1. Area: ca. 210,000 sq. mi. Fr. (ancient Gaul) was one of the 1st countries of Eur. in which Christian chs. were est. A Christian community formed at Lyons ca. 150. At Lyons and Vienne Christians suffered persecution in 177 (see Persecution of Christians, 3). There were ca. 30 episcopal sees by 250, ca. 70 by 350. A syn. was held at Arles* 314. Monasteries were est. in the 2d half of the 4th c. Christians among Goths, Franks, Huns, and others that overran Gaul in the 5th c. were mostly Arian. With conversion of Clovis* I to Cath. (as distinguished from Arian) Christianity (496) miss. work of monks (e.g., Columban*) increased. The Merovingian (from Mérovée, 2d Frankish king 448458; the 1st was Clodion, or Chlodio, 428448) king Dagobert I (b. ca. 605; king ca. 629639) put all Fr. under one scepter. The Carolingian rulers, beginning with Pepin* the Short, assoc. themselves with the pope. See also Charles Martel; Robert II.
2. In the 11th and 12th c. the nobility gained greater control of the ch. and abuses multiplied. In the 12th and 13th c. extensive reforms were inaugurated; new orders and monasteries were founded; Fr. played a leading role in the crusades* (Peter* the Hermit, Bernard* of Clairvaux, Louis* VII, Louis* IX) and contributed outstanding scholars (e.g., Roscellinus,* P. Abelard,* Peter* the Lombard, Alexander* of Hales) to the scholastic movement (see Scholasticism).
3. In the 14th and 15th c. the struggle bet. Fr. and the papacy became acute. Philip IV (the Fair; 12681314; king 12851314) engaged in a long controversy with popes. The bull* Clericis laicos (1296) forbade him to tax the clergy; royal authority was challenged by Ausculta fili (1301) and Unam sanctam (1302). The first States-General (1302) supported the king gainst the pope. Clement* V (pope 130514) resided in Fr. (see Babylonian Captivity, 2). Charles VII (14031461; king 142261) issued the Pragmatic* Sanction of Bourges (1438), which upheld right of Fr. ch. to administer its temporal property and disallowed papal nominations to vacant benefices. During the papal schism 13781417 (see Schism, 8) Fr. kings supported the popes that resided at Avignon.
4. Fr. took a prominent part in all great ch. movements of the Middle Ages. Reformatory movements were repeatedly inaugurated in the Fr. ch. to restore purer Christianity or overthrow the papacy. See also Albigenses; Huguenots; Waldenses.
5. Under Louis* XIV (the Great; le Grand Monarque; 16381715; king 16431715) Fr. reached the zenith of its power and splendor. The Fr. Revolution, which broke out 1789, for a time seemed to sweep away the whole Fr. ch.; the Nat. Assem. decreed that all ecclesiastical officers, under penalty of losing office, should submit under oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which ordered priests and bps. to be chosen by civil elections and paid by the govt. See also Roman Catholic Church, The, D 7. Napoleon* I, on the contrary, regarded est. of RCm as state religion necessary; in 1801 he concluded a Concordat with Pius VII (see Popes, 27) and in 1802 enacted the Organic Articles, which preserved principles of Gallicanism* and were promulgated as supplementary and explanatory part of the 1801 Concordat (see Concordat, 5). In 1813 he concluded a new Concordat with the captive pope Plus VII at Fontainebleau; it dealt mainly with official confirmation of bps.; when the pope revoked his action, Napoleon pub. the Concordat as imperial law. See also Gobel, Jean Baptiste Joseph.
6. Louis XVIII (17551824; king 181415, 181524) and Charles X (17571836; king 182430) recognized RCm as state religion but granted toleration also to every other rel. The 1830 revolution revealed popular indignation against RCm; under Louis Philippe (Citizen King; 17731850; king 183048) RCm lost the privilege of a state religion. Repeal of the 1801 Concordat in 1905 and legal separation of ch. and state (in force since January 1, 1906) radically changed the situation of the RC Ch. The separation law, e.g., repealed all state and municipal appropriations for pub. worship, abrogated all establishments of worship, and permitted use of chs. for divine service only by virtue of annual notifications to the civil authorities pending the term of their use. But the ch. retained freedom in organization, hierarchy, discipline, and liturgical arrangement.
7. The hist. of Protestantism is a long record of conflicts with RCm Early stages of the Reformation in Fr. are assoc. with J. Lefèvre* d'Étaples. The center of the Fr. Reformation was J. Calvin.* The Geneva Academy, whose first rector was T. Beza,* trained many pastors and teachers for Fr.
8. Francis I (14941547; king, 151547) was originally mild toward the Reformation, but posting by extreme Prots. of placards against the mass 1534 led to severe reaction against them. In 1521 the Sorbonne (U. of Paris) had declared itself against the Reformation; but beginning the same yr. G. Briçonnet* gathered Lefèvre, G. Farel,* and others at Meaux and arranged for ev. preaching and for dissemination among the people of the Gospels and Epistles of the ch. yr. in a Fr. translation. The January Edict (January 25, 1535) was restated in severer form in the Edict of Fontainebleau (1540) and was a law against heresy aimed esp. at Evangelicals of Meaux and the Waldenses.* See also Speyer, Diets of, 12, 4. Prots. were persecuted as Luths. under Henry II (151959; king 154759). But Prots. increased in number. A Prot. syn. assembled secretly in Paris 1559 and adopted a confession of faith, Calvinistic in content, called Gallican Confession (see also Reformed Confessions, B).
9. Catherine* de Médicis (Caterina de' Medici*; 151989), regent 156063 for her son Charles IX (155074; king 156074), at first tried to hold a mediating course bet. Evangelicals and RCs with Michel de L'Hospital (150773; chancellor 1560) and G. II de Coligny* among her counselors. The January 1562 Edict of Saint-Germain granted Prots. the right to assemble for worship outside the towns; but their activities sparked opposition and the 2d Duke of Guise (François de Lorraine; le Balafré, i. e. the Scarred; 151963) began hostilities by ordering an attack that led to the massacre of a number of Huguenots at Vassy (later spelled Wassy; also called Washy-sur-Blaise; in the Haute-Marne dept., NE Fr.) March 1, 1562. Bloody civil wars followed. Prots., led by Louis I de Bourbon (Prince de Condé*) and Coligny, suffered heavy losses. The 1st war ended with the 1563 Edict of Amboise, which left some places of worship in Huguenot hands. The 2d war (156768) ended with the Peace of Longjumeau; the govt. put large garrisons in Huguenot cities. The 3d war (156870) ended with the Peace of Saint-Germain, in which the govt. gave the Huguenots 4 fortified towns. The Huguenots gained further hope when their chief, Henry of Navarre (see Henry IV), married the king's sister Margaret* of Valois August 18, 1572. But, very likely at the instigation of Catherine de Médicis, Margaret's mother, thousands of Prots. were massacred (see Bartholomew's Day Massacre). Henry III (155189) succeeded Charles IX 1574. The Huguenots, under arms, obtained concessions in the Edict of Boulogne 1573, the Peace of Monsieur (Peace of Beaulieu) 1576, and the peace treaty of Bergerac (terms of which were pub. in the Edict of Poitiers) 1577. But a Holy* League, organized by the 3d Duke of Guise (Henri I de Lorraine; also called le Balafré; 155088) and others 1576, forced stringent action against Prots. In the treaty of Nemours 1585 Protestantism was suppressed.
10. The assassination of the Duke of Guise and his brother by order of the king 1588 led to the king's own assassination 1589. Henry of Navarre ascended the throne 1589 as Henry IV; became RC 1593. By the Edict of Nantes 1598, freedom of faith and limited pub. worship, civil rights, and pol. privileges were granted to the Huguenots. After the assassination of Henry IV 1610 the Prots. again took up arms to defend their rights. Cardinal Richelieu,* 152442 chief minister of Louis XIII (160143; king, 161043), disarmed them as a pol. party. Ecclesiastical concessions, granted by the Edict of Nantes, were granted again by the Amnesty (Gnadenedikt) of Nimes (Peace of Alès, or Alais) 1629, but pol. power was denied. Louis XIV used rigorous legislation and dragonnades* 168386 to break the power of Protestantism in the state and revoked the Edict of Nantes 1685. Thousands of Prots. fled from Fr. Those that stayed were without organization and houses of worship. Huguenot preachers met 1715 under leadership of A. Court,* who gradually organized what has been called the Ch. of the Desert. Louis XV (the Well-Beloved; Fr.: le Bien-Aimé; 171074; king 171574) again prohibited the Ref. religion 1724. But by 1744 Huguenots were holding meetings of 10,000. See also Roman Catholic Church, The, D 6.
