(ca. 346ca. 399). B. Pontus; deacon and noted preacher at Constantinople; retired as monk to Nitrian desert; friend and disciple of Macarius*; of Egypt through his writings influenced Palladius,* J. Cassianus,* Maximus* the Confessor, and others. MPG, 40, 121386.
(from Gk. for Gospel). Term meaning loyal to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. The Luth. Reformation was evangelical. Later the term described those who emphasized the doctrine of atonement for sin. Evangelicals are known for miss. work, personal piety, and opposition to ritualism and modernism. In the 20th c. a liberal ev. movement tried to combine the zeal of evangelicals with liberalism. In Eng. the term is applied to the Low* Ch.
Assoc. formed London 1846. Attendance of ca. 800 at the organizational meeting included J. A. James,* E. Bickersteth (see Bickersteth, 1), F. W. Krummacher (see Krummacher, 3), F. A. Tholuck,* A. Monod (see Monod, 3), J. H. Merle* d'Aubigné, L. Beecher,* and S. S. Schmucker.* Purpose of the Alliance was to unite ev. Christians, champion liberty of conscience and tolerance, and oppose RCm and Tractarianism.* Doctrinal articles adopted: 1. the divine inspiration, authority, and sufficiency of the Scriptures; 2. the right and duty of private judgment; 3. the unity of the Godhead and the Trinity of the divine persons; 4. the total depravity of human nature as a result of the Fall; 5. the incarnation of the Son of God, His work of redemption for sinful mankind, mediatory intercession, and kingship; 6. justification only by faith; 7. the work of the Holy Spirit in converting and sanctifying the sinner; 8. the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, the final judgment by the Savior, receiving the righteous into eternal life and condemning the ungodly to eternal perdition; 9. the divine institution of the office of the ministry and of the sacraments (Baptism and the Lord's Supper). The Alliance did not try to unite the chs. organically but simply to bring about a closer fellowship of individual Christians. Every mem. was asked to pray for the common cause on the morning of the 1st day of every week and during the 1st week of every yr. Evangelical Christendom, founded London 1847, was one of its early publications. US branch est. 1867. The internat. movement now called World's Ev. Alliance. See also Evangelischer Bund; Macleod, Norman; Schaff, Philip.
Began 1890 with a Bible and miss. training course conducted by F. Franson* in Brooklyn, New York First called The Scand. Alliance Miss. of N. America; name changed 1949 to The Ev. Alliance Miss. (acronym TEAM). The first field was China; other fields: Japan, India, S Afr., Mongolia, Venezuela-Colombia. Port., Neth. Antilles, Rhodesia, W Pakistan, Tibetan Frontier, Taiwan, W Irian, Austria, Fr., Sp., Korea, Ceylon, Arabian Gulf, Peru, SE Eur., Trinidad, Lebanon. Mem. IFMA.
(Albrights; The So-called Albright People; Albrechtsbrüder). 1. Organized 1803 by Jacob Albright (Albrecht; 17591808; b. near Pottstown, Pennsylvania; confirmed Luth.; joined Meth. Ch. 1792). Under his instruction 20 converts from among the Ger.-speaking people in SE Pennsylvania formed 3 groups, called classes, in 1800 to pray with and for each other. Albright did not intend to found a new ch., but language barriers kept his group from uniting with Meths. In 1803 an ecclesiastical organization was effected at a gen. assem. Albright was consecrated and ordained as minister of the Gospel by laying on of hands in solemn prayer by his 2 associates, John Walter and Abraham Lieser. The 1st annual conf. was held Kleinfeltersville, Lebanon Co., Pennsylvania, November 1807. Albright was elected bp.; articles of faith were adopted. The 1st gen. conf. was held Buffalo Valley, Union, Co., Pennsylvania, October 1816; the name Evangelical Association was adopted. With increased use of Eng., work spread throughout the N part of the US from New Eng. to the Pacific and into Texas and Can. A Gen. Miss. Soc., organized 1839, worked in the US, Can., Ger., Switz., Poland, Latvia, Afr., China, Japan, Fr., Estonia. A Woman's Miss. Soc. was organized 1883. A division in 1891 resulted 1894 in the organization, by the minority group, of the United Ev. Ch. under Bp. Rudolph Dubs, Naperville, Illinois The 2 bodies reunited (see also Evangelical Congregational Church) 1922 as the Ev. Ch., which merged 1946 with the Ch. of the United* Brethren in Christ to form The Ev.* United Brethren Ch.; 1964 inclusive membership: 735,723. A pub. house was founded 1815; Der Christliche Botschafter, early official organ, was founded 1836. 1968 publications included Builders; Church and Home; The World Evangel. In 1968 The Ev. United Brethren Ch. became a part of The United Meth. Ch.
