(ca. 1520ca. 1575). B. Sorau, Lower Lusatia; studied at Wittenberg under P. Melanchthon*; rector Nordhausen, Tennstädt, Magdeburg, and Quedlinburg; dismissed from the last post for refusing to sign the Corpus Philippicum (see Corpus doctrinae Christianae); dir. Rathsgymnasium at Erfurt. Tr. M. Luther's* commentary on Gn 125 into Ger.; collaborator on first 4 vols. of the Magdeburg Centuries (see Flacius Illyricus, Matthias).
(April 25, 1839September 26, 1899). B. Coburg, Ger.; d. Tsingtao, China; left for China 1864 in service of Rhenish* Miss. Soc.; discharged 1880; joined Allgemeiner Evangelisch-Protestantischer Missionsverein (see General Evangelical Protestant Mission Society) 1885. Works include Der Lehrbegriff des Konfuzius; China in historischer Beleuchtung.
(181463). B. Calverley, Yorkshire, Eng.; hymnist and theol.; educ. Oxford; rector Elton, Huntingdonshire; RC 1845; est. a religious community at Birmingham called Wilfridians, or Brothers of the Will of God, which merged with the Oratory of F. dé Neri (see Oratorians, 2); est. a branch in London 1849. Hymns include Sweet Savior, Bless Us Ere We Go; The Pilgrims of the Night.
(Fabri; Heigerlin; 14781541). B. Leutkirch, Ger.; son of a smith (hence his name); called Malleus Haereticorum (Lat. Hammer of Heretics) after one of his works; vicar-gen. Constance 1518; humanist friend of D Erasmus*; participated in disputations at Zurich 1523 and Baden (in Aargau, Switz.) 1526 against H. Zwingli*; bp. Vienna ca. 1530. Wrote against M. Luther,* J. Oecolampadius,* B. Hubmaier,* K. v. Schwenkfeld.*
(182491). B. Schweinfurt, Ger.; ev. theol.; inspector of the Rhenish* Miss. Soc. 185784; espoused Biblicism rather than confessionalism; opposed Darwinism and materialism; advocated separation of ch. and state.
(15931654). B. Köslin, Pommerania; chaplain to Gustavus* II of Swed.; hymnist. His part in writing the hymn Fear Not, O Little Flock, the Foe (O Little Flock, Fear Not the Foe) was apparently this, that he versified the prose form of Gustavus III; J. M. Altenburg* is gen. regarded as having made the Ger. version that C. Winkworth* tr. into Eng.
(16681736). B. Leipzig; classical scholar, bibliographer, and philologist; educ. Leipzig; private librarian at Hamburg 1693; prof. ethics and rhetoric at gymnasium 1699. Works include Codex pseudepigraphus; Centifolium Lutheranum.
(171191). B. Kleeberg, near Frankfurt am Main; Luth. miss. among Tamil-speaking people of S India; revised the Ziegenbalg-Schultze Tamil Bible 1758 and issued his own tr. of the NT; pub. Luth. hymnal and other books. See also India, 10.
(Fabricius; d. 1696 [1693?]). B. Silesia; pastor Grossglogau, Silesia; driven from Hung. during Furkish invasion 1663/64; to the Neth.; sent 1669 by Luth. consistory of Amsterdam to New Amsterdam (New York); dismissed because of despotic and irascible nature at Albany and later NYC; pastor of a Swed. ch., Wilmington, Delaware, 1671; pastor Wicaco (Philadelphia), 167793. See also Arensius, Bernhardus Antonius; United States, Religious History of the, 6.
MPL, 67, 521878.
(Phagius; ca. 150449). Fagius is Lat. for beech, which is also the basic meaning of his Ger. family name Büchlein, or Büchelin; Phagius reflects the Gk. for oak. B. Rheinzabern, The Palatinate; pastor at Isny, Württemberg, 1538; est. a Heb. press there; collaborator of E. Levita*; pastor Konstanz ca. 1543; pastor and prof. OT Strasbourg 1544; to Eng. 1549 as a result of Interim*; prof. OT Cambridge; friend of M. Bucer.*
(June 19, 1892November 28, 1945). B. Conklin, Michigan; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor McAlester and Wellston, Oklahoma, 191420; Sawyer, Michigan, 192024; Hamtramck, Michigan, 192439; Milan, Michigan, 1945. Ex. secy. Detroit (Michigan) Luth. Center 193945. Works include The Life of Christ; A Harmony of the Gospels; Behold the Savior in Sacred Art (Lenten sermons); German Gospel Sermons with English Outlines. See also Jesus, Lives of.