11. A. Court opened a school of theol. at Lausanne that continued to supply the Prot. Ch. with pastors till the time of Napoleon L After 1762 toleration began to be practiced. The 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen stated that there should be no discrimination against a person for his convictions (including religious) provided they do not militate against state laws.
13. In 1848 F. J. J. G. Monod (see Monod, 1) and others seceded from the state ch. and 1849 formed the Union des Églises évangéliques libres de France (Free Ch.). Lutheranism also found early adherents in Fr. But Calvinism soon prevailed. Part of Alsace and other districts and towns were ceded to Fr. by the Peace of Westphalia* 1648 (Fr. took control of the rest of Alsace toward the end of the c.); religious toleration was secured for RCs, Luths., and Ref. The Peace of Westphalia was in gen. confirmed by the Peace of Nijmegen (Nimwegen; Nimeguen; ancient Noviomagus) 167879.
14. Since WW II RC's and Prots. seek so far as possible to conform to the principle of neutrality for the state. RC theologians and leaders concern themselves with Biblical and liturgical renewal and development of a new form of Gallicanism.* Prots. form a small minority divided into several groups and concern themselves with new forms of witnessing and ecumenical movements. Theol. differences are disappearing.
15. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of the AC, composed of Luths. in Alsace and Lorraine, was formed in the early part of the 19th c. Orphaned after WW I, it became a miss. of LCMS The Ev. Luth Ch.-Syn. of Fr. and Belgium is also assoc. with the LCMS See also Lutheran Confessions, A 5.
Histoire de l'Église depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours, ed. A. Fliche and V. Martin (Paris, 1934 ); C. S. Phillips, The Church in France, 17891848 (New York, 1966) and The Church in France, 18481907 (New York, 1936); A. Dansette, Religious History of Modern France, tr. J. Dingle, 2 vols. (New York, 1961).
Order founded 1209 by Francis* of Assisi. Their early yrs. were marked by strict poverty, limited use of property, begging, humble service to all, and miss. endeavors; but the order was wracked for more than a c. by disputes about the question of poverty. They produced such theologians as Bonaventura,* J. Duns* Scotus, and W. of Ockham.* Some of its mems. felt the arm of the Inquisition* 1318 for challenging the pope's authority. In 1517 a split took place bet. the stricter faction (Friars Minor proper [Observant]) and the moderate faction (Friars Minor Conventual). The Friars Minor Capuchins* were founded ca. 1528 by an Observant priest; they became one of the most powerful agencies of the Counter* Reformation. The Second Order (Poor Clares; see also Clare of Assisi) was founded 1212. There is also a Third Order (Tertiaries*). See also Barefooted Monks; Conventuals; Mendicant Friars; Observants; Recollects; Sisterhoods; Spirituals, Franciscan.
(Giovanni Francesco Bernardone; ca. 11821226). B. Assisi, It.; resolved to imitate Christ's voluntary poverty ca. 1208; preached repentance and brotherly love; gathered followers; received papal approval; when the order was constituted in the technical sense, he resigned as minister-gen. 1221 and founded a tertiary order. Lover of nature; often pictured with birds. Regarded as one of the most lovable figures in the medieval ch. See also Aegidius of Assisi; Barefooted Monks; Clare of Assisi; Franciscans; Stigmatization; Tertiaries.
L. Salvatorelli, The Life of St. Francis of Assisi, tr. E. Sutton (New York, 1928); P. Sabatier, Life of St. Francis of Assisi, tr. L. S. Houghton (New York, 1894); O. Englebert, Saint Francis of Assisi, tr. E. M. Cooper, 2d Eng. ed. (Chicago, 1965); popular legends about Francis of Assisi are in Fioretti.*
(François de Sales; 15671622). B. Thorens, Savoy, Fr.; nobleman and cleric; bp. Geneva 1602; helped found Order of the Visitation of Mary (Visitation* Nuns). Works include Introduction à la vie dévote; Traite de l'amour de Dieu. See also Salesians.
(182290). B. Liège, Belgium; organist Ste. Clotilde, Paris, 1858; prof. organ Paris Conservatory 1872; pioneer of modern Fr. instrumental school. Works include oratorios (Ruth; Rédemption; Les Béatitudes; Rébecca); Symphony in D Minor; Masses.
N. Demuth, César Franck (London, 1949); H. Andriessen, César Franck (New York, 1947); V. d'Indy, César Franck, tr. R. H. Newmarch (New York, 1910); L. Vallas, César Franck, tr. H. Foss (London, 1951).
(161877). B. Guben, Ger.; studied at Königsberg; friend of S. Dach* and H. Held* (162059); lawyer 1645; mayor Guben 1661; poet; firm faith, deep earnestness, finished form, simplicity of expression, and a personal, individual tone mark his hymns, which include Herr Jesu, Licht der Heiden; Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele; Jesu, meine Freude; Herr, ich habe missgehandelt.
W. B. Squire, Johann Wolfgang Franck (London, 1912).
(160967). B. Schleusingen, Ger.; hymnist; studies interrupted by father's death; master-baker at Schleusingen, then at Coburg, where he was appointed master of the lower classes in the town school. Hymns include Sei Gott getreu.
(16591725). Poet; probably b. Weimar; educ. Jena; secy. Schwarzburg ducal administration at Arnstadt 1689, of the Saxon administration and of the consistory at Jena 1697; secy. of the consistory, librarian, and curator of the ducal medal and coin collection, Weimar, 1702. Prepared texts for some of J. S. Bach's* cantatas and ca. 330 hymns, including Ach Gott, verlass mich nicht; Ich halte Gott in allem stille.
(Frank; Francus; Franck von Wörd; ca. 1499ca. 1543). B. Donauwörth, Ger.; free-thinker.* RC priest; Prot. 1525; indep. mystic 1528; opposedby M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon.* Works include Chronia. See also Schwenkfelders, 4.
(January 21, 1821January 3, 1879). B. Meinersen, Hannover; educ. Göttingen and Jena; with C. J. H. Fick* and C. L. A. Wolter* to Am. 1846: ordained 1846; pastor Dover, Lafayette Co., Missouri, 184651, 185357, Buffalo, New York, 185152, Addison, Illinois, 1857; pres. of the bd. (Praeses der Anstalt) of the Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois; pres. Ev. Luth. Orphan Asylum Assoc. of N. Illinois
(16631727). B. Lübeck, Ger.; philanthropist, preacher, educator, leader of Pietism*; studied philos., theol., and languages, esp. Heb., at Erfurt, Kiel, and Leipzig; lectured at Leipzig; with P. Anton* founded the Collegium philobiblicum 1686 for closer, devotional Bible study. After spending some time at Lüneburg as student, at Hamburg as student and teacher, and with P. J. Spener* at Dresden, he returned 1689 to Leipzig, where his lectures aroused great interest, but also violent opposition as leading to pietistic self-complacency. Called as pastor to Erfurt 1690; his sermons awakened deep interest, but his opponents brought about his banishment September 1691. Through Spener's influence he became pastor in Glaucha, near Halle, and prof. at Halle 1692. Here he developed a strenuous and successful activity as pastor, prof., educator, and organizer of charitable institutions; his school for poor, underprivileged children, founded 1695, expanded into a cluster of educ. and charitable institutions. Under him Halle became the center of the Dan.-Halle miss. to India (see also Missions, 7); B. Ziegenbalg,* H. Plütschau,* and C. F. Schwartz* were among those trained at Halle. Francke also corresponded with individuals and societies throughout Ger. and in other countries. Works include hermeneutical, practical, and exegetical treatises, and a few hymns. See also Molinos, Miguel de.
G. Kramer, August Hermann Francke, 2 vols. (Halle, 188082); E. Beyreuther, August Hermann Francke, 16631727: Zeuge des lebendigen Gottes (Marburg, 1956) and August Hermann Francke und die Anfänge der ökumenischen Bewegung (Hamburg, 1957); August Hermann Francke, Wort und Tat, ed. D. Jungklaus (Berlin, 1966); E. Peschke, Studien zur Theologie August Hermann Franckes (Berlin, 1964 ).