Formed 1922 by mems. of the United Ev. Ch. (see Evangelical Church, 1) who did not join in the 1922 reunion; first continued separate existence under their old name; adopted name Ev. Cong. Ch. 1928; Arminian; evangelistic; Methodistic in ch. govt.; ch. property owned by local congs.
Organized London 1845 to support and found evangelical societies for evangelistic work in Eur.
(Counsels of Perfection). Term applied, esp. by RCs, to voluntary poverty, perfect chastity, and obedience to a religious superior. NT support for chastity (virginity) is sought in Mt 19:1112; Lk 14:26; 18:29; 1 Co 7:7, 2540; for poverty in Mk 10:1722; for obedience in Mk 9:34; 10:43. The counsels are usually regarded as works of supererogation* which aid the soul to avoid the carnality described 1 Jn 2:16 and achieve perfection (Mt 5:48). The counsels form the basis of nearly all monastic orders.
Swed. immigrants, who came from free Luth. chs. or miss. socs. formed as a result of revivals in Swed., organized indep. congs. in Am. Some of these, esp. in Illinois, formed the Swed. Ev. Luth. Mission Syn. 1873; others formed the Swed. Ev. Luth. Ansgarius Syn. 1874, which joined The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1875. The 2 united 1885 to form the Swed. Ev. Mission Covenant Ch. of Am. The name The Ev. Covenant Ch. of Am. was adopted 1957; of Am. was dropped 1983. The ch. stresses the necessity of spiritual life, essential unity of Christians, consecrated living, miss. work. It finds inspiration and guidance in hist. creeds but adopts no fixed creeds. Mems. confess Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and receive the OT and NT as the record of God's revelation of Himself through various acts of love and judgment, as His special revelation, and as the only perfect rule of faith, doctrine, and practice.
C. W. Biorklund, H. J. Ekstam, K. A. Olsson, and D. C. Frisk, According to Thy Word (Chicago, 1954).
Organized and inc. 1945 as voluntary assoc. of denominational and nondenominational miss. agencies; affiliated with Nat. Assoc. of Evangelicals (see Union Movements, 12). Membership in the 1960s: ca. 70 agencies.
The assoc. holds that the Bible is infallible, inspired, authoritative Word of God; doctrine of trinity, deity, virgin birth, sinless life, miracles, vicarious death, bodily resurrection, ascension of Jesus Christ; regeneration by Holy Spirit; resurrection of saved and lost; unity of believers in Christ.
Publishes Missionary News Service; functions as service agency for its mems.; cooperates with Interdenominational* For. Miss. Assoc. of N. Am., with which it publishes the Evangelical Missions Quarterly.
Headquarters Washington, DC.
A fellowship was organized 1884 at Boone, Iowa, by indep. congs. and some congs. of the Swed. Ev. Luth. Mission Syn. and of the Swed. Ev. Luth. Ansgarius Syn.; did not join in the organization of the Swed. Ev. Mission Covenant Ch. of Am. 1885 (see Evangelical Covenant Church, The); inc. 1908 as Swed. Ev. Free Ch.
The Ev. Free Ch. Assoc. began with a cong. organized 1884 in Boston. A western miss. assoc. was formed 1891, an eastern miss. assoc. 1898. The 2 merged 1912 to form the Norw. and Dan. Ev. Free Ch. Assoc. (later called Ev. Free Ch. Assoc.).
The Ev. Free Ch. of Am. tries to be fundamental without being fanatic; no decision bet. Arminianism and Calvinism; Zwinglian on Lord's Supper; mode of baptism and age for baptism open; receives mems. not by baptism but by personal confession of faith.