(18381912). Scot. Cong. minister; principal Airedale Coll. at Bradford and Mansfield Coll. at Oxford; lectured in Am. univs. Works include Catholicism, Roman and Anglican; The Place of Christ in Modern Theology.
(180574). Scot. Presb. theol.; joined Free Ch. 1843; prof. Free Ch. coll., Aberdeen; principal Free Ch. coll., Glasgow; mem. OT rev. company. Works include The Typology of Scripture; ed. The Imperial Bible Dictionary.
1. Objectively, body of truth found in creeds (fides quae creditur; Lat. the faith that is believed). 2. The human response to divine activity (fides qua creditur; Lat. the faith by which one believes). Faith as response is supernatural. 3. Faithfulness as a virtue.
E. L. Wilson, Faith, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. F. K. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 188220; A. v. Schlatter, Der Glaube im Neuen Testament, 2d ed. (Stuttgart, 1896); A. Koeberle, The Quest for Holiness, tr. J. C. Mattes (New York, 1936); J. Pelikan, The Relation of Faith and Knowledge in the Lutheran Confessions, CTM, XXI (May 1950), 321331; W. F. Beck, The Basis of Our Faith, CTM, XXIII (June 1952), 418427, The Growth of Our Faith, CTM, XXIII (July 1952), 498508, and Our Life of Faith, CTM, XXIII (August 1952), 583590; F. Gogarten, The Reality of Faith, tr. C. Michalson et al. (Philadelphia, ); R. Bring, Das Verhältnis von Glauben und Werken in der lutherischen Theologie (Munich, 1955); H. E. Brunner, Faith, Hope, and Love (Philadelphia, 1956); C. A. Skovgaard-Petersen, Faith and Certainty, tr. A. W. Kjellstrand (Rock Island, Illinois, 1957); J. H. Bavinck, Faith and Its Difficulties, tr. W. B. Eerdmans, Sr. (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1959); H. Bars, Faith, Hope and Charity, tr. P. J. Hepburne Scott, in The Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Catholicism, XXVII (New York, 1961); R. K. Bultmann and A. Weiser, Faith, tr. D. M. Barton, ed. P. R. Ackroyd, in Bible Key Words, X (London, 1961); G. Ebeling, The Nature of Faith, tr. R. G. Smith (Philadelphia, 1961) and Word and Faith, tr. J. W. Leitch (Philadelphia, 1963); R. Schwarz, Fides, Spes und Caritas beim jungen Luther (Berlin, 1962); K. Bendall and F. P. Ferré, Exploring the Logic of Faith: A Dialogue on the Relation of Modern Philosophy to Christian Faith (New York, 1962); N. F. S. Ferré, The Finality of Faith; and, Christianity among the World Religions (New York, 1963); M. E. Marty, Belief and Unbelief as Modern Problems (San Francisco, 1963; mimeographed); C. Michalson, The Rationality of Faith (New York, 1963); D. M. Baillie, Faith in God and Its Christian Consummation, foreword by J. McIntyre, new ed. (London, 1964); see also references under Creeds and Confessions; Dogmatics; Ecumenical Creeds.
(fides justificans; fides salvifica). The act by which one enters into that right relation to God which the all-atoning work of Christ has est. for the whole world.
Man needs new life through faith because of sin, which separates from God (Is 59:2). The remedy for sin comes entirely from God (Eph 2:5, 8). His gracious plan of salvation is revealed in Scripture and is received by faith (Ro 4:13, 16).
The Bible uses many images to portray faith (e.g., coming to Christ, Mt 11:28; seeing Christ, Jn 14:9; obedient hearing of Christ, Jn 10:27; keeping Christ's Word, Jn 8:51; laying hold on eternal life, 1 Ti 6:12).
Faith as a soteriological factor (fides salvifica) may be defined or described as consisting of knowledge, assent, and confidence. Each of these concepts is a definition of faith if it is understood to imply also the other two.
Faith as knowledge is the grasp with the mind, or the mental possession of that which is communicated (Lk 1:77; Jn 14:7; 17:3; Ro 10:14, 17; 1 Ti 2:4; 2 Ptr 1:3). This salutary knowledge is not mere intellectual acquaintance (Ja 2:19) or technical knowledge (1 Co 2:14), but a product of divine grace which permeates the whole heart (1 Co 2:12; 2 Co 4:6; 2 Ti 1:12).