(16961769). B. Glaucha, near Halle; son of A. H. Francke*; educ. Halle and Jena; prof. Halle; with J. A. Freylinghausen* he headed institutions est. by his father; Am. Lutheranism is indebted to him for supplying early Luth. pastors, esp. for the ch. in Pennsylvania
Organized May 25, 1837, in Minden, New York, by a number of men of W Conf. of Hartwick* Syn. The Franckean Syn. did not only fail to adopt the AC but also failed to declare its belief in some fundamental doctrines of the Bible, e.g., the Trinity and the deity of Christ. It held aloof from all other Luth. syns. until it was admitted to the General* Synod of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US 1864. Its admission contributed to the disruption of the Gen. Syn. and the founding of the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. The Franckean Syn., Hartwick Syn., and the New York and New Jersey Syn. merged to form the New York Syn. of the Gen. Syn. 1908. See also Slavery and Lutheranism in America; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.
(February 28, 1846January18, 1922). B. Wimpfen, Ger.; to Am. ca. 1854; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1868; pastor Freedom, Beaver Co., Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Lancaster, Ohio, New Orleans, Louisiana, Zanesville, Ohio, Evansville, Indiana; prof. Columbus, Ohio, 187881; ed. Lutheran Witness 188291.
A. R. Suelflow, The Father's FaithThe Children's Language, CHIQ, XXX (Fall 1957), 130141; (Winter 1958), 182188; XXXI (April 1958), 726.
(182794). B. Altenburg, Ger.; studied at Leipzig, where under G. C. A. v. Harless* he turned from rationalism to Lutheranism; prof. ch. hist. and systematic theol. Erlangen 1857. Works include Theologie der Concordienformel. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 11.
(Franckenberg; 15931652). Leader of a mystical, spiritualistic group in Silesia; biographer of J. Böhme.*
1. Frankfurt am Main; Eng.: Frankfort on the Main; Ger. city; notable bldgs. include cathedral; seat of syn., or council, 794 (see Adoptionism). 2. Frankfurt an der Oder; Eng.: Frankfort on the Oder; Ger. city; university founded 1506, moved to Breslau 1811.
Statements on mission adopted March 4, 1970, Frankfurt, Ger., by Ger. confessionminded theologians. Holds 1. Christian mission discovers its foundation, goals, tasks, and the content of its proclamation solely in the commission of the resurrected Christ and His saving acts; 2. The first and supreme goal of mission is glorification of the name of the one God throughout the world and proclamation of the lordship of Christ, His Son; 3. Christ our Savior, true God and true man, is the basis, content, and authority of our mission; 4. Mission is the witness and presentation of eternal salvation performed in the name of Christ by His ch. and fully authorized messengers by preaching, the sacraments, and service; 5. The primary visible task of mission is to call out the messianic, saved community from among all people; 6. The offer of salvation is directed to all who are not yet bound to Christ in faith; 7. The Christian world mission is the decisive, continuous saving activity of God among men bet. the resurrection and the final coming of Christ.
(Frankfort Agreement; Frankfort Book; Formula pacis Francofordianae). Document based on a recommendation of P. Melanchthon* and intended to settle dispute bet. Gnesio-Lutherans* led by M. Flacius* Illyricus and followers of Melanchthon. Signed March 18, 1558, by Elector Otto Henry (Ottheinrich) of the Palatinate, Elector Augustus I of Saxony, Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, Count Palatine Wolfgang of Zweibrücken, Duke Christopher of Württemberg, and Philip* of Hesse.
In the document the signers confess adherence to the Scriptures, ecumenical creeds, AC, and Ap; treat the doctrines of justification, good works. Lord's Supper, and adiaphora; state resolutions not to divulge new controversies but present them to consistories and supts., not to pub. new theol. treatises without censorship, to prohibit pub. of libelous treatises, to forgive and forget old differences, to depose anyone who taught or practiced contrary to the confession, and to invite other estates to adopt the Frankfurt Recess. N. v. Amsdorf,* at Weimar, and M. Flacius Illyricus, at Jena, opposed the document; P. Melanchthon defended it. See also Lutheran Confessions, C 1.
Lancaster, Pennsylvania Formed 1853 by merger of Franklin Coll., Lancaster, and Marshall Coll., Mercersburg, Pennsylvania Franklin Coll., named for Benjamin Franklin, was founded 1787 by Luths., Ref., and other Christian groups, with G. H. E. Mühlenberg (see Mühlenberg, Henry Melchior, and Family, 7) as 1st pres. The Luth. interest was bought by the Ref. ca. 1850. Marshall Coll., named for US chief justice John Marshall, was founded 1836 at Mercersburg by the Ref. Ch. in the US See also Mercersburg Theology; Nevin, John Williamson; Schaff, Philip; United Church of Christ, II A 2.
(18521908). B. Swed.; to Am. ca. 1869; religious experience during illness 187172 led him to join Bap. Ch.; to Chicago ca. 1875; joined Moody Ch.; ordained 1881 in Ev. Free Ch., Phelps Center, Nebraska; revivalist and world miss.; founded miss. socs., including The Evangelical* Alliance Mission.
(January 29, 1907March 28, 1976). B. Lake City, Minnesota; educ. Watertown and Mequon, Wisconsin; instructor Northwestern Coll., Watertown, 1936; mem. Mo. Syn. and prof. exegetical theol. at Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1946; prof. Westfield* House, Cambridge, Eng., 196972. Coauthor Grace Under Pressure; The Way of Meekness in Ecumenical Relations. Other works include Alive with the Spirit; Bad Boll 1949; Concordia Bible with Notes: New Testament RSV (Introd. and notes); Concordia Commentary: Romans; Follow Me: Discipleship According to Saint Matthew; Ha! Ha! Among the Trumpets; New Courage for Daily Living; Pray for Joy; The Revelation to John; The Word of the Lord Grows: A First Historical Introduction to the New Testament; several hymns.
Popular name (from expression in Pennsylvania Ministerium resolution authorizing it) of an invitation to all syns., pastors, and congs. pledged to the UAC to meet and form a syn. The address held that the General* Synod of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US could no longer serve the purpose of uniting all Luths. and that a syn. should be founded on a solid Luth. basis. The Fraternal Address is dated August 10, 1866. Names appended: G. F. Krotel,* C. Porterfield Krauth,* W. J. Mann,* C. W. Schäffer,* J. A. Seiss.* See also General Council of the Lutheran Church in North America, 2.
Verhandlungen der Kirchenversammlung bestehend aus Delegaten verschiedener Evangelisch Lutherischen Synoden in den Vereinigten Staaten und Canada, welche sich zur Ungeänderten Augsburgischen Confession bekennen. Gehalten in Reading, Pennsylvania, vom 12. bis 14. December 1866 (Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1867).
Plan for union among Am. Prots. issued 1838 by S. S. Schmucker.* It included a proposed new creed called Apostolic Protestant Confession, which consisted of 2 parts: the Apostles' Creed and United Protestant Confession. The latter contained 12 articles: I. Of the Scriptures; II. Of God and the Trinity; III. Of the Son of God and the Atonement; IV. Of Human Depravity; V. Of Justification; VI. Of the Church; VII. Of the Sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper; VIII. Of Purgatory, etc.; IX. Liberty of Conscience; X. Of Civil Government; XI. Communion of Saints; XII. Of the Future Judgment and Retribution. Approved 1839 by the General* Synod of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US
S. S. Schmucker, Fraternal Appeal to the American Churches, with a Plan for Catholic Union, on Apostolic Principles, 2d ed., enl. (Philadelphia, ); V. Ferm, The Crisis in American Lutheran Theology (New York, 1927), pp. 11316, 345350. EL
Students' societies at univs., colleges, and high schools; Gk. letters standing for Gk. words or phrases are commonly used to designate different fraternities. They usually have individual badges, coats of arms, flags, etc. Some have rituals based on Christian and pagan sources. Many are organized on a nat. basis with chaps. at individual institutions. Sororities are the female counterparts. See also Students, Spiritual Care of, A 3, C 9.
(18541941). Scot. anthropologist; b. Glasgow; educ. Glasgow and Cambridge; prof. Liverpool 1907. Held 3 stages in mental development of man: 1. Magic; man seeks to help himself through occult means; 2. Religion; religion is attempt to propitiate powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life; 3. Science; man seeks to help himself through rational processes and careful observation. Works include The Golden Bough; The Belief in Immortality and the Worship of the Dead; Folk-lore in the Old Testament; Aftermath: A Supplement to the Golden Bough.
(14921556). B. Ulm, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg: heard M. Luther's* Heidelberg* disputation 1518; leader of ch. in Ulm and its reformer; opposed Sebastian Franck* and K. v. Schwenkfeld*; participant at 1536 Wittenberg* Concord, 1540 Colloquy of Worms,* and 1541 Regensburg* Conf.
