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; vicar Stanton, Harcourt, Oxfordshire; resigned 1742; joined Moravian* Ch.; bp. 1754. Ed. A Collection of Hymns of the Children of God in all Ages, from the Beginning till now.
(18691948). Father of the Nation. Called Mahatma (Greatsouled). B. Porbandar, Kathiawar, W India; educ. in India and London; lawyer in India; to S Afr. 1893; worked for liberties of S Afr. Indians against white rulers; developed concept of nonviolent resistance which he called satyagraha (soul-force or truth-force); helped found Indian Opinion, a weekly journal pub. at Phoenix Farm (small settlement he est. near Durban), center of his activity in Natal, S Afr.; to Eng. 1914; to India, arriving Bombay January 9, 1915; applied organized satyagraha repeatedly in home rule movement; elected sole executive authority by Indian Nat. Congress 1921; tried to integrate the untouchables; worked for understanding bet. Hindus and Muslim; opposed partition of India; taught that happiness for all was to be achieved through fearlessness, truth, and nonviolence; assassinated on way to prayer. Works include Hind Swaraj: An Autobiography. Ed. Young India; Navajivan; Harijan.
Syn., variously dated from ca. 340 to ca. 379, held at Gangra (Gankiri; Kangri; Kankari; Changra), Paphlagonia; its 21 canons included vindication of the sacredness of marriage and condemnation of clerical celibacy.*
(182291). B. near Fishkill, New York; educ. Columbia Coll., NYC, and New Brunswick (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; pastor Ref. Dutch and Presb. chs. Hymnist; wrote 3 new stanzas for Nearer, My God, to Thee.
(ca. 18701906). Father Gapon; b. Poltava govt.; Russ. priest; influenced by L. N. Tolstoi*; tried to introd. soc. reforms through laws; planned, as leader of 200,000, to hand demands for reforms to czar; this march of workers to the Winter Palace was ruthlessly suppressed on Bloody Sunday, January 22, 1905; Gapon escaped to London; later returned; hanged at Terioki, Fin.
(17941851). B. Basildon, Berkshire, Eng.; captain in Royal Navy; resigned; miss. in Natal, S Afr.; later in S. Am.; founded the Patagonian Miss. Soc. 1844, later called The South Am. Miss. Soc.; unsuccessfully attempted miss. in Tierra del Fuego, perishing of hunger on its coast.
(18551924). B. Fort Tejon, California; studied law at Harvard; lawyer in Boston 1880; Episc.; pres. Brotherhood* of St. Andrew 190410; worked for organizational unity of ch.; mem. of the ex. committee FCC; secy. (1910) of commission that arranged the 1920 Geneva Preparatory Conf. on Faith and Order (see also Ecumenical Movement, 7).
(180765). B. Ger.; educ. Göttingen, Leipzig, Bonn, Munich; to Missouri 1833 with a group of Ref. Westphalians; settled as farmer on Femme Osage Creek, St. Charles Co.; began serving as pastor 1834/35; to Ger. in fall 1835; passed theol. examaination at Bielefeld; ordained 1835; retnrned to Missouri January 1836; served various congs. See also German Evangelical Church Society of the West, The.
(18761956). B. Blackburn, Lancashire, Eng.; archaeol.; excavated Roman sites in Britain, and sites in Egypt, Asia Minor, N Syria, Sudan, Palestine, and other places. Works include The Foundations of Bible History; The Hittite Empire; The Burial Customs of Ancient Egypt as Illustrated by Tombs of the Middle Kingdom; The Heritage of Solomon; coauthor with J. B. E. Garstang, The Story of Jericho.
(17631841). B. Jeinsen, near Hannover, Ger.; teacher at Moravian (see Moravian Church) school at Barby and Niesky; pastor Amsterdam, Ebersdorf, Norden, Berlin, and Neusalz an der Oder; his attempt to construct a philos, basis for Moravian theol., beginning with I. Kant's* criticism, proved a failure; hymnist. Hymns include Christus lebt (tr. J. Borthwick,* Hallelujah! Jesus Lives!).