Faith as assent is an act of the will which accepts the exalted phenomena presented to the mind. Hence, the preaching of faith is hortatory, pleading, persuasive in its message (Acts 26:28; 28:23). Since man is by nature dead in trespasses and sins (Eph 2:1; Cl 2:13), his coming to spiritual life is the work of God (Jn 6:29; Eph 2:110).
Faith as confidence means that faith is that certainty, that assurance, which is as great and as firm as though we actually had the promised things in our possession, as though we could see, feel, and handle them, as though we had not only the prospect but the substance of these things (Jn 17:8; Ro 4:1821; 8:24; 2 Ti 1:12; Tts 3:7; Heb 11:1; 1 Ptr 1:3, 13; Ap IV, 48, 50).
Faith is also thought of as a state. In this respect faith is viewed as the continued possession of the gifts and blessings of God, in and through Christ, through an enduring, abiding confidence in His complete and all-sufficient redemption (Lk 22:32; 2 Co 13:5; Gl 2:20; Cl 2:7; 1 Ti 4:7; 2 Ti 4:7). Christian faith can increase in intensity (2 Co 10:15) and extension (1 Co 1:5).
Justification by grace through faith est. a new relationship bet. God and man and produces new attitudes, desires, objectives, and ideals (Gl 2:20; Ph 4:8; Tts 2:1213). True faith is a living, energizing, motivating power that propels and urges to action (Mt 17:20; 1 Jn 5:45). ELW
(from Arab. faqir, poor). Muslim word also used in Hinduism* instead of bhikshu and older terms (see also Buddhism, 4). Some fakirs practice asceticism and self-torture. Hindu fakir orders include yogis (see Yoga). See also Dervish.
(Ethiopic for immigrant). Jews of Abyssinia. Group of people in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) whose religion bears marks of Jewish influence. Theories of their hist. include that they descended from Menelek, alleged son of Solomon by the Queen of Sheba; that their ancestors came from Judaea with the Queen of Sheba; that they descended from the ten* lost tribes of Israel; that they came to Abyssinia in the 1st c. AD Their religious life centers in synagogue worship (reading of Torah; prayers); strict Sabbath observance; chief Jewish festivals observed (but not Purim or dedication of temple); have OT and other sacred books in Geez (Semitic language formerly used in Ethiopia); priests and deacons appointed by community; avoid contact with Christians; monastic system. Est. number ranges from ca. 50,000 to ca. 200,000. Sometimes called Black Jews. See also Judaism.
(1666ca. 1741). B. Saxony; grandson of pastor Christian Falckner; son of pastor Daniel Falckner, Sr.; brother of Justus Falckner*; studied theol. at Erfurt; follower of A. H. Francke*; to Am. 1694; assoc. with Ger. pietists in Pennsylvania; to Ger. 1698; returned to Germantown (Philadelphia), Pennsylvania, with his brother Justus and others 1700; agent of the Frankfort Land Co.; organized and served 170008 a cong. in Falckner's Swamp (New Hanover), Pennsylvania; lost all through intrigues of his bus. partners; in later yrs. served congs. in New Jersey and New York
(November 22, 16721723). Luth. clergyman; hymnist; b. Saxony; brother of D. Falckner,* Jr.; educ. Halle; to Germantown (Philadelphia), Pennsylvania, 1700 with his brother, and attorney with him of the Frankfort Land Co.: ordained in Gloria Dei Ch., Wicaco(a), Philadelphia, November 24, 1703; pastor New York and New Jersey 170323. Works include Grondlycke Onderricht: hymns include Auf! ihr Christen, Christi Glieder.
J. F. Sachse, Justus Falckner (Philadelphia, 1903); D. W. Clark, The World of Justus Falckner (Philadelphia, 1946); H. J. Kreider, Justus Falckner, CHIQ, XXVII (July 1954), 8694; Justus Falckner's Ordination Certificate, tr. J. G. Glenn, CHIQ, XXVII (October 1954), 141143.
(17681826). Author; philanthropist; hymnist; b. Danzig; studied theol. and philos. at Halle 1787; organized Gesellschaft der Freunde in der Not 1813 to provide family care for orphaned and neglected children; later est. school for such children. Wrote the hymn O du fröhliche.