(Barbarossa; Redbeard; ca. 112290). Holy Roman emp. 115290, crowned 1155. Son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia; as Frederick III, duke of Swabia; king of Ger. 115290, It. 115590; one of the leaders of the 3d crusade (see Crusades, 4); led repeated campaigns against It. cities; engaged in struggles with Adrian IV (see Popes, 8), Alexander III (see Popes, 9), Lucius III (ca. 10971185; pope 118185), Urban III (pope 1185October 1187), and Clement III (pope December 118791); by Peace of Constance 1183 granted indep. to Lombard cities. See also Church and State, 6.
(11941250). Holy Roman emp. 121550, crowned 1220; as Frederick I, king of Sicily 11981212; king of Ger. 121550. Tried to unite It. and Ger.; excommunicated 3 times; leader of 6th crusade (see Crusades, 7).
(151576). The Pious. Father of Louis* VI of the Palatinate. Elector of the Palatinate 155976; educ. RC; became Luth. 1546, Calvinist 1561. Had Heidelberg Catechism drawn up 1563. See also Reformed Confessions, D 2.
(14631525). The Wise. Duke and elector of Ernestine Saxony 14861525. He never married but had 2 sons and a daughter by Anna Weller, whom he deeply loved. He was a devout, if sometimes misled, Christian prince. He went on a pilgrimage to Palestine 1493 and began collecting relics,* finally assembling the largest collection in Ger. (19,013 by 1520). He founded the U. of Wittenberg 1502 and engaged outstanding scholars (e.g., J. v. Staupitz,* Karlstadt,* and the Schurff* brothers). He defrayed the expenses for the doctoral promotion of M. Luther* 1512. Though he never met Luther, he protected him. He did not permit Luther to follow a summons to Rome 1518 and arranged for him to be heard and defend himself (see Augsburg Diet ; Altenburg Conference; Worms, Diet of). When Maximilian* I died, the crown was offered to Frederick; he declined it. But Leo X (see Popes, 20) and Charles* V were anxious to win his support and did not immediately press charges against Luther. When Luther was in danger after the Diet of Worms, Frederick saw to it that he was kidnapped and taken to the Wartburg.* Communion under 2 kinds was introd. 152122. Frederick abandoned veneration of relics 1523. Most of his lands became Luth. For pol. reasons he did not declare himself either for or against the Reformation until the day of his death, when he took Communion under both kinds.
I. Höss, Georg Spalatin, 14841545 (Weimar, 1956); E. O. Borkowsky, Das Leben Friedrichs des Weisen, Kurfürsten zu Sachsen (Jena, 1929); W. G. Tillmanns, The World and Men Around Luther (Minneapolis, 1959), pp. 296298. WGT
(Dan.: Frederik; 16711730). King of Den. and Norw. 16991730; patron of missions; sponsored Dan.-Halle miss. at Tranquebar, India, 170506 and a coll. for promoting the spread of the Gospel 1714 at Copenhagen, Den. See also Plütschau, Heinrich; Ziegenbalg, Bartholomäus.
(Ger.: Friedrich Wilhelm; 17701840). King of Prussia 17971840; b. Potsdam. After the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon 180105, Frederick was roused by nation to oppose France, but was defeated at Jena and Auerstedt 1806; his kingdom dismembered by Treaty of Tilsit 1807; Prussia restored by victory at Leipzig 1813 and Blücher's victories. Joined Holy* Alliance 1815; issued order for common agenda 1798; decreed Prussian* Union 1817. See also Agenda Controversy.
(Ger.: Friedrich Wilhelm; 17951861). King of Prussia 184061; son of Frederick* William III; forced to grant constitution by 1848 revolution. Issued the Generalkonzession July 23, 1845; it permitted Luths. who remained separate from the Prussian* Union to organize free chs. See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 1; Old Lutherans.
(Fret[h]er; Fretther; Irenaeus; 1510 [or perhaps 1507]1562). B. Köslin, Pomerania; educ. Wittenberg; vice-principal of school and cathedral pastor Hamburg; prof. theol. Greifswald; supt. Rügen and Wismar; visitor Mecklenburg. Regarded laying on of hands at ordination an adiaphoron and thereby became involved in controversy with J. Knipstro.*
Formed 1940 in Eng. by merger of the National* Council of the Ev. Free Chs. and the Federal Council of Ev. Free Chs. (organized 1919 by J. H. Shakespeare*). Provides machinery for joint action by free chs.
Formed under leadership of T. Chalmers* at the time of the disruption of the Est. Ch. of Scot., May 18, 1843, and the pub. signing of the Act of Separation and Deed of Demission, May 23, 1843. Result of failure of Veto Law (proposed by Chalmers 1833, passed 1834; intended to allow effective protest against calling a pastor disapproved by a majority of male family heads in a cong.) and civil court decisions declaring the ch., so far as it is established, a creation of the state and under state control. ca. a third of pastors and people of the Est. Ch. joined the Free Ch.
The Declaratory Act of 1892 modified the Calvinistic doctrine of the Free Ch. (emphasized divine love, extended God's mercy to those beyond the means of grace, modified doctrine of total depravity, rejected intolerance, endorsed Ref. faith in substance).
See also Scotland. Reformation in, 2.
T. Brown, Annals of the Disruption, new ed. (Edinburgh, 1893); J. Barr, The United Free Church of Scotland (London, 1934).
In gen., there are 2 views of Christian freedom. One tries to express individual rights as defined and stimulated by the Renaissance* and 18th c. liberal thought in Christian terms; it describes man's self-expression and achievement of highest self-realization as a dynamic imparted by the Christian religion. The other adheres more closely to the NT view. It regards man innately subject to the forces of death and the devil. His Christian freedom is that he has been liberated by Christ Jesus and freed to serve God. Parallel to this is his freedom from the Law as an obligation he must fulfill in order to be godly and the gift of the Holy Spirit to desire what God wills. This freedom does not imply license to be ungodly or selfish, but is simply the will to concur with the will of God and to devote oneself completely to the welfare of man (Ro 14:15; 1 Co 8; Gl 5). This concept was given a fresh and classic expression by M. Luther,* Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen.
H. Thielicke, The Freedom of the Christian Man, tr. J. W. Doberstein (New York, 1963).
(December 27, 1809June 13, 1857). B. NYC; educ. Princeton Coll. and Sem.; sent as miss. to india by Presb. Bd. of For. Miss. 1838; at Allahabad till 1849; in US 185051; returned to India 1851; worked at Mainpuri; to Fategarh (Farrukhabad) 1856; killed by Sepoys at Cawnpore.
1. Series of confs. attended by pastors and laymen at Columbus, Ohio, October 17, 1856; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 29November 4, 1857; Cleveland, Ohio, August 511, 1858; Fort Wayne, Indiana, July 1420, 1859. Invitations to attend were extended to all who subscribed to the AC without reservation. The AC was discussed. The Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conf. was a fruit of the discussions.
2. The free Luth. confs. of 190306 tried to heal the rift in the Syn. Conf. caused by the predestinarian controversy of the 1880s (see Predestinarian Controversy, 2). Mems. of many Luth. bodies attended, but not as official representatives.
3. After a preliminary meeting of pastors in Beloit, Wisconsin, May 14, 1902, confs. were held at Watertown, Wisconsin, April 2930, 1903; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, September 911, 1903; Detroit, Michigan, April 68, 1904; Fort Wayne, Indiana, August 810, 1905; Fort Wayne, Indiana, October 2425, 1906. Participants included H. A. Allwardt,* G. J. Fritschel,* M. Fritschel,* A. L. Graebner,* A. Hönecke,* J. P. Köhler,* F. Pfotenhauer,* A. Pieper,* F. A. O. Pieper,* J. M. Reu,* F. A. Schmid(t),* F. W. Stellhorn,* G. Stoeckhardt.*
4. The Watertown meeting initiated a dialog, but the situation deteriorated from that point on, as mutual polemics and a deepening awareness of the extent of the rift took their toll.
5. Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The) men held that God's election of some in Christ is in no way caused by their future faith. Ohio Syn. (see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of) men taught election intuitu* fidei. But a deeper conflict became apparent already at the Milwaukee conference. Mo. Syn. men sought to operate with a specific, limited set of proof texts for election; mems. of the Ohio Syn. and of the Iowa Syn. (see Iowa and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of) took recourse to a broader use of Scripture on the basis of the analogy* of faith. This difference in approach was spelled out further at 2 committee meetings prior to the Detroit conf. Both sides agreed to understand election on the basis of FC XI. But after the Detroit conf. further polemics embittered both sides.
6. Toward the middle of the 20th c. local free Luth. confs. were initiated. In May 1949 the Mo. Syn. Coll. of Presidents called for free confs. involving all Luth. bodies in America. Free Luth. confs. were also held in Japan and at Bad* Boll, Ger., ca. the middle of the 20th c.
