(originally Hartmann instead of Hermann; 17961879). B. Jena; son of J. G. Fichte*; philos.; prof. Bonn 1836, Tübingen 1842; held that philos. must return to the view of personality in its conception of God; founded Zeitschrift für Philosophie und spekulative Theologie (changed 1847 to Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik).
(17621814). B. Rammenau, Upper Lusatia, E cen. Ger.; philos., and metaphysician; prof. Jena, Erlangen, Königsberg, and Berlin; ardent patriot (Reden an die deutsche Nation): in earlier writings he stressed the pure ego in individuality; later held that individuality is of slight importance and is to be sacrificed in active striving for the highest good; the individual can become conscious of union with God through love in this life; rejected deity of Christ, atonement. See also Philosophy.
(Marsiglio; Marsilius Ficinus; 143399). It. humanist and Platonic philos.; tr. Plato and several Neo-Platonists into Lat.; taught hierarchical system of the universe (God, angelic mind, rational soul, quality, body) and gave many arguments for immortality of soul. Works include Theologia Platonica. See also Florentine Academy.
(February 2, 1822April 30, 1885). B. Dönhausen, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; private tutor Mecklenburg; to Am. 1846 with A. G. G. Francke* and C. L. A. Wolter*; charter mem. Mo. Syn.; pastor New Melle, Missouri, 1847, Bremen, Missouri, 1850, Detroit, Michigan, 1854, Collinsville, Illinois, 1859, and Boston, Massachusetts, 1872. Works include Das Geheimniss der Bosheit; Das Lutherbuch; Die Märtyrer der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche; Es ist ein Gott; Geschichten aus Kirche und Welt; poems, including the hymn Gehe auf, du Trost der Heiden (Rise, Thou Light of Gentile Nations).
Term coined by L. E. Ménégoz*; used also by L. A. Sabatier* et al. in treating the problem of relation bet. faith* and reason; emphasizes predominant or exlusive role of faith (Lat. fides) in attaining certitude. Also called symbolism by Sabatier. Often called symbolofideism.
RCs distinguish bet. fides informis (mere faith; dead faith; unformed faith; lacking life because it lacks works, esp. love) and fides caritate formata (faith permeated by formative love; faith with works).
Ap IV 4345; XII 45, 59; XIII 21.
(Lat. historical faith). Term used by P. Melanchthon* before 1521 for fides informis (see Fides formata), fides* acquisita; after 1521 he used only the terms historica opinio, notitia historica. But other Luth. dogmaticians continued to use the term fides historica.
(fides velata; fides in mysterio; fides in universali). Term for belief of that which is bound up with or implied by that which is explicitly known. Used variously in classic RC theol.: OT saints believed many things implicitly that we in the NT believe explicitly. Doctrines of the ch. are to be believed implicitly, though they may not be explicitly known. All the faithful of the RC Ch. believe the whole content of revelation; some believe it explicitly, others implicitly. Proclamation of dogma does not add to the content of revelation (believed implicitly by the ch.), but deepens knowledge of its truth, thus making possible explicit faith. RCs, together with other Christians, hold that something must be believed explicitly in any act of faith; e.g., in the OT, faith in an explicit promise led to implicit faith in Christ's redemption; explicit faith in the teaching function of the ch. leads to implicit faith in all its dogmas. See also Fides explicita.
Islands in SW Pacific Ocean; annexed by Brit. 1874; independent parliamentary democracy 1970; Area: ca. 7,056 sq. mi. Christianity first came to the Fijis from Tahiti ca. 1830. In 1834 native Christians from Tonga began work among the Fijis, followed 1835 by Eng. Wesleyans William Cross and David Cargill. RC miss. began 1863. Others active there include Anglicans and Assemblies of God. See also Melanesia.
A major dispute in the ch.; became a chief point of difference bet. the E and the W Ch. The Nicene Creed had as the Third Article: And in the Holy Spirit; to this the Constantinopolitan Creed added: The Lord and Giver of Life, Who proceeds from the Father. The belief that the Spirit proceeds also from the Son (Lat. filioque) is found in the 4th c. (e.g., in Ambrose*), was taught by Augustine* of Hippo, and probably first appeared in creeds in Sp. in the 5th c. The term filioque was adopted at Toledo* 589, probably against Arianism.* Thereafter it was gen. accepted in the W and was adopted at Rome soon after 1000. The E Ch., which made the Father alone the fountainhead of deity, rejected the filioque, but gen. found no difficulty in saying that the Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son. See also Eastern Orthodox Churches, 3; Ecumenical Creeds, B 1; Father, God the; Fatherhood of God; Florence, Council of, 2; God; Lyons, Councils of; Procession of the Holy Spirit; Schism, 4, 6; Trinity.
