(17621818). Orthodox Calvinist; pastor 1790; prof. Montpellier 1808, Montauban 1814.
Term used for contact or meeting bet. man and God or man and man. In M. Buber* it describes the relation of subject to subject (I-Thou). Hans Urs von Balthasar (b. 1905; Swiss RC theol.) finds the norm of all knowledge in the meeting of persons. The importance of encounter with God has been stressed by such men as J. Baillie,* D. M. Baillie,* Herbert Henry Farmer (b. 1892; Eng. theol.), Reinhold Niebuhr,* K. Barth,* and H. E. Brunner.*
Encratites (from Gk. enkrates, self-disciplined) denotes those Gnostics, Ebionites,* and Docetists that rejected wine, flesh, and often marriage. See also Apocrypha, C 3; Docetism; Gnosticism; Tatian.
Circular or gen. letters addressed to many people or a whole order. The name formerly included letters sent by bps. to their people, but now applies almost exclusively to formal pastoral letters addressed by the pope to the RC Ch. To be distinguished from briefs (see Breve), bulls,* rescripts,* constitutions,* and decrees.* Pub. in Acta Apostolicae Sedis. Named from the first words of the official, pub. text. Some important encyclicals: Quanta Cura (1864; against the 80 errors rejected in the 1864 Syllabus* of Errors; see Roman Catholic Confessions, D); Aeter41ni Patris (1879; commended study of philos., esp. Thomism*); Rerum Novarum (1891; against socialism*); Pascendi (1907; against modernism*); Casti Connubii (1930; on marriage*); Quadragesimo Anno (1931; 40th anniversary of Rerum Novarum; on reconstruction of the social order); Divini Redemptoris (1937; against atheistic communism; see Socialism, 4).
The preliminary exposition or branch of learning which sets forth in basic concept the gen. order and contents of theol. science. An early Luth. work on the order of a theol. encyclopedia was A. Calov's 1673 Encyclopaedias disciplinarum realium ideae. Best-known works were those of the Ref. theol. K. R. Hagenbach* and of the Luth. J. C. K. v. Hofmann.* See also Methodology, Theological.
R. F. Weidner, Theological Encyclop(a)edia and Methodology, 2d ed., 2 vols. (Chicago, 18981910); R. Pieper, Wegweiser durch die Theologischen Disciplinen und deren Litteratur (Milwaukee, 1900); G. R. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology, in Library of Biblical and Theological Literature, ed. G. R. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, III (New York, 1884); A. Kuyper, Encyclopedia of Sacred Theology: Its Principles, tr. J. H. de Vries (New York, 1898).
1. The 1st encyclopedias were works of 1 author and were designed to summarize the knowledge and thinking of the time. Aristotle* wrote many encyclopedic treatises. The Historia Naturalis of Pliny the Elder, dating from AD 7779, the oldest encyclopedia in existence, is regarded by many as the 1st encyclopedia because of its method of compilation. Isidore* of Seville, Vincent* of Beauvais, and R. Bacon* tried to cover every branch of knowledge. In 1630 the 1st modern encyclopedia (one of the 1st to bear the title Encyclopaedia) was pub. by J. H. Alsted.* The 1st notable alphabetic Eng. cyclopedia was issued 1704 by John Harris. Ephraim Chambers' Cyclopaedia 1st appeared 1728 in 2 vols. The Encyclopedia Americana, 1st pub. 1829, was the 1st successful venture of its kind originating in Am.
2. By derivation, encyclopedia means instruction in the circle of arts and sciences regarded by the Gks. as essential to a liberal educ. Classical Gks. understood enkyklios (in a circle) paideia (learning) as referring to a complete system of instruction. Apparently Enkyklopaideia was not used in book titles till the 16th c., when it usually designated philos, or pedagogical works rather than comprehensive compilations.