E. L. Lueker, Walther and the Free Lutheran Conferences, CTM, XV (August 1944), 529563; W. G. Polack, Lutheran Unity: The Present Status, Lutheran Witness, LXVIII (June 14, 1949), 194196.
(180990). Brit. Wesleyan Meth. miss. to Ghana (Gold Coast). B. Twyford, Eng., of Negro father, white mother; arrived Cape Coast, Ghana, 1838; obtained friendship of king of Kumasi, the city of blood, among the Ashantis; est. miss. work in Gold Coast, Nigeria, and areas bet.; resigned 1857 but returned to ministry 1873; retired 1885.
1. Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. This order traces its hist. to guilds of stone masons of the Middle Ages. The words free and accepted first appear 1722 in the name of the order. Membership in masonic associations was highly prized by men who traveled, because it offered assurance of assistance, hospitality, and good service. Operative masonry consisted of the total number of workmen that designed and erected bldgs.; they included freemasons, who worked in free stone, carved free hand, and used geometry. Operative Freemasonry descended from freemasons. Speculative (i. e. symbolic, theoretical) Freemasonry arose within Operative Freemasonry. Modern Speculative Freemasonry began in London 1717, when 4 lodges formed the Grand Lodge of England. Antiquity dating to Bible times is sometimes claimed for Masonic organizations, but such traditions are only legendary and cannot be substantiated. Masonic rituals have often been printed in code to assist the initiate in memorizing them; many deciphered versions have also appeared, as well as manuals and periodicals containing the symbols, ceremonies, and philos. of Masonry.
2. Speculative Freemasonry put deism in place of the Christian elements of former guild rituals. The name of Christ was eliminated from all prayers and Scripture passages. The fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man became the dominant religious emphasis; a system of doctrines and symbolism was adopted. Masonry regards the Bible only as one of many valuable sacred books. It teaches resurrection of the body and immortality as religious doctrines, promising eternal bliss to all who follow Masonic ethics. Jesus Christ is not regarded as man's Redeemer.
3. The Blue Lodge, in which the first 3 degrees (Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason) are conferred, constituted the essence of Freemasonry. Higher degrees are arranged for those who wish to pursue Masonic philos. farther.
4. Freemasonry at times adapts its program and philos. to the religious convictions of an area or country. In Eng. and Am., Freemasonry occasionally appears to support Prot. Christianity; but the Christian degrees of the Scot. Rite and the Christian Am. Rite contain nothing that would distinguish Christian from Muslim, Buddhist, or unitarian. The anti-Christian character of the ritual is recognized by those who make an indep. study of the ritual and of its interpretation by spokesmen of the order. The lambskin is a badge of Freemasonry; it is to remind the Mason of purity of life, essential for admission into the Celestial Lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides.
5. Order of the Eastern Star. Am. Rite of Adoption organized 1876 at Indianapolis, Indiana; membership limited to Master Masons and most of their female relatives. The ritual borrows heavily from Masonic philos.; includes references to Jesus but is deistic.
6. Order of the Rainbow. Organized 1922 at McAlester, Oklahoma; membership limited to girls who are children or close friends of mems. of the Masonic Lodge or Eastern Star. Each local lodge is sponsored by a Masonic or Eastern Star lodge. Religious emphasis centers in good deeds.
7. Order of Job's Daughters. Organized 1920 at Omaha, Nebraska; similar to the Order of the Rainbow, but its membership is somewhat broader, including more girls of families unaffiliated with Masonry. The ritual revolves around the faithfulness of Job and emphasizes righteous service.
8. Order of DeMolay. Organized 1919 at Kansas City, Missouri; membership limited to boys with close Masonic relatives; strives to teach patriotism, reverence and related virtues; functions as a preparation for Masonic membership; ritual approaches God apart from Jesus Christ and promises eternal life to those that abide by the philos. of the order.
9. Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners). Organized 1876 at NYC; related to Masonry inasmuch as it admits into membership only Masons of the Knights Templar degree (York Rite) and 32d degree (Scot. Rite); it is a playground of the Masonic Lodge. The order has performed notable service in treatment and rehabilitation of crippled children regardless of color, creed, or nationality.
W. Hannah, Darkness Visible (London, 1952) and Christian by Degrees (London, 1954); W. J. Whalen, Christianity and American Freemasonry (Milwaukee, 1958); T. F. Nickel and J. G. Manz, A Christian View of Freernasonry (St. Louis, 1957). TG, TFN, PHL
The Masonic Order gen. maintains a friendly and tolerant attitude toward many Christian chs. Adherents of any ch. are eligible for membership. Charitable and hosp. services of Masonic organizations are available to all, regardless of religious affiliation. Strong humanitarianism is characteristic of the order.
Great antiquity has been claimed for Masonry. OT and NT saints are regarded by some as included in the antecedents of Masonry. Modern alignment with Protestantism has been accompanied by speculation that relates M. Luther* to the Craft of his day. A religious and pol. part in the work of the Reformation is claimed for allegedly Masonic 16th c. groups. All statements about ancient, medieval, and Reformation connections with Masonry are tenuous.
The definite and universal form of Freemasonry first appeared 1717 with the organization of the Grand Lodge in London. Christians then began to note its secrecy and basic deistic principle. The constitution (or bull) In Eminenti, issued 1738 by Clement XII (16521740; pope 173040), condemned Freemasonry on grounds of naturalism, required oaths, religious indifference, and potential threat to ch. and state. The RC Ch. is committed to definite ecclesiastical judgments concerning the religious and moral implications of membership in the order. Documents issued by later popes, esp. the encyclical Humanum Genus, issued 1884 by Leo XIII (see Popes, 29), have dealt with the Masonic question. The RC Ch. regards Deism,* naturalism,* liberalism,* and anticlericalism* as typical of Masonic religion and influence. Membership in Masonic and certain related orders results in excommunication (CIC 1399; 2335). E. Orthodox chs. also forbid Masonic membership to clergy and laity.
Luth. parishes and syns. have expressed themselves on the issue. A lodge par. is found in the constitutions of many Luth. congs. Representative sentiment of Luths. in Am. is given in the 1925 Minneapolis* Theses. This statement was incorporated in the 1952 United Testimony on Faith and Life and is part of the Articles of Union of The ALC: These synods agree that all such organizations or societies, secret or open, as are either avowedly religious or practice the forms of religion without confessing as a matter of principle the Triune God or Jesus Christ as the Son of God, come into the flesh, and our Savior from sin, or teach, instead of the Gospel, salvation by human works or morality, are anti-Christian and destructive of the best interests of the Church and the individual soul, and that, therefore, the Church of Christ and its congregations can have no fellowship with them. Major Luth. bodies in Am. agree regarding the basic religion of Freemasonry, but practices and, procedures in dealing with Freemasons differ. Syn. Conf. Lutheranism was comparatively strict in practice. The Handbook (1967 ed., p. 213) of the LCMS contains the following: It is the solemn, sacred, and God-given duty of every pastor properly to instruct his people on the sinfulness of such lodges as deny the Holy Trinity, the Deity of Christ, the Vicarious Atonement, and other Scriptural doctrines, and to induce his congregation(s) to take action against all members who after thorough instruction refuse to leave such a lodge. Masonry is not named specifically in these declarations. Orders related to and orders similar to Masonry are included. Genuine lodgery is held to be in conflict with the First Table of the Law, esp. the first 2 commandments.
Many Prot. chs. had rules forbidding Masonic membership. Some Ref. chs. still enforce such rules, but many allow Masonic membership. Masonic services, including funeral rites, have been held in Ref. chs. Many mems. of these chs. see in Masonic affiliation a connection that concerns only soc. and civic life.
Questions about Freemasonry and related orders are raised when ch. unity negotiations take place. The issue is also a source of some of the most vexing problems that arise in parish life. Full discussion of all factors involved raises vital issues that must be considered in the area of pastoral theol. JGM
W. Hannah, Darkness Visible (London, 1952) and Christian by Degrees (London, 1954); Interseminary Series, II: The Church and Organized Movements, ed. R. C. Miller (New York, 1946); W. J. Whalen, Freemasonry, New Catholic Encyclopedia, VI (New York, 1967), 132139, and Christianity and American Freemasonry (Milwaukee, 1958); Doctrinal Declarations: A Collection of Official Statements on the Doctrinal Position of Various Lutheran Synods in America (St. Louis, 1957); Lutheranism and Lodgery (n. p., n. d.); T. F. Nickel and J. G. Manz, A Christian View of Freemasonry (St. Louis, 1957); J. W. Constable, Lodge Practice Within the Missouri Synod, CTM, XXXIX, No. 7 (JulyAugust 1968), 476496.