(18541948). B. Minn. Cofounded with wife Myrtle (18451931) Unity* School of Christianity. Both originally Meth.; in search of healing for Myrtle, they came under influence of Christian Science (see Church of Christ, Scientist) 1887 but differed with it regarding reality of matter, the world, sin, and sickness. Works include Talks on Faith; Christian Healing; The Twelve Powers of Man.
The belief that ends or goals are present in all events. Hence it explains events not in terms of the past but of the future. See also Teleology.
Scripture teaches that God's elect saints will not be lost, but obtain everlasting salvation (Mt 24:2224; Ro 8:2839; 1 Co 1:89; 10:13). This does not mean that the elect saints cannot fall from grace and so temporarily lose their faith (David; Peter); but it does mean that God's saving grace, without any merit on their part, will restore them to the state of faith, so that in Christ they finally die a blessed death. The doctrine of final perseverance of the saints is pure Gospel, designed to comfort anxious and doubting believers; it should not be misused in the interest of carnal security. Those inclined to fleshly security and sinning against grace should be warned by such earnest Law preaching as is found Ro 11:20; 1 Co 10:12. The doctrine of final perseverance glorifies divine grace, not human merit. The Ref. doctrine that the elect saints, once called, may lose the exercise of faith, but not faith itself, even if they commit enormous sins, is opposed to Scripture. See also Predestination.
1. Christians must learn that the word of God teaches that giving for the support of the ch. is a Christian duty. Paul admonishes Christians to be lavish in the grace of giving and thereby prove their love to Christ and His ch., 2 Co 8:19. The Lord asks Christians to give financial support to their pastors, 1 Cor 9:714: 1 Ti 5:1718 The Lord took His people severely to task when they were remiss in supporting His work, Hg 1:211; Ml 3:810. The poor widow and the chs. of Macedonia were praised because they gave liberally despite their poverty, Mk 12:4144; 2 Co 8:15. When the tabernacle in the OT was built, the people brought much more than enough and had to be restrained from bringing, Ex 36:57. The Lord promises to reward Christian giving, Pr 19:17; Ml 3:10; Lk 6:38. Christian giving is an act of worship enjoined by the Lord. It is therefore proper that giving money be part of worship services. In the OT the Lord said: They shall not appear before the Lord empty; every man shall give as he is able, according to the blessing of the Lord, thy God, which He hath given thee, Dt 16:1617. The NT says: Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come, 1 Co 16:2.
2. Christians must be duly informed regarding needs of the ch. This should be done, e.g., by sermons, in various meetings, and in ch. schools. Mems. should also be urged to read ch. papers and other ch. literature.
3. A cong. budget is a financial estimate of moneys needed. A budget is desirable in order that needs of the ch. and proportionate amounts needed by each treasury may be known. Pledging for support of the ch. is an old custom and is not contrary to the Scriptural method of freewill offerings if the individual is free to determine whether or not to pledge, the amount of his pledge, to give more if the Lord increases his ability to give, and to give less if circumstances prevent fulfillment of his pledge.
4. The weekly envelope system is successful in many congs. It is essentially the same system that Paul suggested 1 Co 16:2. Some congs. use the single envelope system, the cong. deciding how much to use for its own needs and how much for the ch. at large. Some congs, use the duplex envelope system, one pocket used for home purposes and the other for outside purposes. The duplex system is preferred by some because it keeps needs of the ch. at large in the minds of mems. Scripture enjoins Christians to support the ch. by freewill offerings, to be given as the fruit of their faith and in accord with individual ability, Ex 35:5; 1 Ch 29:5; 1 Co 16:2; 2 Co 8:12.
5. Christians should support their ch. and not solicit contributions from people of other denominations or of the world. But if gifts are offered, they may be accepted, provided they are not ill-gotten gains. Raising money by bazaars and the like is not regarded good practice; the buyer is not giving a freewill offering, but is paying for something he gets in return. Often less money is secured in this way than when Christians are trained to bring freewill offerings out of love to Christ and His ch.
