(182193). B. Illkofen, near Regensburg, Ger.; philos. and theol.; priest 1847; prof. philos. Munich 1855; conceived of the world as resulting from the imagination of God. Many early writings placed on the Index* of Prohibited Books. Attacked the view of Thomas* Aquinas that philos. is the handmaid of theol. and upheld the indep. of philos. from the authority of the ch. Excommunicated 1871. Works include Einleitung in die Philosophic und Grundriss der Metaphysik; Über die Freiheit der Wissenschaft.
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