Gatherings of RC clergy and laity for celebrating the Eucharist and deepening understanding of it and devotion to it. Marie Marthe Emilia Tamisier (18341910) promoted pilgrimages to Avignon and other sanctuaries in Fr. where Eucharistic miracles allegedly had occurred. An internat. Eucharistic meeting was held at Lille 1881. Other Eucharistic congresses, internat., nat., regional, and local, followed.
The theory that during Holy Communion bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ (later called transubstantiation*) and that the mass is a sacrifice, which had been gaining ground, was championed by P. Radbertus,* who argued from the authority of the fathers and alleged miracles. Ratramnus,* asked for his opinion by Charles* II of Fr., condemned the treatise of Radbertus and stressed figurative and mysterious aspects of the Sacrament. Rabanus* Maurus and J. S. Erigena* held similar views; Hincmar* of Reims and others sided with Radbertus; the Scriptural doctrine of the real presence (see Grace, Means of, IV 3) was lost sight of. The theory of Radbertus prevailed.
Bérenger* elaborated the theory of Ratramnus; denied that unworthy communicants receive the body and blood of Christ; was opposed by Lanfranc*; condemned unheard by a syn. in Rome 1050; condemned, while in prison, by a syn. in Vercelli 1050, which also had the book of Ratramnus on the Eucharist burned; condemned again in a council at Paris 1050 or 1051; satisfied the papal legate Hildebrand (see Popes, 7) with an evasive declaration 1054; was compelled in Rome to burn his writings and accept a Capernaitic* formula 1059; repudiated this confession and answered Lanfranc with his chief work, De Sacra Coena adversus Lanfrancum liber posterior; was compelled 1079 at Rome, by Gregory VII (see Popes, 7), to abjure his view and sign a formula in which the words substantialiter converti (a statement of transubstantiation) appear for the first time in official context; on return to Fr. he again repudiated his submission to Rome, but was brought to heel again at a council at Bordeaux 1080; died a solitary penitent. Transubstantiation came to be gen. accepted, stated in the 4th Lateran* Council 1215, the 2d Council of Lyons* 1274, and the Council of Florence* 1439, and confirmed by the Council of Trent* 1551 (Sess. XIII, chap. IV; divergent views anathematized in related canons).
M. Luther* rejected transubstantiation and defended the real presence.
(Gk. praying ones). Also called Messalians, after a corresponding Syriac word. Adherents of enthusiastic-spiritualistic movement that originated in Syria ca. 350 and spread to Asia Minor. Their ascetic dualism was probably influenced by Manichaeism.* Held that the devil, still present in the baptized, is to be overcome by prayer, through which grace and mystic union with God are achieved. Depreciated sacraments. Some trace the movement to Eustathius* of Sebaste, others to a Symeon of Mesopotamia. See also Antioch, Synods of; Ephesus, Third Ecumenical Council of.
(18461926). Ger. philos.; prof. Jena 18741920; received Nobel prize 1908; exchange prof. Harvard 191213. Held a philos. of ethical activism: truth must satisfy the needs of the whole of life (this approach called noological method); in spiritual existence man relates himself to the universal Spirit. See also Activism; Luther Society.
Ethical theory that makes well-being (eudaemonia, apatheia, or euthymia, the happy condition of the daimon [soul or spirit]) the highest aim in life. Regarded by Aristotle* as highest good. Hedonism* and utilitarianism* are related but not synonymous concepts.
Science dealing with factors affecting improvement of hereditary qualities; esp. emphasizes selective human mating. Plato* advocated that the state mate best with best and worst with worst, the children of the former to be reared by the state, those of the latter to be rejected. Aristotle* also advocated selective mating.
Francis Galton (18221911), Eng. scientist, coined the word eugenics, founded the science, and provided endowments for the study of eugenics. Eugenics education societies were organized in various countries. An internat. conf. was held in London 1912.
Charles Benedict Davenport (18661944), Am. zoologist, was founder and dir. of the Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, New York The Eugenics Research Assoc. was organized 1913. The Am. Eugenics Soc., organized 1926 to promote research on human differences and provide information on heredity and qualitative aspects of pop., draws membership from geneticists, physicians, psychiatrists, educators, nurses, and laymen interested in heredity and pop.
Eugenics suggests reduction of the number of defectives by segregation, sterilization (usually vasectomy for males, salpingectomy for females), and birth control (see Family Planning).
(ca. 13921445). B. Constantinople; metropolitan of Ephesus ca. 1436; procurator of the patriarchate of Alexandria; scholastic; attended Council of Florence*; chief Gk. opponent of union bet. E and W chs.
(Gabriele Condolmieri; Gabriel Condulmer; ca. 13831447). B. Venice; pope 143147; engaged in struggle with Council of Basel*; lived at Florence ca. 143143; transferred the council to Fertara 1437, to Florence (see Florence, Council of) 1439, to Rome 1443; deposed 1439 by that part of the council which refused to leave Basel; continued to exert recognized authority.