3. In the 14th16th c. the encyclopedia developed in 2 ways: 1. a combination of different modes of organizing knowledge; 2. the separation of the function of the encyclopedia from biographical, hist., lexicographical, philos., philol., and pedagogical works.
4. Modern encyclopedias purport to be repositories of information on one or more branches of knowledge. They are usually organized alphabetically for rapid and easy use.
5. Earliest important Christian dictionary was the Onomasticon of Eusebius* of Caesarea, a geog. dictionary of the Bible. Jerome* (d. ca. 420) wrote De nominibus Hebraicis and De viris illustribus. Many dictionaries and cyclopedias have been compiled in recent cents.
6. Gen. religious encyclopedias: Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, ed. J. J. Herzog and A. Hauck, 3d ed., 21 vols. plus index vol. and 2 supplementary vols. (Leipzig, 18961913); The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge [based on Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, ed. J. J. Herzog and A. Hauck], ed. and tr. P. Schaff et al., 12 vols. plus index vol. (Grand Rapids, Michigan, reprint 194953); Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge [extension of The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, ed. and tr. P. Schaff et al.], ed. L. A. Loetseher (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1955); Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. J. Hastings, 12 vols. plus index vol. (New York, 190826; 4th impression 195660); J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3d ed., 11 vols. plus index vol. and supplementary vol. (London, 190715, 1937); A Dictionary of Religion and Ethics, ed. S. Mathews and G. B. Smith (New York, 1921); An Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. V. Ferm (New York, 1945); A. Bertholet and H. v. Campenhausen, Wörterbuch der Religionen (Stuttgart, 1952); Nordisk teologisk uppslagsbok för kyrka och skola (Lund and Copenhagen, 195257); F. König, Religionswissenschaftliches Wörterbuch (Freiburg, 1956); Weltkirchenlexikon, ed. F. H. Littell and H. H. Walz (Stuttgart, 1960); Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. K. Galling, 3d ed., 5 vols. plus index vol. (Tübingen, 195765).
7. Christianityfor. works: Encyclopédie théologique, ed. J. P. Migne, 3 series, 168 vols. in 170 (Paris, 184566); Kirke-leksikon for Norden, ed. F. Nielsen, 4 vols. (Copenhagen, 190029); Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. A. Baudrillart, vols. 117 (Paris, 191271, in progress); Dictionnaire pratiqae des connaissances religieuses, ed. J. Bricout, 6 vols. plus supplement (Paris, 192529); Dictionnaire de spiritualité ascétiqae et mystique, doctrine et histoire, ed. M. Viller, et al., 7 vols. (Paris, 193271, in progress); Enciclopedia ecclesiastica, ed. A. Bernareggi, vols. 16 (Milan, 194255, in progress); Theologisch Woordenboek, ed. H. Brink, 3 vols. (Roermond, Neth., 1952 to 1958); The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. F. L. Cross (London, 1957; 2d ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, London, 1974); Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon, ed. H. Brunotte and O. Weber, 3 vols. plus index vol. (Göttingen, 195661).
8. Christian antiquities: A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, ed. W. Smith and S. Cheetham, 2 vols. (Hartford, Connecticut, 1880); A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines, ed. W. Smith and H. Wace, 4 vols. (London, 187787); A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century AD, with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies, ed. H. Wace and W. C. Piercy (London, 1911); Dictionnaire d'arcachéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, ed. F. Cabrol, H. Leclerq, and H. Marrou, 15 vols. in 30 parts (Paris, 190353); Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, ed. T. Klauser, F. J. Dölger, H. Lietzmann, et al., vols. 17 (Stuttgart. 195069. in proggress).