6. Tithing, giving a tenth, was commanded by God in the OT, Lv 27:30. There were several sorts of tithes: that paid to the Levites and priests (Nm 18:2131); that paid for the Lord's feast (Dt 14:2226); that given every 3d yr. for the poor (Dt 14:2829). In times of religious depression the people neglected to pay tithes, Ml 3:79. In the NT tithing is not enjoined (Mt 23:23 and Lk 11:42 refer to past necessity); it would be contrary to Christian liberty. That does not mean that Christians should not give tithes; but if they do, it should be voluntarily.
7. A ch. extension fund provides a revolving system of financing bldg. projects. Money given to this fund by congs., through the budget, and by direct gifts, loans, or legacies, is lent to needy congs.
8. Some chs. have pension and relief, or welfare, systems to provide funds for retired workers and their widows and orphans. JHCF
See also Stewardship.
(Lat. the finite is [not] capable of the infinite). By asserting that the finite is capable of the infinite Luth. theologians tried to express the true deity and manhood of Christ* Jesus and the mystery of the incarnation* and Logos,* esp. in the true communion of natures in Christ. With the formula the finite is not capable of the infinite Ref. theologians denied the true communion of natures in Christ.
(Fin.: Suomi). Indep. rep. in N Europe. Area: ca. 130,120 sq. mi. Christianity came to Fin. before 1000 probably through traders, merchants, or missionaries. The monastery at Valamo, in N Lake Ladoga, claims to have been founded 992. At least by the 12th c. Finland had received Christianity from Russ. and Sweden. Henry (d. ca. 1156; b. Eng.; according to legend, bp. Uppsala; martyr) came to Fin. ca. 1155 with crusaders under Eric IX of Sweden. Thomas (d. 1248; b. Eng.), a Dominican, believed to have been canon of Uppsala, was the 1st bp. of Finland ca. 122045. Under him Fin. became a RC protectorate. Fin. churchmen were educ. in cen. Eur. univs. The nat. ch. is Ev. Luth.; other religious communities include Baps., RCs, Jews, E. Orthodox, Meths., Adventists and the Confessional Ev. Luth. Ch. of Fin. (formerly Luth. Free Ch.). See also Sweden, Conversion of, to Christianity.
1. Fin. was comparatively untouched by corruption common elsewhere before the Reformation. Lutheranism entered the country early in the Reformation.
2. Pietari Särkilahti (Peter Särkilaks; d. ca. 1529), pastor and educator, converted to Lutheranism during studies at Rostock 1516ca. 1522, labored diligently to abolish evils of RCm and to est. the Luth. faith. Martin (or Martti) Skytte (ca. 1458 [some say 1480]1550; consecrated bp. by Petrus Magni, bp. Strangnas, who had received canonical consecration; bp. Turku [Aabo] ca. 1527, but not confirmed by the pope) favored the Reformation and sent 8 men to study at Wittenberg 153250. Of these, Mikael Agricola* is most prominent. Paavali (or Paulus) Juusten (151676) was ordained bp. of Viipuri by bp. of Strangnas, Swed., 1554. The AC was adopted by the ch. of Sweden-Fin. 1593. See also Sorolainen, Eerikki Eerikinpoika.
3. A university was est. at Turku 1640. A fire destroyed much of Turku 1827. The university was moved to Helsinki 1828. Strict orthodoxy prevailed in the 17th c. Enevald Svenonius 162788) was its chief proponent. In 1663 the Swed. govt. encouraged clergy to study entire Book of Concord. The Ch. Law of 1686 made the Book of Concord the confession of the Swed.-Fin. Ch.
4. Pietism, introd. by revivalists at the end of the 17th c., soon took a conservative form. Noted representatives of this earlier awakening: Johan Wegelius Sr. (ca. 16601725), Johan Wegelius Jr. (16931764), and Abraham Achrenius (170669). But ch. leaders in the 1st half of the 18th c. were influenced by the Enlightenment.* A later awakening after the end of the 18th c. had several outstanding leaders. Many joined the peasant leader Paavo Ruotsalainen* (17771852); an inner feeling of grace and proportionate lack of assurance of salvation marked his pietism. Fredrik Gabriel Hedberg 181193) broke away from the pietists and became leader of the ev. movement. Evangelical pastors, influenced by J. T. Beck,* represented the Scriptural movement. Evangelicals, under pressure for criticizing doctrinal indifference in the ch., organized the Lutheran* Ev. Assoc. of Fin. 1873 to carry on their work. The assoc. has tr. and pub. many writings of Luther* and the Book of Concord. Henrik Renqvist* (17891866), emphasizing prayer, became leader of the praying ones. In N Fin. a new movement was begun by Lars Levi Laestadius* (180061) and developed by the lay preacher Juhani Raattama(a) (181199). Laestadians teach that the spoken word is the proper medium of the Holy Ghost and that confession and absolution are necessary for conversion. See also Finnish Lutherans in America, 4.