(Egippius; Eugepius; Eugipp[ius]; Eugyp[p]ius; ca. 455ca. 538). B. Carthage; abbot Lucullanum, near Naples; pupil and biographer of Severinus* of Noricum; compiled Thesaurus ex. S. Augustini operibus. MPL 62, 5491200.
1. of Alexandria (d. 607); patriarch Alexandria 580607; opposed Novatians and Monophysires. MPG, 86:2, 290764 (some ascribe 291338 to Sophronius of Jerusalem). 2. of Córdoba (ca. 810859). B. Córdoba; opposed Islam* in Sp. MPL, 115, 703966. 3. Georgiewski (18681946). E Orthodox; bp. Chelm (Cholm; Kholm), Poland, 1905; abp. Volhynia 1914; mem. All Russian Council and Holy Synod 1917; to Serbia, Berlin, and Paris 192022; leader of Russ. Orthodox Ch. in W Eur.
(called Pamphili; ca. 260ca. 339). The father of ch. hist. Pupil and friend of Pamphilus* of Caesarea; bp. Caesarea ca. 313; high in favor with Constantine* I; provisionally excommunicated under charge of Arianism* at a council at Antioch ca. 324; convinced the 325 Council of Nicaea of his orthodoxy by submitting a creed, probably that which his ch. at Caesarea had been using. Works include Chronicon, a universal chronological hist.; De martyribus Palaestinae, an account of martyrdoms in Palestine 303310; Evangelica demonstratio and Evangelica praeparatio, apologetic works; Historia Ecclesiastica, which preserves many quotations from early churchmen and presents a reasonably reliable account of the growth of the early ch., esp. in the E; Vita Constantini, which develops the philos. of hist. that the Christian emp. represented the final triumph of God acting in hist. See also Acacius of Caesarea; Geography, Christian, 3; Patristics, 6; Socrates (surnamed Scholasticus).
D. S. Wallace-Hadrill, Eusebius of Caesarea (London, 1960); Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea: The Ecclesiastical History and the Martyrs of Palestine, tr. and annotated by H. J. Lawlor and J. E. L. Oulton, 2 vols. (London, 192728). HTM
(d. ca. 452 AD). Gk. theol.; bp. Dorylaeum (near modern Eskisehir), Asia Minor, 448; protested teaching of Nestorius* 428, of Eutyches* 448; imprisoned 449; escaped to Rome; reinstated and played prominent role at Council of Chalcedon* 451.
(Emisenus; ca. 295ca. 359). B. Edessa*; probably a disciple of Eusebius* of Caesarea; outstanding exegete; sympathized with Semi-Arians; bp. Emesa (now Horns), W Syria, ca. 340; there forced to defend himself against charges of Sabellianism (see also Monarchianism, B 6).
(d. ca. 341 AD). Gk. Arian theol.; bp. Nicomedia ca. 318; signed the confession of Nicaea* only under pressure from Constantine and after long opposition; patriarch Constantinople ca. 339. See also Arianism, 2.
(d. ca. 337 AD). Bp. Beroea (now Alep, or Aleppo), Syria; patriarch Antioch, Syria; opposed school of Origen*; opposed Arians at Nicaea* 325; deposed at Arian syn. of Antioch* ca. 326/331 and exiled to Thrace; followers (called Eustathians) in Antioch refused to recognize bps. of Arian consecration, thus occasioning the Eustathian, later Meletian,* schism. See also Patristics, 6.
Intentional cutting short of human life in cases of misery regarded as incurable. Though called mercy killing, Christian chs. usually object to it for various reasons: it breaks the 5th Commandment; man's life is given by God (Jb 10:812; Ps 139:1316), who alone has right to take it again (Jb 1:21; Acts 17:26; 1 Jn 3:15); when man takes human life he must have Scriptural reasons (e.g., Mt. 26:52; Ro 13:4). In recent yrs. some doctors have repeatedly raised questions regarding the extent to which medical science should be applied to extend human life artificially indefinitely.
J. H. C. Fritz, Euthanasia, CTM, XVIII, 2 (February 1947), 94100; J. F. Fletcher, Morals and Medicine (Princeton, New Jersey, 1954).
(ca. 378ca. 454). Archimandrite of E Ch. in Constantinople; opposed Nestorius*; condemned and deposed 448 at a council at Constantinople; reinstated 449 as priest and abbot at the Robber Synod of Ephesus*; exiled ca. 452. See also Eutychianism.
5th-c. heresy taking its name from Eutyches,* who asserted that there were 2 natures in Christ before, but only 1 after, the incarnation. In opposition to Nestorianism,* Eutyches taught that the human nature in Christ was absorbed, swallowed up, by the divine nature; thus his doctrine was an expression of Monophysitism.* See also Christological Controversies; Chalcedon, Council of.
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