(August 17, 1887June 10, 1940). Black leader; b. St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica; printer's apprentice at age 14; worked in Costa Rica, Panama, and London; influenced by Duse Mohammed Ali (Egyptian nationalist) and by B. T. Washington's* Up from Slavery; returned to Jamaica 1914; organized the Universal* Negro Improvement Assoc. August 1, 1914; to NYC 1916; est. a Harlem branch of UNIA 1917; pub. Negro World; est. Negro Factories Corp. and Black Star Steamship Line; convicted 1923 of using mails to defraud after collapse of Black Star Line; imprisoned; sentence commuted 1927; deported to Jamaica; moved to London 1934. Leader of Back-to-Africa Movement. See also African Orthodox Church, The.
E. D. Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Madison, Wisconsin 1955).
(18611945). Brit. Cong. theol.; b. Zurardow, Russ. Poland; educ. Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Oxford; lecturer Mansfield Coll., Oxford, 1892; pastor Macduff, Scot., 1893, Montrose, Scot., 1895; active in union and ecumenical movements. Works include The Ritschlian Theology, Critical and Constructive; A Guide to Preachers; Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus; Christian Life and Belief; The Christian Doctrine of the Godhead; The Christian Ideal for Human Society; The Christian Belief in God, in Relation to Religion and Philosophy.
(140358). B. Hunslet, near Leeds, Eng.; theol.; educ. Oxford; ordained 1427; spent time in scholarly, pursuits at Oxford, often as chancellor or vice-chancellor; opposed abuses in ch., but also Wycliffite movement (see Wycliffe, John; Lollards). Works include a theol. dictionary.
(181389). B. Breslau; educ. Breslau and Halle; prof. Breslau, Greifswald, Giessen, and Heidelberg; strong advocate of Evangelischer* Bund. Made valuable contributions to the study of the Gk. Ch.; other works include Geschichte der protestantischen Dogmatik; Geschichte der Ethik.
(17871846). B. Hartland, Connecticut; early experienced strange, disturbing visions; in Philadelphia 181035; criticized existing religions; pub. the monthly Reformer; unhappy home life led him to adopt perfectionism*; influenced by J. H. Noyes*; launched Battle-Axe Experiment 1837, advocating free love based on a principle of holiness leading to union of soul mates; his colony in Free Love Valley near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, disappeared after he left in reaction against excesses.
(d. after 406). Bp. Brescia, It.; friend of Ambrose*; unsuccessfully helped try to persuade E emp. Arcadius to return J. Chrysostom* from exile. Works include sermons and other treatises. MPL, 20, 7951006; MPG, 52, 715716.
(August 29, 1861September 4, 1928). B. Reedsville, Wisconsin; educ. Northwestern Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, and Luth. Sem., Milwaukee, Wisconsin; pastor (Minnesota Syn.) East Farmington, Minnesota, 188285; St. Paul, Minnesota, 18851906; (Wisconsin Syn.) Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 190628. Pres. Minnesota Syn. 18941906; helped organize Joint Syn. of Wisconsin; its pres. 190107, 191317; pres. Synodical* Conf. 191227. Wrote official Wisconsin Syn. catechism.
(Sanskrit; Pall: Gotama; ca. 563ca. 483 BC). According to tradition, Siddhartha (he who has accomplished his aim), b. Lumbini Grove, near Kapilavastu, NE India, was a son of Sakya raja Suddhodana Gautama; proclaimed Sakyamuni (sage of the Sakyas), Tathagata (he who has arrived at the truth), and Buddha (the enlightened). Founded Buddhism.* Prompted by reflections on the frailty of human life, he at 29 renounced succession to the throne, left wife and infant child (act called by Buddhists The Great Renunciation), and became a wandering mendicant. After yrs. of study of Brahmanism* and practice of severe asceticism* failed to satisfy him, he attained the enlightenment that made him Buddha. After his enlightenment he organized a mendicant order for his followers, traveled, and taught.
In Buddhist thought a Buddha is one who through knowledge of truth and conquest of sin has escaped the burdens and pains of existence and who then teaches the true doctrine. There have been and will be many Buddhas. The last historic one was Gautama.
(180989). B. Bologna, It.; Barnabite*; at first supported by Pius IX (see Popes, 28); to Eng. 1849; evangelical 1850; leader of It. Ev. Ch., London; chaplain of Garibaldi; helped found Chiesa libera cristiana in Italia 1870.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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