A. T. Olson, Believers Only: An Outline of the History and Principles of the Free Evangelical Movement in Europe and America Affiliated with the International Federation of Free Evangelical Churches (Minneapolis, 1964) and This We Believe (Minneapolis, 1961).
Formed 1965 as a result of several movements in the Society of Friends.*
In a wide sense, loyalty to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. In various hist. contexts the term has taken on more specific meanings. Moravianism (see Moravian Church), Pietism,* and federal* theol. preceded the founding of Eng. Evangelicalism by C. and J. Wesley* and G. Whitefield.* Adherents of Evangelicalism are called Evangelicals.* See also Evangelical.
In E Orthodox theol., the law preached by Christ and the apostles; completes and is superior to OT law. Mosaic law is negative; ev. law prescribes positive virtues of which Christ is the incarnation. It is esp. in the Sermon on the Mount.
3. Large-scale Norw. migration to Am. began 1825 when the sloop Restaurationen landed in New York with 53 immigrants. The stream increased till ca. 1890, then tapered off to the present trickle. The Ev. Luth. Ch. drew its strength largely from these people and their descendants.
6. The low ch. tendency developed under E. Eielsen,* a product of the Haugean movement in Norw., but not as sympathetic with the nat. ch. as H. N. Hauge* had been. Among Eielsen and his followers little emphasis was placed on the hist. liturgy of Norw. Lutheranism, much on the priesthood of believers and on development of spiritual gifts; training leaders was not given as much prominence as in other groups of Norw. Luths.
7. The liturgical tendency developed under leadership of ordained pastors trained in the Ch. of Norw. Among those connected with this tendency: N. O. Brandt,* C. L. Clausen,* J. A. Ottesen,* A. C. Preus,* H. A. Preus,* and H. A. Stub.*
8. In 1851 The Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. was organized at the Luther Valley Ch., Rock Prairie Settlement, Wisconsin, by A. C. Preus, H. A. Stub, C. L. Clausen, and 30 representatives of 18 congs. This organization was dissolved 1852. In 1853, under leadership of A. C. Preus, The Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. was organized at Koskonong, WI; its name was changed 1867/68 to The Syn. for the Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am.; it is also known as Norw Syn. Represented at the 1866 Reading, Pennsylvania, convention (see General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in [North] America, 2) but not represented 1867 at the 1st conv. of the Gen. Council.
9. Characteristics of this Norw. Syn.: strict Luth. orthodoxy; sovereignty of the local cong.; requirement of a cong. call for anyone to preach in a cong.; use of the clerical vestments and liturgy of the Ch. of Norw. Helped form the Ev. Luth. Synodical*Conf. 1872.
10. The Norw. Syn. was larger and stronger than the Eielsen group. But in January 1880 F. A. Schmid(t)* publicly attacked statements of C. F. W. Walther* on predestination; as a result of subsequent controversy the Norw. Syn. left the Synodical* Conf. 1883; ca. one third of the Norw. Syn. withdrew 1887 and est. the Anti-Missouri* Brotherhood. In 1890 the Brotherhood, The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am., and the Norw.-Dan. Augustana Syn. united to form The United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am.
11. The Lutheran* Free Ch. was organized 1897 as a result of controversy in the United Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. over control of Augsburg Sem., Minneapolis, Minnesota, and over the nature of ministerial training.
. At the beginning of the 20th c. Norw. Luths. in Am. were divided into the Norw. Syn., organized 1853; Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. (see Eielsen Synod; Hauge Synod); the United Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am., organized 1890; the Luth. Free Ch., organized 1897; the Eielsen Syn.; and the Church* of the Luth. Brethren of Am.
13. In 1905 Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. invited Norw. ch. bodies to hold discussions with possible union in view. The invitation was favorably received by the Norw. Syn. and the United Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am., but it was not till 1917 that the 3 chs. merged, forming The Norw. Luth. Ch. of Am. A small minority of the Norw. Syn. declined to enter the merger and in 1918 formed The Norw. Syn. of the Am. Ev. Luth. Ch. (see Evangelical Lutheran Synod). See also Madison Settlement.