Name given to various religious organizations of the Middle Ages that practiced personal piety and held that they were free from clerical authority. Their theol., quietistic and pantheistic mysticism, seems to have developed from the Victorines.*
In gen., one who recognizes no other authority in religion than his own reason. In Eng. the term was applied to deists. Fr. freethinkers (e.g., Rousseau,* Voltaire,* and other Encyclopedists*) were usually agnostics, at times atheists. Ger. free thought led to organization of Freie Gemeinden (Free Congregations). Free thought is reflected in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which held that no one should be interfered with because of his views, also in religion, provided these views do not lead to disturbance of public order. See also Agnosticism; Atheism; Collins, Anthony; Darwin, Charles Robert; Deism; Diderot, Denis; Lichtfreunde; Paine, Thomas; Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of; Spencer, Herbert.
The Scriptural doctrine of the freedom of the human will is closely connected with the doctrine of original sin (see Sin, Original). The doctrine of the freedom of the human will after the fall* of man must be studied from the viewpoint of original sin. Scripture emphatically declares that man, also after the fall, continues to be a responsible moral agent, who in earthly matters, to some extent, may exercise freedom of will; but it asserts that natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, neither can he know them (1 Co 2:14); that man, by nature, is dead in trespasses and sins (Eph 2:1); that the carnal mind is enmity against God (Ro 8:7); and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost (1 Co 12:3). Accordingly, Scripture denies to man after the fall and before conversion* freedom of will in spiritual matters, and asserts that conversion is accomplished entirely through the Holy Ghost by the Gospel. God hath saved us, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace (2 Ti 1:9); Turn Thou me, and I shall be turned (Jer. 31:18).
Augustine* of Hippo taught that by the sin of Adam the whole human race, of which Adam was the root, was corrupted and subjected to death and eternal punishment. By this sin human nature is both physically and morally corrupted. By it also the freedom to do right has been lost and fallen man is free only to sin (Enchiridion, XXVXXX, in MPL, 40:244247; De gratia et libero arbitrio, in MPL, 44:881912). This view of Augustine is in accord with Scripture, which declares that it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure (Phil 2:13); it has been substantially adopted by the Luth. Ch., which, at the same time, rejects fatalism (FC Ep II 8, SD II 74).
Opposed to the Scriptural doctrine, Pelagianism has held that by his transgression Adam injured only himself, not his posterity; that in respect to his moral nature every man is born in precisely the same condition in which Adam was created; that there is, therefore, no original sin; that man's will is free, every man having the power to will and to do good as well as the opposite; hence it depends on himself whether he be good or evil. This extreme view of Pelagianists was modified by semi-Pelagianists and later by Arminians who denied total corruption and depravity of human nature by the fall and admitted only partial corruption.
The Belgic Confession, which states the strictly Reformed doctrine, says: We believe that, through the disobedience of Adam, original sin is extended to all mankind; which is a corruption of the whole nature, and an hereditary disease, wherewith infants themselves are infected even in their mother's womb, and which produceth in man all sorts of sin, being in him as a root thereof; and therefore is so vile and abominable in the sight of God that it is sufficient to condemn all mankind.
RC theologians define original sin as a state and as a cause. Thus the term designates 1. a condition of guilt, weakness, or debility found in human beings prior to their own free option for good or evil (peccatum originale originatum); 2. the origin, cause, or source of that state (peccatum originale originans). Free will is defined as the freedom of the will either to act or not to act. Those who have attained the use of reason are saved only by cooperating freely with the saving grace of God. In the fall man did not lose dona naturalia (natural gifts, e.g., freedom of the will; immortality of the soul) but dona supernataralia (supernatural gifts, e.g., perfect control over concupiscence; immortality of the body), esp. sanctifying grace.
Opposed to Pelagianism and semi-Pelagianism, Arminianism,* and synergism,* the Luth. Confessions emphasize the total depravity of human nature by the fall and man's utter lack of freedom in spiritual matters since the fall.
A. Augustinus [Augustine of Hippo], The Problem of Free Choice, tr. and annotated by M. Pontifex (Westminster, Maryland, 1955); Martin Luther on the Bondage of the Will, tr. J. I. Packer and O. R. Johnston (London, 1957); P. A. Bertocci, Free Will, Responsibility, and Grace (New York, 1957); A. M. Farrer, The Freedom of the Will (New York, 1960); Discourse on Free Will [by] Erasmus [and] Luther, ed. and tr. E. F. Winter (New York, 1961).
The Bd. of For. Missions of the Nat. Assoc. of Free Will Baptists was founded 1936. First missionaries were sent to India and Cuba. Later fields included Brazil, Ecuador, France, Ivory Coast, Panama, and Uruguay.
(Theodorus Jacobus; 1691ca. 1748; b. Lingen, Ger.; ordained Ref. Dutch Ch. 1717; served in Neth.; to New York 1720; miss. New Jersey Valley. See also Great Awakening in England and America; Reformed Churches, 4 b
Before 1946 consisted of Annam, Cambodia, Cochin China, Kwangchowan, Laos, and Tonkin. Annam, Tonkin, and Cochin China now form the Socialist Rep. of Vietnam.* Kwangchowan was returned to China 1946. See also Asia, C 67; Kampuchea, Democratic.
(1583ca. 1643). B. Ferrara, It.; organist at St. Peter's, Rome; court organist at Florence 1628ca. 1633; influenced Ger. music esp. through his pupil J. J. Froberger.* Works include canzoni, caprices, hymns, madrigals,* motets, and toccatas.*
Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, ed. G. Adler (Frankfurt am Main, 1924); G. Frotscher, Geschichte des Orgelspiels und der Orgelkomposition, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1935); P. H. Láng, Music in Western Civilization (New York, 1941).
(170561). B. Niederwiesen, Ger.; pietist; Luth. pastor Niederwiesen, Giessen, Darmstadt, and Frankfurt am Main; interested in Am. missions; aided J. C. Stoever* Sr. and Jr. Works include Evangelische Predigten.
(18561939). B. Freiberg, Moravia, of Jewish extraction; educ. U. of Vienna; studied in Paris under Fr. neurologist Jean Martin Charcot (182593); founded psychoanalysis; developed technique for treating hysteria and neuroses. In Die Zukunft einer Illusion he describes religion as a neurosis of mankind in which the concept of God is a fictitious extension of the human father ideal as a refuge from fear. See also Adler, Alfred; Psychology, J 6; Psychotherapy, 10, 11.
E. Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, (New York, 195357).
(16701739). Theol., composer, and poet; b. Gandersheim, Brunswick, Ger.; educ. Jena, Erfurt, and Halle; A. H. Francke's* asst. at Glaucha; married his daughter; later was his colleague at St. Ulrich's, Halle; succeeded Francke to that pastorate; with G. A. Francke* he headed institutions est. by A. H. Francke; ed. collections of hymns, including Geistreiches Gesangbuch and Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch; composed 22 hymn tunes, including one for Macht hoch die Tür.
(18931952). B. Darmstadt, Ger.; prof. Giessen and Marburg. Coed. Einführung in das Studium der Evangelischen Theologie. Other works include Die Kirchen und der Krieg; Vergleichende Religionswissenschaft; Die evangelische Mission: Ursprung, Geschichte, Ziel.
(February 1, 1850August 20, 1918). Luth. clergyman; b. Lancaster, Pennsylvania; educ. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania; ordained 1873; pastor Philadelphia 187383; prof. Gustavus Adolphus Coll., Saint Peter, Minnesota, 188389; miss. in Washington and Oregon 1889; helped found Eng. Luth. work in Wisconsin; pastor Ch. of the Redeemer, Milwaukee, 18891918. Pres. Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of the Northwest 18941901. Wrote Henry Melchior Muhlenberg.
(18361917). Theol. and hist.; b. Poxdorf, Upper Franconia, Ger.; educ. Bamberg and Munich; RC priest 1859; prof. Munich; opposed papal infallibility at Vatican Council I; excommunicated 1872; leader of Old* Catholics; helped est. Old Cath. theol. faculty at U. of Bern 1874.
1. Commonly called Quakers; religious body founded ca. 1652 in Eng. by G. Fox.* Followers first called themselves Children of Truth. or Children of Light; finally adopted the name Religious Society of Friends. Their number grew rapidly, including many of the higher classes, ministers, army officers, justices. Converts included W. Penn* and R. Barclay.* During the first decades Friends suffered much persecution, largely because they held pub. meetings (other nonconformists met in secret); they also disparaged clergy, sacraments, and chs., interrupted services, and refused to take oaths, pay tithes, and take off hats as a show of deference. By 1656 Quakerism reached New Eng., where it encountered persecution esp. by Puritans* in Massachusetts, who hanged 4 Quakers in Boston. Pennsylvania offered Quakers an asylum where they prospered and became known for their kind treatment of Indians and their efforts toward abolition of slavery.