9. Bible: A Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings, 4 vols. plus extra vol. with indexes (Edinburgh, 18981904); Encyclopaedia biblica, ed. T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black, 4 vols. (New York, 18991903); A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, ed. J. Hastings, 2 vols. (New York, 190608); The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, ed. J. Orr, 5 vols., rev. M. G. Kyle (Chicago, 1930); Dictionary of the Apostolic Church, ed. J. Hastings, 2 vols. (New York, 1916); J. D. Davis, A Dictionary of the Bible, 4th ed. (Philadelphia, 1924); A New Standard Bible Dictionary, ed. M. W. Jacobus et al., 3d ed. (New York, 1936); J. D. Davis, The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible, rev. H. S. Gehman (Philadelphia, 1944); M. S. Miller and J. L. Miller, Encyclopedia of Bible Life, rev. ed. (New York, 1955); Dictionnaire de la Bible, ed. F. G. Vigouroux, L. Pirot, et al., 5 vols. plus 8 supplementary vols. (Paris, 18951912; 192872, in progress); Encyclopaedia Biblica [Entsiqlopediyah Miqra'it], 6 vols. (Jerusalem, 195471, in progress); A Theological Word Book of the Bible, ed. A. Richardson (New York, 1950); Bibel-Lexikon, ed. H. Haag, 8 parts (Einsiedeln, Switz., 195156); Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation, ed. M. M. Kasher, 8 vols. (New York, 195370, in progress); Biblisch-theologisches Handwörterbuch zur Lutherbibel und zu neueren Übersetzungen, ed. E. Osterloh and H. Engelland (Göttingen, 1954); J. E. Steinmueller, Catholic Biblical Encyclopedia (New York, 1950); M. F. Unger, Unger's Bible Dictionary (Chicago, 1957); J.-J. v. Allmen, Vocabulaire Biblique, 2d ed., Eng. A Companion to the Bible, tr. P. J. Allcock et al. (New York, 1958); W. Corswant, Dictionnaire d'archéologie biblique, ed. É. Urech (Neuchatel, 1956), tr. A. Heathcote, A Dictionary of Life in Bible Times (New York, 1960); The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, ed. G. A. Buttrick, 4 vols. (Nashville, 1962); The Cambridge History of the Bible, ed. P. R. Ackroyd, C. F. Evans, G. W. H. Lampe, and Greenslade, 3 vols. (Cambridge, Eng., 196370); A. van den Born, Bijbels Woordenboek, 2d rev. ed. (Roermond, Neth., 195457), adapted and tr. L. F. Hartman, Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible (New York, 1963).
A. Protestant: The Mennonite Encyclopedia, ed. H. S. Bender and C. H. Smith, 4 vols. (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, 195559); Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists, ed. C. J. Allen et al., 2 vols. (Nashville, Tennessee, 1958); Encyclopaedia of the Presbyterian Church, ed. A. Nevin (Philadelphia, ).
B. Luth. in Am.: The Lutheran Cyclopedia, ed. H. E. Jacobs and J. A. W. Haas (New York, 1899); The Concordia Cyclopedia, ed. L. Fuerbringer, T. Engelder, P. E. Kretzmann (St. Louis, 1927); Lutheran Cyclopedia, ed. E. L. Lueker (St. Louis, 1954); The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, ed. J. Bodensieck, 3 vols. (Minneapolis, 1965).
C. Roman Catholic: Wetzer und Welte's Kirchenlexikon, ed. J. Hergenröther and F. Kaulen, 2d ed., 12 vols. plus index vol. (Freiburg, 18821903); The Catholic Encyclopedia, ed. C. G. Herbermann, 15 vols. plus index vol. and 2 supplementary vols. (Supplement II in 2 parts) (New York, 190751); Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. J. Höfer and K. Rahner, 2d ed., 10 vols. plus index vol. and Das zweite Vatikanisehe Konzil, (Freiburg, 195768, in progress); New Catholic Encyclopedia, ed. W. J. McDonald (New York, 1967); Dictionnaire apologétique de la foi catholique, ed. A. d'Alès, 4 vols. plus index vol. (Paris, 191131); A Catholic Dictionary, ed. D. Attwater, 2d ed., rev. (New York, 1949); Enciclopedia cattolica, 12 vols. (Vatican City, 1948 to 54); Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique, ed. A. Vacant, E. Mangenot, and É. Amann, 15 vols. plus 3-vol. index (Paris, 190949; 195372); The New Catholic Dictionary, ed. C. B. Pallen and J. J. Wynne (New York, 1929), reissued without rev. as Catholic Encyclopedic Dictionary (New York, 1941).
