(Fürbringer; March 29, 1864May 6, 1947). Son of O. Fuerbringer*; b. Frankenmuth, Michigan; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1885; pastor Frankenmuth, Michigan, 188593; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 18931947; pres. 193143; pres. Synodical* Conf. 192744.
Combined strong pastoral sense with fluent literary activity and scholarship across a broad front, esp. in Biblical exegesis. Strongly conservative in some respects of the latter (repudiation of source hypothesis [see Higher Criticism, 6], simplified view of the Bible canon,* Messianic prophecy understood in terms of E. W. Hengstenberg*), but his exegetical lectures also revealed mastery of contemporary, esp. Ger., scholarship (influenced by T. v. Zahn*) and moved ahead of his time in stress on unity of the Testaments. salvation hist., and the eschatological tension bet. the present and the Parousia.* Displayed remarkable alertness to cultural values of his ch. and community and phenomenal memory for the 2 generations of his students and their families. Free and open in discussion, but cautious in establishing policy. Often progressive in educ., soc., and pol. areas.
Works include 80 Eventful Years; Persons and Events; The Eternal Why; Theologische Hermeneutik; Einleitung in alas Alte Testament; Einleitung in das Neue Testament; Liturgik. Ed. Der Lutheraner 18961912, 191747; Synodalhandbuch and Statistisches Jahrbuch of the Mo. Syn.; Briefe von C. F. W. Walther; the Men and Missions series: sermons: The Thomasius Gospel Selections; Die Evangelischen Perikopen des Kirchenjahres; rev. eds. of M. Günther's* Populäre Symbolik. RRC
(Fürbringer; June 30, 1810July 12, 1892). B. Gera, Thuringia; studied theol. at Leipzig 182830 with C. F. Walther,* T. J. Brohm,* J. F. Bünger,* and others of the circle led by an elderly candidate named Kühn. Instructor 183138 in an institute for boys at Eichenberg, conducted by G. H. Löber*; to Am. 1839 in the Saxon immigration (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, II); with Brohm and Bünger founded Conc. Coll., Perry Co., Missouri; 1st instructor in classic languages and hist. Pastor Venedy, Illinois, 1840. Helped draw up Mo. Syn. const.; present 1847 at the 1st meeting of the Syn.; became a voting mem. 1848 at the 2d meeting. Pastor of the congs. in Freistadt and Kirchhayn, Wisconsin, 1851 and was drawn into the controversy with the Buffalo* Syn.; his articles appeared in Der Lutheraner. Pres. N. Dist., Mo. Syn., 185472, 187582. Pastor Frankenmuth, Michigan, 185892. At the beginning of the Civil War he called together unmarried men in his parish and persuaded them voluntarily to fill the quota of men demanded from their county in order that husbands and fathers might be exempted from military service. Pastoral wisdom combined with Luth. soundness characterized his pastoral work; his deep learning and simple, popular style made him an effective preacher and catechist; regarded by some as the profoundest thinker among the fathers of the Mo. Syn.
(from It. fuga, flight). Contrapuntal musical composition in which 1 or more themes flee, as it were, pursued, so to say, by repetition or imitation in voices entering successively. Most fully developed by J. S. Bach.* See also Canon, 3.
(180076). B. Kratzau, Bohemia; Austrian romantic painter assoc. with the Nazarenes (see Nazarenes, 3); revived style of earlier ages, esp. that of A. Dürer*; master of distribution, form, movement, and expression, but inferior in feeling for color. Works include The Incarnation; The Prodigal Son; etchings; designs for woodcuts and steel engravings.
(ca. 9601028). Probably of Fr. extraction; studied at Reims under Gerbert (see Popes, 6); founded school at Chartres 990; propagated secular learning; upheld ch. against nobles; distinguished bet. human knowledge and divine revelation. Bp. Chartres 1006.
(18871968). Radio evangelist; b. Los Angeles, California; ordained Bap. 1925; pastor Placentia, California, 192532; taught at Los Angeles Bap. Sem. 192728; founded The Old Fashioned Revival Hour 1925.