15. It helped form the NLC 1918, the LWC 1923, the Am. Luth. Conf. 1930, and the LWF 1947. It became the 3d-largest gen. Luth. body in Am. (after the ULC and the LCMS). Pres.: H. G. Stub* 191725; J. A. Aasgaard* 192554; F. A. Schiotz 195460.
Merger of The American* Lutheran Church, the Association* of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, and the Lutheran* Church in America. Constituting convention held April 30May 3, 1987, Columbus, Ohio Official date of inception January 1, 1988. Organizational structure: 65 synods (64 regional, 1 Slovak), 9 regions. Herbert Chilstrom installed as 1st bp. October 10, 1987.
(ELIM). Organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, August 2829, 1973; supported dissidents in the Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod who later formed the Association* of Ev. Luth. Chs.; pub. Missouri in Perspective (from October 22, 1973; name changed to Lutheran Perspective October 19, 1981).
2. The minority which disagreed with the Madison* Settlement of 1912 and the Austin Settlement 191617 organized The Norw. Syn. of the Am. Ev. Luth. Ch. 1918, joined the Syn. Conf. 1920, adopted the name Ev. Luth. Syn. 1958, and withdrew from the Syn. Conf. 1963 because of doctrinal differences.
The group originally numbered ca. 13 voting pastors and a number of congs. During the first 10 yrs. the young men of the syn. received their training for the ministry and for teaching in the ch. at institutions of the Missouri and Wisconsin Syns. Since 1927 the Norw. Syn. owns and conducts Bethany Luth. Coll. and (since 1946) Theol. Sem., Mankato, Minnesota Christian day schools are operated in the syn. Official pub.: Lutheran Sentinel.
3. The syn. has, esp. in the 1st yrs. of its existence, tried to reach as many individuals and smaller groups as possible who found themselves alone after the 1917 merger. Gradually the synod's work fell into the normal groove of est. home and for. miss. work. The syn. cooperated with the Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conf. in colored missions in Am. and Nigeria. SCY
Pres.: Bjug Harstad (pres. pro tem., 1917; 191821); George Albert Gullixson (192126); Christian Anderson (192630); Helge Matthias Tjernagel (193034); Norman A. Madson (193435); Christian A. Molstad (193537); Henry Ingebritson (193742); Norman A. Madson (194246); Adolph M. Harstad (194650); C. Monrad Gullerud (195054); Milton H. Otto (195456); Milton Tweit (195662); Theodore A. Aaberg (196263); Joseph N. Peterson (196366); Juul B. Madson (1966 ).
1. Those who emphasize the Gospel of salvation by faith in Jesus Christ and, as a result, are committed to presenting that Gospel to all individually or in groups.
2. Followers of M. Luther,* who emphasized the doctrine of justification* by faith.* Many Luth. chs. include the word Evangelical in their name. At times the term was used of Luths. to distinguish them from Ref.
4. Adherents of the Evangelical Revival in Eng. which is traced to activities of J. andC. Wesley* and G. Whitefield.* The movement was never separatist but tried to work within the Ch. of England.* Eng. Evangelicals organized the Church* Miss. Soc. (see also Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society), the Colonial* and Continental Ch. Soc., the Religious Tract Soc. (see Religious Tract Movement), and the Brit. and For. Bible Soc. (see Bible Societies, 3). Opposed Tractarianism.* See also Anglican Evangelical Group Movement.
5. In the US the term has been used for those advocating closer cooperation among denominations adhering to fundamental doctrines. The American* Bd. of Commissioners for For. Miss., Am. Bible Soc. (see Bible Societies, 5), and an Am. branch of the Evangelical* Alliance were organized by Evangelicals. S. S. Schmucker* and P. Schaff* were leaders in the movement.
6. After organization of the Federal* Council of the Chs. of Christ in Am., Evangelicals tended toward fundamentalism* under leadership of such men as J. G. Machen* and B. B. Warfield.* Because fundamentalism often emphasized anti-intellectualism and literalism and took a negative attitude toward sciences, many conservatives preferred to be called Evangelicals. Nat. organizations: Am. Council of Christian Chs. (see Union Movements, 11); Nat. Assoc. of Evangelicals (see Union Movements, 12).