5. A new and more liberal Church Law was enacted 1869. Reaction against lack of confessionalism in the state ch. led to formation 1928 of a Luth. free ch. that est. fellowship with the Mo. Syn.; in 1967 it adopted the name Confessional Luth. Ch. of Finland.
7. Ca. 92% of the pop. is Luth. First complete Fin. Bible pub. 1642, rev. in the 1930s. A Fin. hymnal appeared ca. 1585. The official Fin. hymnal, derived from the Swed. period, traced its origin to the beginning of the 18th c. The Ch. Assem. approved a new liturgy and hymnal 1886; this hymnal was revised 1938. There are 8 dioceses, including the archdiocese of Turku. Each diocese is headed by a Chapter composed of bp., dean, and several additional mems. Freedom of religion obtains; efforts continue for complete separation of ch. and state. GAA
See also Dogmatics, B 9.
E. Bergroth, Suomen Kirkko, 2 vols. (Borgaa [Porvoo], Fin., 1902); L. Takala, Suomen Evankelisen Liikkeen Historia, vols. I and II (Helsinki, 1929, 1933); I. Salomies, Suomen kirkon historia, vols. IIII (Helsinki, 194462); W. Schmidt, Finland's kyrka genom tiderna (Stockholm, 1940); The Board of Directors of The Free Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, The Free Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, tr. J. Hirsto (Hämeenlinna, Fin., 1948); Finnish Theology Past and Present, ed. L. Pinomaa (Helsinki, 1963); G. Sentzke, Finland: Its Church and Its People (Helsinki, 1963); Scandinavian Churches, ed. L. S. Hunter (Minneapolis, 1965).
(17921875). B. Warren, Connecticut; pastor Second Free Presb. Ch., NYC, 1832; pastor Broadway Tabernacle, NYC, 183437; withdrew from Presb. Ch. and the Tabernacle became Cong. in polity 1836; prof. Oberlin (Ohio) Coll. 183775, pres. 185166; as revivalist emphasized the anxious* bench. See also Oberlin Theology; Revivals, 2.
1. Finns first came to Am. in the early 1860's. Pioneer pastors: Alfred Elieser Backman (18441909; in Michigan 187683); J. J. Hoikka (18541917; ordained 1883); J. K. Nikander*; K. L. Tolonen (18451902; to Am. 1888); J. W. Eloheimo.*
2. Under leadership of J. K. Nikander The Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (Suomi Synod) was organized at Calumet, Michigan, March 25, 1890. Other founding mems. included J. J. Hoikka, K. L. Tolonen, J. W. Eloheimo, and 17 laymen representing 9 congs. In 1896 this syn. founded Suomi Coll. and Theol. Sem., Hancock, Michigan Publications included Paimen-Sanomia (founded 1889) and Amerikan Suometar (founded 1899). A plan of cooperation with the ULC through its Immigrant Mission Board was adopted 1920. It supported the work of the Finnish* Missionary Soc. and theologically stood close to the state ch. of Finland. Pres.: J. K. Nikander 189098, 190219; K. L. Tolonen 18981902; John Wargelin, JanuaryJune 1919, 195055; Alvar Rautalahti 191922; Alfred Haapanen 192250; Raymond Waldemar Wargelin 195562. Suomi Theol. Sem. affiliated with Chicago Luth. Sem., Maywood, Illinois, 1958. The Suomi Syn. became part of the LCA January 1, 1963. Later in 1963 the Suomi Conf. consisting of pastors and congs, of the former Suomi Syn., was organized at Wakefield, Michigan, to assist in spiritual ministration to the Fin.-speaking constituency of the LCA
3. The National Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized 1898 at Rock Springs, Wyoming Official publications: Auttaja 19071967); The Lutheran Voice (founded 1936). Home mission work was carried on in several states and Can. Support of the Gospel Assoc. of Fin. (see Finland, Lutheranism in, 4) was replaced by interest in the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The) and The Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conference of North America. Pres.: J. W. Eloheimo 18981900; Wilhelm Adrian Mandellöf (18481916; to Am. 1899; returned to Fin. 1905) 190005; William Williamson (18541916) 190508; Karl Gustaf Rissanen (18711924) 190813; Peter Wuori (18691921) 191318; Arne Wasunta (b. 1891) 191822; Karl E. Salonen (b. 1883) 192223; Matti Wiskari (b. 1887) 192331; Gustaf A. Aho (b. 1897) 193153; Jalo E. Nopola (b. 1907) 195359; Emil A. Heino (b. 1908) 195963; Vilho V. Latvala (b. 1923) 196364.