The act of the first parents of our raceby which they sinned, through which, by imputation, all men were constituted sinners, and which had the result that thereby their nature and the nature of all descended from them became corrupt and subject to sin, having lost the divine image of perfect holiness and true knowledge of God (Gn 3; Ro 5:1219). Man had been placed in a state of probation, possessing the ability not to sin (Lat. posse non peccare). The test of this probation was obedience to the divine law. While in this state, man was tempted by the devil*; the temptation accomplished its intent when man, exercising free will, ate of the forbidden fruit. Separation from God resulted, since man now had become alienated from the life of the Spirit, seeking in self and in the world that whereby he might live. Thus man had been brought to know good and evil, though in a different sense from that which he had desired. Only through the second Adam, Christ, were the ravages of the fall and its consequences (God's wrath and displeasure, temporal death, and eternal damnation) abundantly made good and the means of pardon and grace provided for all men. See also Sin;Sin, Original.
(Family of Love). Founded by Hendrik Niclaes*; he taught that the world had seen 2 dispensations (of Law and of faith) and regarded himself as the prophet of the 3d (love); Familists lived in the 3d dispensation and were antinomian; main field of activity was in Britain.
Christian family life education is a term denoting a program of service to child, youth, and adult which helps to better equip them for living in the Christian family. It aims to enrich the spiritual life of the home, to give parents a better understanding of their children and the skills for their Christian nurture, to make personal and family worship increasingly effective, to supply counsel in problems of family relationships, and to help life the entire spirit and purpose of the home.
The aim of Christian family life educ. is that every family by the grace of God become a spiritually growing, responsible, Christian family unit. It is an intensification of the ministry of pastor to people, and families to each other, to help families fulfill their God-given mission. It embraces: helping parents in the Christian nurture of their children; helping families est. and maintain meaningful family devotions; guiding and inspiring families to be Christian households, living by Christian standards; helping child, youth, and adult develop a Christian view of sex: preparing youth and adults for marriage as a godly vocation. It also includes winning, assimilating, conserving families for Christ; serving the founding, expanding, shrinking, and aging family throughout life; helping incomplete families, single adults, and couples. It is both preventive and remedial, nursing sick marriages back to health and referring problem cases to the best resources in the community. It involves restudy from the Biblical view of such areas as mate selection, engagement and marriage, divorce and remarriage, family structure and authority, sexual ethics, and birth control. More than a program of services, it is a concern, emphasis, and family-conscious dimension of the modern ministry.
God made the home the center of worship and religious training. It not only conveys physical life but is God's primary institution to insert the life in Christ into each generation (Gn 18:19; Dt. 6:67; Eph 6:14). The home is the cradle of personality, the most potent teaching agency, the chief unit in evangelism, the best barrier against evil, the keeper of culture, the bulwark of the ch., and the cornerstone of the nation. Correlation bet. consistent Christianity and successful marriage is very high. New strains and stresses have been placed on the family by world-shattering changes in society. Modern life has greatly increased the incidence of separation, divorce, broken homes, and child delinquency. Home and ch. need each other more than ever before. Research by psychologists, sociologists, and welfare workers has cast new light on family relations. It is logical that the ch. should take the lead. because it alone has the regenerating power of the Gospel of Christ, the love and concern of the Good Shepherd, and the teaching facilities and agencies to carry out a balanced program of family life guidance. OEF
See also Parish Education, H 3.
Helping Families Through the Church, ed. O. E. Feucht (St. Louis, 1957); O. E. Feucht, Ministry to Families (St. Louis, 1963); Sex and the Church, ed. O. E. Feucht et al. (St. Louis, 1961); Engagement and Marriage, ed. O. E. Feucht et al. (St. Louis, 1959); R. W. Fairchild and J. C. Wynn, Families in the Church (New York, 1961); W. H. Lazareth, Luther on the Christian Home (Philadelphia, 1960); W. E. Hulme. The Pastoral Care of Families (Nashville, 1962): E. R. Duvall and R. L. Hill, Being Married (New York, 1960).
1. Term widely used for processes whereby size of family is controlled; often preferred to birth control because it includes techniques of achieving as well as avoiding conception. Planned parenthood is registered in the US patent office as a service mark. The term birth control, first used 1914 by Margaret Sanger (b. 1883; nurse) in the Woman Rebel, a monthly magazine, in a wide sense designates any method of limiting family size, in a narrow sense prevention of conception by chemical or mechanical means.