A. C. Zabriskie, Anglican Evangelicalism (Philadelphia, 1943); G. R. Balleine, A History of the Evangelical Party in the Church of England, new ed. (London, 1951); L. E. Elliott-Binns, The Early Evangelicals (London, 1953); R. H. Nash, The New Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1963); Contemporary Evangelical Thought, IV: Christian Faith and Modern Theology, ed. C. F. H. Henry (New York, 1964); C. F. H. Henry, Evangelicals at the Brink of Crisis (Waco, Texas, 1967); B. L. Shelley, Evangelicalism in America (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1967).
James Morison (18161893), minister of a United Secession cong., was suspended from it 1841 for teaching that Christ made atonement not only for the elect but for all mankind. Later his father (Robert Morison; d. 1855), Alexander Cumming Rutherford, and John Guthrie were also suspended. These 4 pastors and 9 laymen, representing 3 chs. and 2 preaching stations, formed the Evangelical Union at Kilmarnock, Scot., 1843. Other suspended pastors and students later joined the movement. Those who shared Morisonian views were called Morisonians; their position was called Morisonianism.
Formed 1946 at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, by merger of the Evangelical* Church and the Church of the United* Brethren in Christ. Arminian in doctrine. Methodistic in govt. Merged 1968 with The Methodist* Church to form The United Meth. Ch. (see Methodist Churches, 1).
Founded 1926 by Joseph Weissenberg (18551941) as the Evangelisch-Johannische Kitche nach der Offenbarnng St. Johannis. Dissolved and proscribed 1935; revived 1946 under Frieda Müller (b. 1911), successor of Weissenberg. Gnostic-dualistic. Headquarters in Berlin.
Organized 1886 in Erfurt by W. Beyschlag,* G. A. Warneck,* and others to promote interconfessional discussion and clarify the relationship of ch. and state. In 1886 it est. a press that printed a membership journal, tracts, etc. till 1941. It tried to give the Los* von Rom movement in Austria an ev. basis and pub. the periodical Die Wartburg 190241 for this purpose.
Regarding the Reformation as a permanent standard for Ger. hist., the Bund concerned itself also with free thought, sectarianism, and soc. religious movements. In the Kirchenkampf* it refused to be drawn into the Deutsche Christen (see Barmen Theses) movement and remained indep. In the difficult time of reconstruction and indifference after 1945 it est. a new base of operations in Konfessionskundliches Institut, Bensheim, 1947. In confessional encounter it emphasizes ev. self-evaluation over against RCm Related in purpose to the Evangelical* Alliance.
Etymologically, evangelism means preaching the Gospel; literally: Gospelism. It is that activity of Christians which tries to bring unregenerate mankind under the influence of the Gospel and to win and keep souls for Christ.
As the ch. became more formal in its organization and more institutional in its operation, it lost its pristine zeal for evangelistic activity. The lowest ebb of evangelistic fervor was reached in the Middle Ages, but a revival was born with the dawn of the Prot. Reformation.
In modern times, esp. in the 19th c. and particularly in Eng. and Am., the evangelistic program of the ch. was given great impetus by such men as G. Whitefield,* C. and J. Wesley,* W. Booth (see Salvation Army, The, 1), D. L. Moody,* and I. D. Sankey.* Large meetings were held in tents or auditoriums or out in open spaces, to which the gen. pub. was invited and at which unconverted were called to repentance and faith by highly emotional addresses. See also Great Awakening in England and America; Revivals.
It would be hist. inaccurate to say that these evangelistic meetings were without good results. God used them to accomplish His purpose (Is 55:11). Unfortunately the emotional extravagance and insincere professionalism that characterized many meetings brought them into disrepute and subjected the entire movement to suspicion of spiritual fraud.
The evangelistic spirit has revived in Am. Protestantism esp. since WW II. Intensive evangelism programs were launched by many chs. 194549. Many laymen enrolled in courses designed to make them more proficient in witness for Christ. Thousands were trained in visitation evangelism (house-to-house visits made to unchurched). Millions were won for the ch. in the early post-war yrs. By means of radio, printing press, motion picture, television, and other modern media, and personal witness the LCMS has contributed to evangelization. HWG
See also Evangelical.