11. Jewish: The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, ed. I. Landman, 10 vols. plus index vol. (New York, 193944); J. R. Rosenbloom, A Biographical Dictionary of Early American Jews (Lexington, Kentucky, 1960); The Standard Jewish Encyclopedia, ed. C. Roth (New York, 1959); The New Jewish Encyclopedia, ed. D. Bridger (New York, 1962).
12. Philosophy: R. Eisler, Handwörterbuch der Philosophie, ed. R. Müller-Freienfels, 2d ed. (Berlin, 1922); Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, 2d ed., 2 vols. (New York, 1925); A Lexicon of St. Thomas Aquinas Based on the Summa Theologica and Selected Passages of His Other Works, ed. R. J. Deferrari and M. Barry, 5 fascicles (Washington, D.C., 194849); Enciclopedia filosophica, 4 vols. (Venice, 1957); The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers, ed. J. O. Urmson (New York, 1960); The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. P. Edwards, 8 vols. (New York, 1967). HLH
Editors and collaborators of the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (175180), an alphabetically arranged Fr. reference work in 35 vols. covering the whole field of knowledge. Editor D. Diderot* and his coworkers, including J. L. R. d'Alembert, (see Alembert, Jean Le Rond d'), G. L. L. de Buffon (see Evolution, 1), M. J. A. N. de C., Marquis de Condorcet,* P. H. D. d'Holbach,* C. L. de S. Montesquieu,* J J. Rousseau,* and Voltaire,* advocated religious toleration and democracy, and many of them natural theol.
(March 12, 1775September 30, 1827). B. Philadelphia; mem. Pennsylvania Ministerium; pastor Frankford, Pennsylvania, Cohenzy, New Jersey, Easton, Pennsylvania, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; helped form General* Syn.
Ethical theory that right action lies in efficient exercise of normal human capacities, the aim being self-realization rather than happiness or pleasure.
(ca. 12501331). Learned Austrian Benedictine* abbot. B. Volkersdorf, Styria, Austria; entered Benedictine abbey, Admont, Austria, ca. 1267; studied at cathedral school of St. Vitus at Prague and U. of Padua; probably abbot of St. Peter, Salzburg; abbot of Admont 1297; poet; eclectic philos.; writings include works on theol. and natural science.
(December 23, 1870February 28, 1944). B. Farmers Retreat, Indiana; educ. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, Columbia U., NYC, and the U. of Chicago; teacher Kendallville, Indiana, 18911901, in NYC at Immanuel Ch. 190111 and at St. Matthew's Ch. 191115; prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, 191544; pres. and field secy. Walther League.
(15991642). Pious mystic of Brunswick; lay preacher in Lower Saxony and Holstein; much persecuted despite efforts to work peaceably with clergy.
(January 21, 1865 to June 23, 1949). B. Olean, New York; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Sugar Grove and Logan, Ohio, 188690, and Mount Clemens, Michigan, 18901914; pres. Michigan; Dist., Missouri Syn., 191214; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 191426, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 192646. Staunch defender of verbal inspiration; molded thinking of Missouri Syn.; clergy along dogmatical lines. Contributed to L. u. W., TM, and CTM; other works include Scripture Cannot Be Broken; Reason or Revelation? Was chief tr. of F. A. O. Pieper's Christliche Dogmatik in the ed. that appeared 195057 under the title Christian Dogmatics.
(182881). Studied under F. A. Philippi*; prof. ch. hist. Dorpat; tried to adhere to Luth. Confessions; pupils included A. Harnack,* R. Seeberg,* and G. N. Bonwetsch.* Works include a life of V. E. Löscher*; De Jesu Christi tentatione.