2. The Soc. of Friends as a whole recognizes the hist. value of the ecumenical creeds but does not regard them as binding; some declarations of faith have been issued (e.g., those of 1658, 1663, 1671, 1693, and 1887) in self-defense or for the information of non-Quakers. The declaration adopted 1879 in Ohio ran counter to conservative Quaker teaching in holding that God saves through preaching. Barclay and his followers acknowledged the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, but Quakers often moved in thought-patterns of dynamic monarchianism (see Monarchianism, A) and anti-Trinitarianism. Other teachings result from the inner light theory. This theory, not agreed on in detail by all Quakers, holds in gen. that God communicates with man, that He does not leave Himself without witness in man's heart, and that the measure of light thus given grows by obedience. The redemption of Christ is not sufficient, but gives man the power to complete it; an inward redemption must follow, accomplished when the capacity for justification becomes active. Justification is not a declaratory act, but a moral change enabling the believer to acquire righteousness by works. God gives His Spirit also without the means of His Word; it is possible to be saved without knowledge of the hist. Christ. All who are illumined by the inner light and are obedient to it are mems. of the ch. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are regarded as mere rites without intrinsic value. Services are completely nonliturgical. Assembled worshipers sit silently until someone is called by the inner light to speak. If no one is so moved the meeting ends in silence. God did not institute a special ministry. But ministers are employed, though not ordained; most of them do not receive salary.
3. Quakers believe that the dignity and essential worth of the individual rest on the measure of the Spirit that he possesses. They believe in the brotherhood of man and respect for human rights. They advocate broad humanitarianism and are active in many phases of philanthropy. They are opposed in principle to participation in war, capital punishment, and litigation. Ch. organization is simple, including Monthly, Quarterly, and Yearly Meetings.
4. Friends United Meeting (formerly Five Years Meeting of Friends. present name adopted 1965). Organized 1902; largest Friends body in US; composed of 14 Yearly Meetings, including 3 outside the US; belongs to NCC
5. Oregon Yearly Meeting of Friends Church. Withdrew from Five Years Meeting 1926.
6. Religious Society of Friends, Kansas Yearly Meeting. Withdrew from Five Years Meeting 1937.
7. Religious Society of Friends (Conservative). Wilburites; founded 1845 by John Wilbur (17741856) of Rhode Island; separated from main body of Friends to maintain primitive teachings.
8. Religious Society of Friends (General Conference). Hicksites followers of Elias Hicks (17481830), who led the most liberal elements of Friends into separation 182728; composed of 8 Yearly Meetings and 1 Quarterly Meeting. Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends is a mem. of the NCC
11. Pacific Yearly Meeting of Friends. Est. 1947 at Palo Alto, California.
(Gottesfreunde). Group of 14th c. Rhenish and Swiss mystics who drew this name probably from such passages as Ex 33:11; Is 41:8; Jn 15:1415; Ja 2:23 to express freedom from servitude through Christ and elevation to true friendship with God. Most had no organization, but some extremes formed separate societies. Teachers included J. Eckhart,* Henry* of Nördlingen, H. Suso,* J. Tauler.* Rulman* Merswin, their chief author, refers to an unidentified and probably fictitious Great Friend, who, after sudden conversion among worldly pleasures, allegedly withdrew to a mountain in Austria. C. and M. Ebner* were prominent in the movement.
Organized 1918 as Friends Council for Internat. Service to help relieve postwar human distress and promote peace and internat. understanding. Awarded 1947 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Am. Friends Service Committee.
(17731843). Ger. philos.; b. Barby, Saxony; educ. Leipzig and Jena; prof. Heidelberg 1805, Jena 1816. Favored doctrines of I. Kant,* but held that the mind can directly grasp transcendental truth through Ahn(d)ung. Works include System der Logik; System der Metaphysik; Neue oder anthropologische Kritik der Vernunft; Wissen, Glaube und Ahndung.
(Karl Fricke; July 13, 1824June 5, 1905). B. Brunswick, Ger.; through influence of F. C. D. Wyneken,* he studied theol. under W. Sihler*; grad. Luth. Nothelferseminar (emergency sem.), Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1847; present at the organization meeting of the Mo. Syn. 1847 (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, I 8); commissioned May 6, 1847, Mo. Syn. traveling miss. to Luth. settlements in the Midwest (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin) that had no pastor; ordained Fort Wayne, Indiana, November 7, 1847; pastor White Creek, Indiana, November 1847, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1851, Baltimore, Maryland, 1868.
(Fryth; 150333). Eng. Prot. martyr; b. Westerham, near Sevenoaks, Kent; educ. Eton and King's Coll., Cambridge; made jr. canon of Cardinal Coll. (later Christ Ch.), Oxford, by T. Wolsey* 1525; acquainted with W. Tyndale*; imprisoned for reformation views; released at request of Wolsey; to Marburg, Ger., where he met P. Hamilton* and assisted Tyndale; wrote against T. More* and J. Fisher*; returned to Eng. 1532; imprisoned 1532; burned at the stake at Smithfield July 4, 1533. Learned and pious. Denied purgatory, transubstantiation, and papal infallibility.
(Ahasuerus; 16291701). B. Mücheln, Ger.; tutor to Count Albert Anton of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 1657; university chancellor and pres. of the consistory, Rudolstadt; poet; hymnist; ed. Himmelslust und Welt-Unlust.
1. Conrad Sigmund (December 2, 1833April 26, 1900). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; attended miss. inst. founded by J. K. W. Löhe* at Nürnberg and relocated as a sem. 1853 at Neuendettelsau*; commissioned for work in Iowa 1854; arrived at Dubuque, Iowa, July 1854; helped organize the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa*; pastor in Wisconsin and Michigan; prof. Wartburg Theol. Sem. (see Ministry, Education of, X S) 18581900; taught OT exegesis,* dogmatics,* and pastoral* theol.; collected funds in Eur. for the sem.; mem. of the commission of the General* Council of the Luth. Ch. in N. Am. that issued the Kirchenbuch für Evangelisch-Lutherische Gemeinden. Sigmund and his brother Gottfried (see par. 2 below), called par nobile fratrum (Lat. a noble pair of brothers), were leading theologians of the Iowa Syn. They issued Kirchen-Blatt (Ger. ch. paper) and Kirchliche Zeitschrift (theol. monthly). In many cases it is impossible to ascertain which of the two is author of a specific art.; as a rule, they discussed every phase of an art. before pub. it. Polemical articles were often against theologians of the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, The), with whom they differed chiefly on open* questions, predestination,* unionism,* and eschatology.* They are often described as having been sincere in their desire for sound and united Lutheranism in Am. but of a somewhat milder type than the strict orthodoxy of the Mo. Syn. See also Altar Fellowship; Dubuque Theses.
2. Gottfried Leonhard Wilhelm (December 19, 1836July 13, 1889). Brother of Sigmund (see par. 1 above); b. Nürnberg, Ger.; studied at Neuendettelsau inst. of Löhe and U. of Erlangen; commissioned 1856 to be prof. at the theol. sem., Dubuque, Iowa; ordained at Dubuque 1857; miss. in Illinois and Iowa; prof. 185789; taught NT exegesis, ch. hist., dogmatics, symbolics; ed. Kirchen-Blatt and Kirchliche Zeitschrift; learned Eng. and Scand. languages. Works include Passionsbetrachtungen; Theophilus.
3. Maximilian Christopher Immanuel (February 21, 1868January 1, 1940). Son of Sigmund (see par. 1 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; educ. Wartburg Coll., Mendota, Illinois, Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, and the univs. of Rostock, Erlangen, and Leipzig; prof. Wartburg Sem. 1891; pres. 1906.
4. Karl August Johannes (June 24, 1863August 23, 1943). Son of Sigmund (see par. 1 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; educ. Wartburg Coll. and Sem., Mendota, Illinois, Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, and the univs. of Leipzig and Erlangen; ordained 1885; pastor Butler Center, Iowa; prof. Wartburg Coll. (see Ministry, Education of, VIII B) over 50 yrs.