2. In 1798, in An Essay on the Principle of Population as It Affects the Future Improvement of Society, T. R. Malthus* advocated pop. control by late marriage and continence. Francis Place (17711854; Brit. tailor; soc. reformer; helped pass Reform bill 1832; drafted People's Charter) advocated use of contraceptives. R. D. Owen* gave information on method in Moral Physiology. The Am. physician Charles Knowlton (180050) was jailed 1832 for explaining birth control in Fruits of Philosophy. In 1877 A. Besant* and C. Bradlaugh* were acquitted of immorality on republishing this tract in England. Publicity attending the trial led to formation of a Malthusian* league in England. Similar leagues were est. in the Neth., Belgium, Fr., and Ger. in the 1880s.
3. Aletta Jacobs (18491929; 1st Dutch woman physician to practice in Holland; suffragist) est. the world's 1st birth-control clinic 1878 at Amsterdam. M. Sanger est. 1st US birth-control clinic 1916 in Brooklyn, organized 1st Am. Birth Control conf. 1921, and founded the Am. Birth Control league. The Margaret Sanger Research Bureau (lst permanent birth-control clinic in the US; founded 1923) provided contraceptive services and did research in infertility and marriage counseling. The league and Research Bureau merged 1939 to form the Birth Control Federation of America, Inc. (changed 1942 to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York). The Internat. Planned Parenthood federation was organized at Stockholm, Swed., 1953.
4. The A. M. A. and allied specialty groups endorsed birth control 1937.
5. Legal opposition to birth control changed to endorsement and sponsorship. In the US the socalled Comstock laws of 1873 prohibited sending contraceptive information and devices through the mail (virtually nullified in the 1930s by Fed. court decisions). North Carolina was the 1st state in which pub. health facilities made birth control services available (1937); other states soon followed. By 1957 only Connecticut and Massachusetts enforced laws forbidding physicians to offer contraceptive information; later they also permitted contraceptives for prophylactic purposes, Connecticut being the last to abandon prohibition of contraceptives (1965). In the early 1960s ca. 17 states restricted dissemination of information regarding prevention of conception, but all exempted medical practice. The US Pub. Health Service assists in child-spacing and family planning programs proposed by any state. In the 1950s govts. of other nations (e.g., India, Japan, Egypt, China) began sponsoring birth control.
6. Religious groups formerly opposed birth control. While continuing to oppose abortion,* many endorse or allow contraceptives. The Cen. Conf. of Am. Rabbis (Reform), the Rabbinical Assem. of Am. (Conservative), Unitarians, and Universalists were among early proponents of birth control in the US Through its Committee on Marriage and the Home the FCC in 1938 pub. Moral Aspects of Birth Control favoring birth control. By 1960 most Prots. and Luths. in Am. favored or allowed contraceptives. The encyclical* Casti Connubii (Pius XI, 1930; see Popes, 32) declared that birth control methods that deliberately frustrate the act of matrimony in its natural power to generate life offend the law of God and nature. The encyclical permits abstinence under certain circumstances as a means of child spacing and family limitation. More liberal positions are advocated by some RCs
J. T. Landis and M. G. Landis, Family Planning, The Marriage Handbook (New York, 1948), pp. 367400, and Building a Successful Marriage, 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1963); R. M. Fagley, The Population Explosion and Christian Responsibility (New York, 1960); Religion and Birth Control, ed. J. C. Monsma (New York, 1963); A. M. Rehwinkel, Planned Parenthood and Birth Control in the Light of Christian Ethics (St. Louis, 1959); A. W. Sulloway, Birth Control and Catholic Doctrine (Boston, 1959); J. T. Noonan, Jr., Contraception: A History of Its Treatment by the Catholic Theologians and Canonists (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965). EL
Irrational zeal (displaying many characteristics of monomania) which prevents deliberation or consideration on the basis of either Scripture or reason (cf. Lk 9:53; Jn 19:15; Acts 7:57; 9:1). See also Enthusiasm.
(December 20, 1866July 14, 1930). B. Samter, Posen, Ger.; educ. Neuendettelsau Miss. School 188184; to Am. 1884; prof. Wartburg Sem., Mendota, Illinois, 188485; pastor Fort Madison, Iowa 188589, Chicago 18891930; pres. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States 192730.
1. Vestment like a short cape worn by the pope at solemn pontifical mass. 2. Napkin used in handling holy vessels and bread for the Eucharist.