(17911855). Prof. ch. hist., Erlangen; engaged in research in mysticism, patristics, and ecclesiastical and dogmatic hist.; influenced Erlangen confessionalism. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 11.
(182095). Founder with K. H. Marx* of Marxian socialism.* From pietistic Ger. family; lost faith at age 21; in Eng. 184244; there became acquainted with industry and the proletariat; explained socialism in the light of a universal dialectical* materialism. Ed. and pub. vols. II and III of K. H. Marx, Das Kapital. Works include Herrn Eugen Dührings Urnwälzung der Wissenschaft (also called Anti-Dühring); Ludwig Feuerbach und der Ausgang der klassischen deutschen Philosophie; Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats; introductions to many works of Marx.
A. Early History.
1. There may have been Christians in Brit. already in the 2d c. During the persecution of Diocletian,* most severe 303305, also the Christians in Brit. suffered, Alban* reportedly among them. But persecution in Gaul and Brit. seems to have been less severe than elsewhere, perhaps because Constantius I (d. York, Eng., 306), father of Constantine* I, had some sympathy for Christians. Britons attended the Syn. of Arles 314.
2. When Gothic conquests in Gaul and It. led to release of Brit. from Roman control, Christianity was pushed N and W in Brit. It swung back in the work of Columba (see Celtic Church, 7), who sent missionaries from Iona into Scot. and N Brit. He came from Ireland, where Patrick* had worked earlier. Augustine* of Canterbury, sent by Gregory I (see Popes, 4), arrived in Eng. 597. Aidan* went from Iona to Northumbria and est. his see at Lindisfarne.* Strife bet. Celtic and RC factions led to the 664 Syn. of Whitby,* which decided in favor of Rome.
3. Papal control increased in Eng. under Theodore* of Tarsus and his successors, then declined in the wake of Danish invasions. After the Norman Conquest (1066), ties with the Continent, including Rome, were strengthened and episc. power increased, though William I (called William the Conqueror: 102787; king 106687) resisted the pretensions of Gregory VII (see Popes, 7). Lanfranc* was abp. Canterbury 107089; Anselm* succeeded him 1093. John (often called John Lackland; ca. 11671216; king 11991216) defied Innocent III (see Popes, 10) over the election of S. Langton* as abp. Canterbury, and Eng. was put under the interdict 1208. John surrendered his crown to the papal legate and received it back as a vassal of the pope.
4. The prestige of the popes suffered from their exile in Avignon,* their supposed subservience to the king of Fr., and strife bet. papal contenders. In the 14th c. parliament asserted Eng. indep. by curtailment of papal jurisdiction, appointments, and exactions.
B. Reformation Period.
1. These curtailing laws were appealed to as the spirit of nationalism grew and blossomed under the Tudors. When Clement* VII would not grant an annulment of Henry VIII's (14911547; king 150947) marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Henry succeeded in attaining qualified recognition as head of the Ch. of Eng. 1531. He could count on considerable national feeling and resentment against the exactions and interference of Rome. T. Wolsey* had been papal legate. See also Regalism.
2. The Lollards* had been forced underground but were receptive to the ev. doctrine that came down the Rhine and through the Low Countries to Eng. Men who became leaders in the Eng. Reformation gathered at the White Horse Inn, Cambridge, to study banned works of M. Luther.* Luths. of various strength may be found among the Eng. reformers. The most Luth. of them, R. Barnes,* was a friend of Luther and the Wittenberg reformers and represented Henry VIII in negotiations with the Schmalkaldic* League. Henry later had him burned at the stake, and Luther mourned St. Robert. Much of W. Tyndale's* theol. was akin to Luther's. T. Bilney* came to the Gospel much as did Luther. M. Coverdale* was a Luth. pastor in Bergzabern, Ger. T. Cranmer,* a priest, married a niece of A. Osiander* the Elder, but his theol. had only a Luth. phase (ca. 153248). Luth. influence is apparent in most of the Henrician formularies and can be seen also in the Thirty-nine Articles and the Book of Common Prayer.