After ca. 40 yrs. of close cooperation with the Mo. Syn., during which time all her ministerial students were trained at Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, the NELC merged with the LCMS January 1, 1964. In accord with the Merger Agreement, a Bd. for Fin. Affairs was set up, consisting of 4 mems. of the former NELC and 4 from the LCMS, to study problems connected with ch. work among Fin.-speaking people and suggest ways in which the ch. might best serve these people.
4. Laestadians (followers of L. L. Laestadius*; see Finland, Lutheranism in, 4; also known as Apostolic Luths.) are represented by (a) Apostolic Luth. Ch. of Am. (name adopted 1962; organized 1872 at Calumet, Michigan; called Salomon Korteniemi Lutheran Society after their leader; inc. 1929 as Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church of America); (b) Heidemanians, named after their leader Arthur Leopold Heideman (May, 1862November 7, 1928) and his son Paul Arthur Heideman (ordained 1916); (c) Firstborn, a branch of the Ch. of the Firstborn of Gellivaara, N Swed., which came into existence ca. 1900; (d) New Awakenists, who reflect the con-contemporary New Awakening of Finland; (e) Evangelicals, also called Pollarites after John Pollari (d. 1945), one of their leaders. Laestadians in gen. insist on conversion by auricular confession and absolution; they have no colleges or sems.; the Firstborn and the Evangelicals do not deem it advisable to have trained and ordained ministers. EL, GA
J. L. Neve, History of the Lutheran Church in America, 3d rev. ed. W. D. Allbeck (Burlington, Iowa, 1934); J. I. Kolehmainen, The Finns in America: A Bibliographical Guide to Their History (Hancock, Michigan, 1947); A. Haapanen, Our Church, Suomi Synod: The Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (Hancock, Michigan, n. d.); U. Saarnivaara, The History of the Laestadian or Apostolic-Lutheran Movement in America (Ironwood, Michigan, 1947).
(Fischer; Mainzer; Mentzer; ca. 1546ca. 1590). B. probably Strasbourg (or Mainz); Ger. jurist, poet, satirist; Prot.; used various pen names; works include Bienenkorb des heyligen römischen Immenschwarms; Das vierhörnige Jesuitenhütlein.
(18241907). B. Sandewalde, Silesia; educ. Leipzig and Halle; Ger. historian of philos. and literary critic; prof. Jena and Heidelberg; promoted revival of philos. of I. Kant*; works include Geschichte der neueren Philosophie.
(ca. 16361705). B. Lübeck, Ger.; educ. Rostock and Altdorf; pastor Hamburg; supt. Sulzbach; called to Livonia by Charles* XI of Sweden; supt. there 1673, gen. supt. 1678; prominent in tr. Bible into Latvian and Estonian; worked for gen. education; prorector Dorpat; pietist; opposed centralization in Sweden.
(18271909). B. Wrentham, Massachusetts; Cong.; prof. of divinity and coll. preacher, Yale Coll., 185461; prof. ecclesiastical hist., Yale Divinity School, 18611901; pres. Am. Hist. Assoc. 1898. Works include History of the Reformation; History of the Christian Church; History of Christian Doctrine.
(Roffensis [Lat. of Rochester]; ca. 1459 [or ca. 1469]1535). B. Beverley, Yorkshire, Eng.; prof. Cambridge 1503, chancellor 1504; humanist; bp. Rochester 1504; opposed M. Luther*; opposed divorce of Henry* VIII and his efforts to make himself head of ch.; cardinal 1535; executed.
(originally Edmund Fisk Green; John Fisk 1855; Fiske ca. 1860; 18421901). B. Hartford, Connecticut; lecturer on philos. and hist.; asst. librarian Harvard; prof. Washington U., St. Louis, Missouri, 1884; conceived of evolution as caused by immanent God and tending toward the highest spirituality of man, with human soul related to God. Works include Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy.
Formulated by the 1895 Niagara Bible Conference as necessary standards of belief: 1. Inerrancy of Scripture; 2. Virgin birth of Jesus Christ; 3. Substitutionary theory of the atonement; 4. Physical resurrection of Christ; 5. Christ's imminent bodily return to earth. See also Fundamentalism.
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