D. C. Bryan, A Workable Plan of Evangelism (New York, 1945); Your Church at Work, comp. and ed. L. Meyer (St. Louis, n. d.); S. W. Powell, Where Are the People? (New York, 1942); T. B. Kilpatrick, New Testament Evangelism (New York, 1911); D. M. Dawson, More Power in Soul-Winning (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1947); R. A. Torrey, Personal Work (Chicago, 1901); H. W. Wood, Winning Men One by One (Philadelphia, 1908); A. W. Blackwood, Evangelism in the Home Church (New York, 1942); J. M. Bader, Evangelism in a Changing America (St. Louis, 1957); E. A. Nida, Message and Mission: The Communication of the Christian Faith (New York, 1960); Why We Must Speak: A Discussion on Evangelism at the Third Assembly of the World Council of Churches, New Delhi, 1961 ([Geneva], 1961); E. A. Kettner, Adventures in Evangelism (St. Louis, 1964); A. S. Wood, Evangelism: Its Theology and Practice (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1966).
1. Author of a NT Gospel. 2. Mem. of primitive ch. who brought the Gospel to new territories. 3. Person responsible for conversion of a group or nation. 4. Traveling missionary. 5. Denominational minister or layman who is an itinerant preacher or performs other ch. service. 6. Revival preacher.
1. Book containing the Gospel lessons. 2. Book containing the complete Gospels.
2. Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean). Begun ca. 1850 in the midwest US among Swiss and Ger. immigrants by S. H. Freehlich; teaches entire sanctification; denies reconversion. See also Holiness Churches, 2.
3. Apostolic Faith Mission. Originated 1900 at Topeka, Kansas, in the revival work of several evangelists including Miss. Minnie Hanson and Mrs. M. White. Stands for restoration of the faith once delivered to the saints, the old-time religion, camp meetings, revivals, missions, street and prison work, and Christian unity everywhere. Missions in Japan, China, Korea, S. Am., and other countries. Disbanded 1957.
4. The Christian Congregation, Inc. Organized 1887 in Indiana; revised incorporation ca. 1898 at Kokomo, Indiana; congregational in doctrine and polity; centers teaching and work in the new commandment of Jn 13:3435. See also Holiness Churches, 2.
5. The Christian and Missionary Alliance. Originated under leadership of A. B. Simpson* (18441919), Presb. pastor, who resigned his charge in NYC, withdrew from the presbytery of New York, and entered indep. evangelistic work among unchurched. In 1887 two societies were organized: Christian Alliance (inc. 1890), for home work, esp. among neglected classes in towns and cities of the US; International Missionary Alliance (inc. 1889). In 1897 the 2 socs. merged in The Christian and Miss. Alliance. It has no strict creed but emphasizes Christ as Savior, Sanctifier, Healer, and Coming Lord. It has no close ecclesiastical organization, though it has an overall gen. conf., called Gen. Council, and dists. with branches. Missions in many countries. See also Holiness Churches, 2.
6. Church of Daniel's Band. Organized 1893 at Marine City, Michigan See also Holiness Churches, 2.
7. Church of God as Organized by Christ. Organized 1886 under leadership of P. J. Kaufman, Mennonite; opposes hireling ministry, revivals, creeds, tobacco, lodges, fine clothing, theaters; observes baptism, communion, and foot washing but has no binding form for their observance.
8. Hephzibah Faith Missionary Association. Under this name a number of indep. chs. were organized 1892 in Iowa; reorganized 1935; subsequently dissolved; new organization formed 1948. Purposes: preaching the doctrine of holiness, developing miss. work at home and abroad, and promoting philanthropic work. Ministers usually supported by freewill offerings.
9. Lumber River Annual Conference of the Holiness Methodist Church. Organized 1900 at Union Chapel Ch., Robeson Co., North Carolina Originally called Lumber Mission Conference of the Holiness Methodist Ch.