3. Henry VIII did not want doctrinal renovation. For his writing against Luther, Leo X (see Popes, 20) gave him the title Defender* of the Faith. But he was for a time interested in assoc. with the Schmalkaldic* League against Charles* V, nephew of Catherine of Aragon. Anglo-Luth. doctrinal confs. were held 1536 and 1538; through them Lutheranism influenced Eng. religious formulas under Henry VIII and his successors. Henry VIII's later reaction is reflected in the Six Articles of 1539 and the King's Book of 1543 (see Anglican Confessions, 24). See also Lutheran Confessions. A 5.
4. Henry VIII had found a submissive servant in T. Cranmer,* whom he made abp. of Canterbury. Cranmer's most abiding work, the Book* of Common Prayer, was pub. 1549 under Edward VI (153753; king 154753), rev. in a Swiss direction 1552. The Forty-two Articles were drafted 1552, pub. 1553; on them were based the Thirty-nine Articles adopted 1562. rev. 1571 (see Anglican Confessions, 5, 6). They remain in effect but have long since lost confessional force except for the Ev. party. During Edward VI's reign the regency council under his uncle. Edward Seymour (ca. 150652), Duke of Somerset, moved the Eng. ch. to Protestantism, and this more radically under John Dudley (ca. 150253). Duke of Northumberland, who displaced Seymour.
5. With Mary Tudor (151658; queen 155358; see also Mary I) there came to the throne a zealous RC Some Prots. went into exile. T. Cranmer,* N. Ridley,* and H. Latimer* were burned at the stake. Mary's readiness to persecute on religious grounds, her restoration of papal obedience, and her unfortunate for. policy, motivated by religion, alienated her people with their growing relish for indep. and being Eng. They finally wanted no more of what Mary stood for and enthusiastically acclaimed Elizabeth* I.
6. Elizabeth I sought with great skill to arrange the ch. so that all her people would be in it. She was under strong pressure from the Marian exiles, to do away with what remained of popery from Cranmer's day. There was much opposition to altars, kneeling, and vestments, and considerable support for Presbyterianism. Elizabeth insisted on bps. R. Hooker* justified episcopacy as Scriptural and reasonable and gave later Angl. theol. a philos. slant with dominant interest in the Incarnation, in sharp contrast to the Reformers' concern with the cross. The Elizabethan Settlement of 1559 had the typical Angl. characteristics of comprehensiveness, acknowledgment of the role of reason, and insistence on bps.
7. The divine necessity of bps. was asserted by the High* Church party, which developed in opposition to Puritan* deprivations. The Stuart kings were sympathetic to RCs Charles* I and W. Laud* were beheaded under O. Cromwell.* Parliament est. Presbyterianism 1646 (see Presbyterian Churches, 2).
C. Restoration and Later History.
1. Anglicanism was vigorously restored with Charles II (163085; king 166085; see also Scotland, Reformation in, 3) but James II (16331701; king of Eng., Scot., and Ireland 168588) was turned out of the country for his unparliamentary notions and Romanism.
2. With the accession of William III (16501702) and Mary II (166294) in 1689 the Prot. succession was est. The Act* of Toleration (1689) granted freedom of worship to nonconformists* except RCs and Unitarians, though no nonconformists might hold pub. office. The SPCK was founded 1698, the SPG 1701 (see also Bible Societies, 3). See also Nonjurors.
3. When the Hanoverians came to the throne, beginning with George I (16601727; king 171427), the king was officially Luth. in Hanover, Angl. in Eng., and Presb. in Scot. The 18th c. was the heyday of rationalism*; theol. and ch. life reached an all-time low (see also Deism, III).