Formed 1947 in Denver, Colorado, by merger of 2 organizations formed in the mid-1940s by GIs in the Far East (GI Gospel Crusade; Far Eastern Bible Institute and Seminary). Fields of work include Cambodia, Japan, Okinawa, Philippines. Mem. IFMA Headquarters: Detroit, Michigan
(14891565). B. Dauphiné, Fr.; Prot. reformer; follower of J. Lefèvre* d'Étaples; held M. Luther's* views on grace and justification; fled Fr. 1523; active in Meaux, Basel, Montbéliard, Strasbourg, Berne, Aigle, Neuchâel, and Geneva; persuaded J. Calvin* to settle in Geneva; banished with Calvin 1538; pastor Neuchâtel. See also Neuchâtel, Independent Evangelical Church of; Switzerland, 2.
(18611929). Sent by LMS to India; entered service of YMCA 1909 for work among non-Christian coll. students in India; prof. comparative religion Victoria U. of Manchester, Eng., 1923; wrote extensively on India and Hinduism.
(18311903). B. Bombay, India; canon Westminster 1876; archdeacon Westminster 1883; dean Canterbury 1895; known for writings on Bible times; questioned eternal punishment. Works include The Bible: Its Meaning and Supremacy; The Early Days of Christianity; The Life and Work of St. Paul; The Life of Christ; Lives of the Fathers; History of Interpretation; commentaries on OT and NT books.
Fasting is mentioned often in the OT It was undertaken voluntarily or by pub. prescription. Pharisees considered fasting meritorious (Lk 18:12); their twice in the week: Mondays and Thursdays. Jesus speaks of fasting as a common practice which, in itself, He does not condemn (Mt 6:1618); but His disciples did not fast (Mt 9:14), and He did not command it. The apostles fasted at times (Acts 13:2; 14:23). In conformity with Jewish custom many in the early ch. fasted twice a week: Wednesdays and Fridays. Under influence of monastic ideas the practice gradually lost its voluntary character and was imposed on all Christians as obligatory and God-pleasing.
To fast meant, at first, to abstain from all food till evening. The E Orthodox Ch. keeps its fasts with considerable strictness; the RC Ch., as early as the Middle Ages, permitted fasting to become a very tolerable experience. RC rules regarding abstinence and fasting have been changed several times in the 20th c. (e.g., 1957, 1966).
Luth. Confessions teach that right fasting is a fruit of repentance commanded by God in the same way as right praying and right alms-giving; that fasting is useful for keeping the flesh in check; and that it is a fine external training in preparation for receiving Holy Communion. (Ap XII 139, 143; XV 47; SC VI 10)
Belief that events are inevitably determined; hence often spoken of as a blind doctrine. It is decidedly anti-Christian, denying possibility of personal relation bet. believer and God; leads to pessimism.* It is a prominent feature of Islam.*
The term Father as used in Scripture ordinarily refers to the God of the covenant in His relation to believers and in this sense refers to the divine essence without distinction of Persons (see Fatherhood of God). But in many passages the Persons are differentiated. The Father, personally so named (e.g., Jn 3:35; 5:20; 15:9; 17; 20:17; 1 Ptr 1:3), is specifically described as unbegotten (Jn 5:26) but generating eternally the Son (Ps 2:7; Acts 13:33; Heb 1:5) and sending forth the Holy* Spirit (Gl 4:6). The act of generating, or begetting, the Son, of which the human mind can form no adequate notion, is a true act, but internal (terminating within the Godhead, the Son also being God, of one same and indivisible essence with the Father, Jn 10:30). The eternal procession of the Spirit from the Father and the Son (see Filioque Controversy) is also an internal act. Generation and procession indicate the relation bet. Father and Son and bet. Father, Son, and Spirit. These acts involve no time factor, as if the Father existed before the Son was generated, or as if the Father and Son existed before the Spirit proceeded (the Spirit proceedeth from the Father, Jn 15:26). The difference bet. generation and procession transcends our comprehension. The external, or outward, works of God, which relate to the universe, include these: the Father sent the Son to redeem man (Jn 3:1617) and gives, or sends, the Spirit (Jn 14:26); creation, ascribed to the Father: redemption, ascribed to the Son; sanctification, ascribed to the Spirit.