Founded 1947; holds a 2-stage theory of conversion and baptism of the Holy Spirit; Pentecostal.
Founded 1953 in California by mems. of Pentecostal chs.: membership includes mems. of many denominations; tries to make speaking in tongues (see Tongues, Gift of) an added dimension in mainstream chs. Purposes: 1. Provide basis of fellowship among all full gospel men everywhere; 2. Reach men everywhere for Christ; 3. Bring about more unity in the body of Christ. Publications include Voice; Vision; Charisma Digest. See also Neo-Pentecostalism.
(151866). Luth. clergyman; b. Wöhrd, near Nürnberg; educ. Wittenberg; court preacher Königsberg. Sided with A. Osiander* the elder and his son-in-law A. Aurifaber,* focusing wrath of Osiander's opponents on himself. Accused of opposing ecclesiastical and pol. measures of the govt.; beheaded at Königsberg. See also Osiandrian Controversy.
(18361910). Ev. clergyman; b. Wülfrath, near Düsseldorf, Ger.; pastor Holpe; inner mission inspector Bremen. Works include Reisebilder und Heimatklänge; Die Welt des Glaubens und die Alltagswelt; Wie man glücklich wird and glücklich macht; Alltagsfragen im Ewigkeitslicht.
(Functional Psychology). Theory of W. James,* J. Dewey,* and others; holds that perception, emotion, and will are functions of the biological organism aimed at adapting to and controlling environment. See also Educational Psychology, D 6; Psychology, J 3.
1. J. Gerhard,* following scholastic theol., distinguished bet. fundamental and principal and less principal doctrines. But a fully developed distinction bet. fundamental and nonfundamental doctrines first appeared 1626 in N. Hunnius'* Diaskepsis theologica de fundamentali dissensu doctrinae Evangelicae Lutheranae et Calvinianae sea Reformatae; it was intended to show that there were fundamental doctrinal differences bet. Luths. and Ref. Later Luth. dogmaticians, esp. J. Hülsemann* and B. Meisner,* continued to elaborate the distinction, sometimes with differing classifications of doctrines.
2. Fundamental doctrines pertain to the fundamentum or foundation of saving faith, forgiveness of sin in Christ* Jesus. Primary fundamental articles (e.g., person and work of Christ) are constitutive for saving faith and can be neither unknown nor denied without loss of salvation. Secondary fundamental articles (e.g., Holy Baptism, Lord's Supper) are related to the foundation of faith, but in such a way that one may be ignorant of them, yet have saving faith.
3. Nonfundamental doctrines do not deal directly with the foundation of faith; therefore they may be unknown, even denied, without destroying saving faith, provided such a denial does not result from conscious opposition to Holy Scripture. Luth. dogmaticians gen. included in them such doctrines as the unpardonable sin against the Holy Ghost, immortality of man before the fall, eternal rejection of the evil angels, and the Antichrist.
4. Both fundamental and nonfundamental doctrines are Scriptural doctrines. Questions not answered conclusively by Scripture are open questions or theol. problems. This classification of doctrines serves primarily to emphasize the greater importance of certain doctrines for the faith of the believer.