5. George John (May 24, 1867October 5, 1941). Son of Gottfried (see par. 2 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; studied at Wartburg Coll. and Sem., Mendota, Illinois, Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, and later in life at univs. of Rostock, Erlangen, and Leipzig; asst. prof, Wartburg Sem., Mendota, Illinois; pastor West Superior, Wisconsin; prof. Texas Luth. Coll., Brenham, Texas, 1892, Wartburg Sem. 1906. Worked for unity with Mo. Syn. Works include Aus den Tagen der Väter; Geschichte der Lutherischen Kirche in Amerika auf Grund von Prof. Dr. H. E. Jacobs History of the Evang. Luth. Church in the United States; Die Lehre von der Bekehrung nach D. Hoeneckes Dogmatik; The Formula of Concord. Comp. Quellen und Dokumente zur Geschichte und Lehrstellung der ev.-luth. Synode von Iowa u. a. Staaten.
6. Herman Lawrence (May 15, 1869November 23, 1957). Son of Gottfried (see par. 2 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; educ. Wartburg Sem. and univs. of Leipzig and Erlangen; ordained 1892; parish pastor 10 yrs.; pres. and gen. dir. Passavant Institutions in W Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Illinois; dir. Milwaukee Hospital; rector Luth. Deaconess Motherhouse, Milwaukee.
A. Spaeth, S. Fritschel, DD: A Short Biography (Waverly, Iowa, 1901); H. L. Fritschel, Biography of Professor Dr. Conrad Sigmund Fritschel And of Professor Dr. Gottfried Leonhard Wilhelm Fritschel (Milwaukee, 1951). JHB
(July 30, 1874April 12, 1953). B. Martins Ferry, Ohio; grad. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1894, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1897; pastor Bismarck and Pilot Knob, Missouri, 18971901, Our Savior, Brooklyn, New York, 190114, Bethlehem, St. Louis, Missouri, 191420; pres. Western Dist., Mo. Syn., 191920; prof. ch. hist. and pastoral theol., Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192053; dean Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192040; coorganizer St. Louis Noonday Lenten Services; cofounder LCMS radio and TV miss. Noted for loyalty to Word of God, insistence that all the content and words of the Bible are inspired, and interest in Bible class and pastoral work. Contributed to The Lutheran Witness and CTM; ed. Der Lutheraner 194953; other works include The Practical Missionary; Pastoral Theology; The Essentials of Preaching; The Preacher's Manual.
(July 20, 1797October 26, 1863). B. Liebenwerde, Ger.; student of J. G. Scheibel* at Breslau; invited by J. A. A. Grabau* to immigrate to US; declined; invited by A. L. C. Kavel,* he led a band of emigrants to Australia 1841 and founded Bethany and Lobethal 1842. See also Australia, B 1.
(180146). B. Steinbach, Ger.; brother of O. F. Fritzsche*; prof. Leipzig 1825, Rostock 1826, Giessen 1841; chiefly interested in textual criticism and in the linguistic element in exegesis; rationalistic theol. Works include De nonnullis posterioris Pauli ad Corinthios epistolae locis dissertationes duae; commentaries on Mt, Mk, and Ro.
(161667). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; composer, organist, harpsichordist; court organist Vienna 1637; studied in Rome under G. Frescobaldi*; at Viennese court 164145, 165357; organ compositions highly regarded by J. S. Bach.*
(Fröbel; 17821852). B. Oberweissbach, Thuringia; founded kindergarten 1837 at Blankenburg, Thuringia; held that the work of the educator is primarily guidance; education permits, stimulates, leads, and directs self-activity and expression of a child's inner nature.
(182193). B. Illkofen, near Regensburg, Ger.; philos. and theol.; priest 1847; prof. philos. Munich 1855; conceived of the world as resulting from the imagination of God. Many early writings placed on the Index* of Prohibited Books. Attacked the view of Thomas* Aquinas that philos. is the handmaid of theol. and upheld the indep. of philos. from the authority of the ch. Excommunicated 1871. Works include Einleitung in die Philosophic und Grundriss der Metaphysik; Über die Freiheit der Wissenschaft.
(182696). B. Karlsruhe, Ger.; brother of M. Frommel*; educ. Halle, Erlangen, and Heidelberg; pastor Karlsruhe 1855, Barmen 1862; military chaplain Berlin 1869; court preacher 1872. Works include Das Gebet des Herrn.
(183090). B. Karlsruhe, Ger.; brother of E. W. Frommel*; through G. C. A. von Harless* a decided Luth.; for a time in Breslau* Syn.; gen. supt. Celle. Works include Kirche der Zukunft, oder: Zukunft der Kirche; Der Kampf der deutschen Freikirche in der Gegenwart und seine Bedeutung für die Zukunft; Hauspostille; Herzpostille.
Covering of the front of an altar; often embroidered cloth; sometimes ornamented wood or metal panel; usually changeable, its color agreeing with the liturgical season (see Colors, Liturgical).
(ca. 14801533). B. Bamberg, Ger.; Carmelite*; studied at Wittenberg; prior of Carmelites at Augsburg; Luth. preacher; opposed Zwinglians; expelled from Augsburg 1531; pastor Nürnberg; poet; composer. Tracts on music include Rerum musicarum opusculum rarum ac insigne.
(14971570). B. Amberg, Ger.; intimate friend of M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon*; present at disputation bet. Luther and J. Eck* at Leipzig 1519; asst. of J. Bugenhagen* at Wittenberg 1525. Works include Catechismus wie der in der Kirchen zu Witteberg nu viel jar, auch bey Leben D. M. Lutheri ist gepredigt worden; Von den heiligen Engeln, Vom Teuffel, und des Menschen Seele: Drey Sermon, mit des Herrn P. Melanchthon Definition und Erklerung.
(18451933). B. St. Anna, Styria, Austria; Dominican*; gen. of the order 18911904; cardinal 1915. Promoted the writing of the hist. of his order and pub. of works of Thomas* Aquinas and Albertus* Magnus.
Effects produced in man by the indwelling Spirit: love, joy, peace, longsuffering (patience), gentleness (kindness), goodness, faith (fidelity), meekness (gentleness), temperance (self-control). Called harvest of the Spirit in The New English Bible. Gl 5:2223.
(ca. 300ca. 380). Apostle of the Abyssinians. B. Tyre, Phoenicia; of Gk. extraction; captured on a voyage, he and a companion became assistants of the Ethiopian king and carried on miss. work; consecrated bp. of Aksum by Athanasius*; called abuna (our father) and Abba Salamah. (father of peace).
(March 16, 1894April 12, 1938). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Muhlenberg Coll. (Allentown, Pennsylvania) and Columbia U. (NYC); prof. U. of Rochester (New York) 1933; made numerous studies and surveys in sociology and religion. Works include Diagnosing the Rural Church; The U. S. Looks at Its Churches; text of the summary vol. of 1926 Fed. Census of Religious Bodies.
(nee Gurney; 17801845). B. Norwich, Eng.; The Female Howard (see Howard, John); sister of J. J. Gurney*; Quaker minister 1811: began to visit prisons 1813. As a result, societies for prison reform were organized in Gt. Brit. and many continental countries.
(August 30, 1900June 6, 1968). Luth. clergyman; b. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; educ. Hamilton Coll. (Clinton, New York), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Luth. Sem., Am. School for Classical Studies (Athens, Greece), and Muhlenberg Coll. (Allentown, Pennsylvania); ordained ULC 1925; pastor Yonkers, New York, 192529, Akron, Ohio, 192944; pres. ULC 194562, LCA 196268, LWF 195763; pres. Luth. World Relief, Inc., 194668; dir. Ch. World Service, Inc., 194650; dir. Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio, 193438; chm. WCC Cen. Committee and Ex. Com. 195468. Noted for parliamentary skill, aggressive leadership, organizational ability, unity efforts, philanthropic interests. Ed. Geschichtswirklichkeit und Glaubensbewährung: Festschrift für Bischof D. Friedrich Müller.
(November 1, 1864December 13, 1933). Luth. clergyman; b. Carlisle, Pennsylvania; son of J. Fry*; educ. Muhlenberg Coll. (Allentown, Pennsylvania) and Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Luth. Sem.; ordained 1888; acting pastor Reading and Easton, Pennsylvania, 1890; pastor Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 18901901, Rochester, New York, 190127; leader in organizing ULC; mem. ULC Ex. Bd.; delegate to 1st World Convention of Luths., Eisenach, 1923: ex. secy. ULC Bd. of Am. Missions 1927; pres. New York and New Eng. Syn.
(February 9, 1834February 19, 1920). B. Trappe, Pennsylvania; educ. Union Coll. (Schenectady, New York) and Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; ordained 1853; prof. Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Luth. Sem. 1891. Works include Elementary Homiletics; The Pastor's Guide.
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