10. The Metropolitan Church Association, Inc. Began in Chicago as Metropolitan Holiness Church in an 1894 revival movement; current name adopted 1899. Has no specific creed, no definite form of ch. organization; does not pay salaries. Wesleyan in theol. Official pub.: The Burning Bush. See also Holiness Churches, 2.
11. Missionary Church Association. Organized 1898 at Berne, Indiana, to promote full teaching of the Word of God and engage in aggressive miss. work. Claims to stand for the evangelical truths of Christianity and to be interdenominational.
12. Peniel Missions. Organized 1886 by T. P. Ferguson in Los Angeles, Calif.
13. Missionary Bands of the World. Grew out of a miss. soc. of young people formed 1885 in the Free Meth. Ch. under leadership of Vivian A. Dake; indep. 1898 as Pentecost Bands of the World. Meth. in character. Present name adopted 1925. Merged 1933 with the Church of God (Holiness), Fort Scott, Kansas, and 1958 with The Wesleyan* Meth. Ch. of Am.
14. Pillar of Fire. Organized 1901, inc. 1902 as Pentecostal Union under leadership of Mrs. Alma White, wife of a Meth. minister; 1st headquarters were at Denver, Colorado Believing it impossible to carry out the miss. work of the ch. in connection with est. denominations and claiming to have received a vision of worldwide evangelism, Mrs. White est. missions in a number of cities and a training school in Denver. Headquarters were moved 1908 to Zarephath, near Bound Brook, New Jersey The name Pillar of Fire was adopted 1917. Doctrinal beliefs include divine healing, premillennialism, restoration of Jews, eternal punishment, everlasting life. See also Holiness Churches, 2.
15. Free Christian Zion Church of Christ. Organized 1905 under leadership of E. D. Brown, Negro, at Redemption, Arkansas; in doctrine gen. agrees with Meths.
16. The Gospel Mission Corps. Inc. 1962 in New Jersey; organized along military lines; believer's baptism and holy communion are observed.
17. The Church of God (Apostolic). Organized 1897 by Thomas J. Cox at Danville, Kentucky, as Christian Faith Band Ch.; inc. 1901; present name adopted 1915, inc. 1919. Foot washing and immersion are practiced.
18. Fire Baptized Holiness Church. Organized 1898 in Atlanta, Georgia, as part of the interracial Fire Baptized Holiness Assoc. of Am.; the Negro membership separated 1908 and became the Fire Baptized Holiness Ch. of God 1922.
19. The Fire Baptized Holiness Church (Wesleyan). Organized ca. 1890 as The Southeast Kansas Fire Baptized Holiness Assoc. Present name adopted 1945; episc. in ch. organization. See also Holiness Churches, 2.
(180146). B. Eng.; Apostle of the North; came to Can. as a young man; teacher for a time; miss. to Indians in Ont.; supt. of a Meth. miss. in the West; invented syllabic system of the Cree language.
(17311805). B. Warrington, Lancashire, Eng.; Angl. clergyman; espoused Unitarianism*; influenced by H. S. Reimarus* and H. E. G. Paulus.* Works include The Dissonance of the Four Generally Received Evangelists.
Naturalistic theory according to which the universe in gen., the solar system specifically, and the earth in particular, with all animate and inanimate objects existing thereon, have been evolved or developed, over millions or billions of yrs., in accord with existing natural laws, from some form of primitive mass that contained all materials needed to form the chemical elements now found in the universe. The atheistic branch of evolution states that everything now existing came into being only through existing natural laws. Theistic evolution accepts existence of a supernatural being who called into being the primitive mass and drew up fundamental laws of nature and who may, from time to time, step in to give evolution a helping hand. In gen., evolutionists are not concerned with origins but with development from a simple to a more complex state. Evolutionary theories have been applied to such areas of knowledge as anthropology, ethnology, sociology, history, comparative religion, and metaphysics.
I. Inorganic Evolution. Most theories proposed to explain development of the inorganic universe form 2 classes: monistic and dualistic.