5. The question of fundamental and nonfundamental doctrines was much discussed after C. F. W. Walther* stated (Der Lutheraner, XXVII [May 1, 1871], 131) that he considered taking interest to be forbidden in Scripture, but regarded this teaching as nonfundamental: Let everyone know, who desires to know, that we are certainly able to distinguish between articles of faith and Scripture doctrines that are not articles of faith. We indeed insist that no clear Scripture doctrine, may it appear great or small, may be regarded as an 'open question'; but though we consider it necessary to contend most strenuously for every article of faith, on each of which our faith and hope depend, to condemn the error that opposed it, and to deny fellowship to those who stubbornly contradict the article in question, we on the other hand by no means believe it necessary under all circumstances to contend to the utmost for other Scripture teachings that are not articles of faith, much less to pronounce sentence of condemnation on the opposing error, though we reject it, and to deny fellowship to those who err only in this point. If the issue in a doctrinal controversy concerns teachings that do not belong to the articles of faith, then it is of greatest concern to us to see whether the opponents show that they contradict because they refuse to obey the Word of God, that is, whether they, while apparently not attacking the fundamental doctrines of the Word of God, nevertheless destroy the foundation itself on which these teachings rest, the Word of God. Here Walther evidently uses the term articles of faith in the sense of fundamental doctrines. It should be noted that he does not declare nonfundamental doctrines to be a matter of indifference, but holds that an error in such doctrines does not necessarily terminate fellowship. WA, RAB
F. Pieper, Christliche Dogmatik, I (St. Louis, 1924), 89108, tr. and ed. T. Engelder et al., Christian Dogmatics, I (St. Louis, 1950), 8096; H. Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 3d ed., rev., tr. C. A. Hay and H. E. Jacobs (Minneapolis, 1961), 9299; A. Hcenecke, Ev.-Luth. Dogmatik, I (Milwaukee, 1909), 450458; J. G. [W.] Baier, Compendium Theologiae Positivae, ed. C. F. G. [W.] Walther, I (St. Louis, 1879), 4968; T. Graebner and P. E. Kretzmann, Toward Lutheran Union (St. Louis, 1943).
Religious position opposed to liberalism* and Modernism* in 20thc. Am. Protestantism. Adheres to the inspiration of the Bible and to its cardinal doctrines, but many of its protagonists have been assoc. with premillennialism (see Millennium, 7). Fundamentalism is polemic, attacking liberalism in sems. and chs. and causing sharp cleavages esp. among Baps. and Presbyterians. It is distinguished from Lutheranism in this, that the latter uses the Bible not as code but source of faith and emphasizes culture of spiritual life by the means of grace rather than by controversy. See also Five Points of Fundamentalism; United States, Religious History of the, 17.
M. L. Rudnick, Fundamentalism and the Missouri Synod (St. Louis, 1966).
Theses prepared by C. Porterfield Krauth,* read to representatives of various Luth. syns. at Reading, Pennsylvania, and adopted December 1214, 1866. The 1st part, of Faith, contained 9 theses. These theses taught that the true unity of a particular ch. is unity in faith and confession. The unity of the ch. is witnessed to the world by a formal confession subscribed to in its original sense. The unity of the Luth. Ch., as a part of the holy Christian ch., depends on its adherence to the confession to which it owes its name, its distinctiveness, its political recognition, and its history, namely the UAC The doctrines of this confession are acknowledged as being throughout in harmony with the Word of God. Subscription to the UAC indicates acknowledgment of the other Luth. confessions (Ap, SC, LC, SA, and FC) as true, Scriptural, and in complete agreement with the UAC The 2d part, of Ch. Power and Polity, contained 11 theses. It held that all power in the ch. belongs to Christ and is transferred to no person or group. The ch., as servant of Christ, exercises power in accord with the Word of God. The primary bodies through which this power is normally exercised are congs. The normal cong. is neither pastor without people nor people without pastor. The cong. has the right to exercise its power not only through the pastor but also through representatives elected by it from its midst to act under constitutional limits approved by the cong. Representatives thus elected to meet in a gen. council or syn. are congs. themselves in representative form. The syn. is, representatively, the ch. of the congs. represented. There is a higher moral probability that decisions of syns. are true and right than decisions in conflict with them made by single congs. or persons. Among the purposes of a syn. the document lists the preservation of pure doctrine. See also General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, 2.
Verhandlungen der Kirchenversammlung bestehend aus Delegaten verschiedener Evangelisch Lutherischen Synoden in den Vereinigten Staaten und Canada, welche sich zur Ungeänderten Augsburgischen Confession bekennen. Gehalten in Reading, Pennsylvania, vom 12. bis 14. December 1866 (Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1867); Proceedings of the Convention Held by Representatives from Various Evangelical Lutheran Synods in the United States and Canada accepting the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, at Reading, Pennsylvania, December 12, 13 and 14, A. D. 1866 (Pittsburgh, 1867). EL
Leave of absence granted to governmental or institutional employee; often used of leave of absence granted to missionaries.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.
Content Reproduced with Permission