(original name believed to be George Baker; ca. 18801965). Negro cult leader; b. probably Hutchinson Island, near Savannah, Georgia; itinerant worker; asst. to evangelist Samuel Morris in Baltimore; ca. 1907 Morris took the name Father Jehovia and the title God in the Fathership Degree and gave Baker the name Messenger and the title God in the Sonship Degree: traveling preacher in the South 191215; to NYC 1915; operated an employment agency; purchased home 1919 in a white community at Sayville, Long Island, under name of Major Morgan J. Devine and made it a communal dwelling, his first heaven; operated an employment agency; changed name to Father Divine 1930; arrested with followers for disturbing peace 1931; released on bail and moved to Harlem 1932; opened first Harlem heaven 1933; sued by an apostate and moved to Philadelphia 1941; est. kingdom including many properties; movement called Peace* Mission; defined deity: God is not only personified and materialized. He is repersonified and rematerialized. He rematerialized and He rematerialates. He rematerialates and He is rematerializatable. He repersonificates and He repersonifitizes.
The term Father is applied to the triune divine essence in Scripture in a 2-fold sense. God is Father (Ps 68:5) in the sense of Creator (Is 64:8). But the word Father more commonly involves concepts of love, mercy, and grace and is equivalent to God of the covenant. As such he is Father of those who have entered covenant relations with Him. The correlate idea is not humanity as such, but mankind redeemed, esp. believers, who have received the blessings of the covenant. In this sense Israel was taught to regard God as Father (Ex 4:22; Dt 32; 6; Ps 89:2627; Is 63:16; Jer 31:9; Jn 5:45; 8:41; 2 Co 6:18). Believers are children of God by adoption (Jn 1:1213; Ro 8:1416). In this sense Jesus speaks of God as the Father of believers (Mt 6:4, 8, 9, 15, 18). The idea of a divine fatherhood as implying a relation to all mankind, and apart from the covenant of grace, is foreign to Scripture (Jn 8:44; Ro 9:8). See also Father, God the; Filioque Controversy; God; Procession of the Holy Spirit; Trinity.
Recognized teachers of the ch. from the end of the apostolic age to a time variously set from the 7th to the 9th c. or later; J. P. Migne* carried his Lat. patrology to the death of Innocent II (see Popes, 10) and his Gk. patrology to 1439.
Gk. fathers include Acacius* of Beroea, Athanasius,* Basil the Great (see Cappadocian Theologians, 1) Clement* of Alexandria, Clement of Rome (see Apostolic Fathers, 1), Epiphanius,* Gregory of Nazianzus (see Cappadocian Theologians, 2), Gregory of Nyssa (see Cappadocian Theologians, 3), Ignatius of Antioch (see Apostolic Fathers, 2), Irenaeus,* John Chrysostom,* John* of Damascus, Justin* Martyr, Papias (see Apostolic Fathers, 4), and Polycarp (see Apostolic Fathers, 3).
See also Patristics.
Parish in cen. Port.; site of famous Marian shrine est. because Mary (said to have called herself (Our Lady of the Rosary) allegedly appeared 6 times May 13October 13, 1917, to 3 shepherd children (Lucia dos Santos [b. 1907], and her cousins Francisco  and Jacinta ) in the natural depression Cova da Iria.
(Fr. for false bass; Middle Eng.: faburden; It.: falso bordone; Sp.: fabordone). Term for 3-voice setting in which the lowest voice mostly falls a 3d higher than the root of the chord, or true bass; the middle voice is consistently a 4th lower than the top voice. Date of origin unknown; some hold as early as the 10th c.; in MSS of ca. 1300. Often used in connection with plainsong (see Gregorian Music); used by such masters as J. S. Bach,* L. v. Beethoven,* J. Brahms,* and W. A. Mozart.*
(17401817). Eng. clergyman and hymnist; b. Lidget Green, Yorkshire; became Meth. under G. Whitefield's* influence ca. 1756; became Bap. ca. 1759; ordained 1765 at Wainsgate, Yorkshire; pastor Hebden Bridge, Yorkshire. Works include a devotional commentary on the Bible; hymns How Precious Is the Book Divine and Blest Be the Tie That Binds.
(18601929). B. Lyons, Fr.; Ref. theol. and patristic scholar; prof. Paris 1912. Works include Clément d' Alexandrie; Étude sur les origines des églises de l'âge apostolique; Gnostiques et gnosticisme; Origàne, sa vie, son oeuvre, sa pensáe.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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