Monistic or uniformitarian theories assume that the solar system developed as a closed system, isolated from other similar groups in the universe. I. Kant,* influenced by speculations of Thomas Wright (171186) of Durham, Eng., advanced a nebular hypothesis for the origin of the universe. Pierre Simon de Laplace (17491827; Fr. astronomer and mathematician) set forth a nebular hypothesis that became popular. Revisions of it include, e.g., those of Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (b. 1908; Swed. prof. of plasma physics), Karl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (b. 1912; Ger. physicist and philos.), Fred Lawrence Whipple (b. 1906; Am. astronomer), and Gerard Peter Kuiper (b. 1905 in the Neth.; Am. astronomer).
Dualistic or catastrophic theories assume interaction of the sun with other stars or celestial bodies. An early theory in this class was proposed by George Louis Leclerc de Buffon (170788; Fr. naturalist; encyclopedist*). Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (18431928; Am. geologist) and Forest Ray Moulton (18721952; Am. astronomer) formulated the planetesimal or spiralnebula hypothesis that involved a close approach of our sun and another star. Theories of James Hopwood Jeans (18771946; Eng. astronomer, mathematician, physicist), Harold A. Jeffreys (b. 1891; Eng. astronomer, geophysicist), George Howard Darwin (18451912; son of C. R. Darwin*; Eng. astronomer, mathematician), Henry Norris Russell (18771957; Am. astronomer), and Raymond Arthur Lyttleton (b. 1911; Eng. astronomer) are also included in this class. The Big* Bang theory was challenged by the Steady* State Theory.
II. Organic Evolution. Development of life from inorganic materials and continued evolvement of life to present-day forms. The concept of organic evolution can be traced back to Gks. and Romans. Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck,* was the forerunner of C. R. Darwin* in modern evolutionary theory. Lamarck's theory (1809) included inheritance of acquired characteristics and the Use and Disuse theory. Darwin advanced the theory of natural selection 1859 in On the Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Hugo de Vries (18481935; Dutch botanist) formulated a theory of mutation that supplied the mechanism for Darwin's theory.
Evolutionists cite as evidence in support of the theory:
1. Similarity in embryological development. This is considered evidence of common descent. Divergence bet. invertebrates and vertebrates has also led to theories of parallel evolution.
2. Animal groups can be arranged in an order of increasing complexity. This is regarded as proof that they have evolved from the simple to the complex.
3. Similarity in physiology and biochemistry. This is taken to indicate that organisms are related by common descent.
4. Comparative anatomy. Here the argument is based on resemblances bet. organisms and certain parts of their bodies.
5. Plants and animals geog. isolated differ from those of other regions. This is held to indicate that they have evolved along different lines.
6. Rocks and fossils can be arranged in a time table. This is taken to indicate that organisms have evolved from simple to complex.
8. Color patterns of animals. It is believed by evolutionists that present organisms evolved in course of time from relatively simple patterns and neutral colors. Today there are those with (a) protective resemblance, (b) warning coloration, (c) mimicry coloration, and (d) colors that serve sexual selection.
9. The science of genetics. Mutations can create varieties; hence it is postulated that they can create species. Chromosome aberration (chromosomes added or subtracted, number doubled or halved, fragments added or subtracted) experiments have been classified by some as new species. But here no new contribution has been made, only a rearrangement of material already present. Also: addition or subtraction of whole chromosomes is usually harmful and deletions are usually fatal.
III. Evolution in Other Fields. Basic ideas of evolution have been applied to many fields. In metaphysics the theory of emergent evolutionism (C. Lloyd Morgan [18521936; Eng. biologist and philos.] and Samuel Alexander [18591938; Brit. realist metaphysician]) holds that in the sequence of events new levels appear which go beyond regrouping of previous events. Thus the whole is more than the sum of its separate parts. In comparative religion evolutionary scholars try to show that higher forms of religion evolved from lower forms (animism, etc.). In anthropology evolutionists held that the psychic unity of mankind leads to indep. progress and that all elements of culture must pass through the same stages of development. The dialectical* materialism of K. H. Marx* and F. Engels,* maintaining that everything is made of opposing factors whose internal movement leads to progress, has influenced ethics, sociology, and evolutionary views of history. The ethics of evolutionists is in a continual state of flux: that which is considered ethical today is the result of acts with favorable results in past evolutionary stages. JK, EF
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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