4. C. and J. Wesley* and G. Whitefield* brought new life into this wilderness of the Latitudinarians.* Their fervent Gospel preaching and call for personal religion evoked widespread response. Their influence among industrial masses helped spare Eng. a Fr. Revolution. The Wesleys wished to keep the movement in the Ch. of Eng., but establishment of separate places of worship and J. Wesley's ordination of presbyters and a supt. (bp.) for Methodists in Am. and Brit. led to formation of a separate denomination (see also Methodist Churches, 1).
5. Many within the Ch. of Eng. were affected by the Wesleyan movement. R. Raikes* popularized the S. S. in the 1780s. Ev. clergy founded the Church* Missionary Soc. 1799. The interdenominational BFBS was founded 1804 (see also Bible Societies, 3). W. Wilberforce* worked successfully for abolition of the slave trade.
7. The vitality of the Ev. movement waned, and the privileged Ch. of Eng., weakened by internal divisions, latitudinarianism, ineffectual clergy, and parliamentary action, greatly needed reform. Ch. renewal by recovery of RC elements was the goal of the Oxford Movement begun by an 1833 sermon of J. Keble* protesting suppression of certain bishoprics. Publicists of the Oxford Movement produced 90 tracts, or pamphlets, urging doctrine and discipline according to the example of the ancient ch. In the last and most controversial J. H. Newman* interpreted the Thirty-nine Articles in a RC sense. Weary of the doctrinal chaos in the Ch. of Eng. he sought refuge with Rome 1845. Leadership passed to E. B. Pusey,* followed by C. Gore*; the latter formed a bridge with men of the High* Church who imported much liberal theol. to the great distress of those reared on the Bible. The second wave of the Oxford Movement was much engaged in ritualistic innovation. Lawcourts were invoked to suppress this, as they had been against George Cornelius Gorham's (17871857) denial of baptismal regeneration. When the courts proved ineffective, the chaos was almost complete.
8. With the decline of liberalism and the harvesting of the good fruits of both Ev. and Oxford movements, a good measure of common sense has resisted party strife and narrow labels. But wide divergences persist with the debilitating effect of compromise and the absence of any operative confession. While the Thirty-nine Articles are highly regarded only by the Low* Ch. (or Ev.) party (see High Church), episc. polity remains a common bond together with the Book* of Common Prayer, which gen. though variously provides the common form of worship.
9. The proposed revision of the Book of Common Prayer in 192728 failed due to Prot. opposition in Parliament, which is still the supreme authority in the affairs of the Ch. of Eng. The crown gives dean and chapter authority to elect a bp., nominates a candidate, and endorses the elected candidate. Each province has its own abp. and a Convocation made up of an Upper House (bps.). and a Lower House (representative clergy). Each bp. is supreme in his diocese. The curate of a parish is removed only by resignation, promotion to another benefice, or because of some disgraceful offense. Convocations deal with doctrine, liturgy, and canon law. In 1919 the Ch. Assem. was added, made up of a House of Bps. (combined Upper Houses of both Convocations), a House of Clergy (combined Lower Houses of both Convocations), and a House of Laity elected by diocesan confs. Its business is legal and administrative. It prepares measures for Parliament's approval and deals with financial matters, though much influence is also exercised by the variously appointed Church Commissioners, who are trustees of properties and funds.
10. Eng. Christianity has a noble miss. hist. Boniface* was apostle to N Eur., J. Eliot* to Am., W. Carey* and H. Martyn* to India, S. Marsden* to New Zealand, R. Moffat* and D. Livingstone* to Afr., and J. Chalmers* to the South Sea Islands.
11. The worldwide Angl. communion emerged from such miss. work and the formation of the Brit. Empire. Since 1867 the bps. have met ca. every decade at Lambeth* Palace, London residence of the abp. of Canterbury. These confs. have only deliberative and advisory function, but their findings enjoy considerable influence. In 1888 the Lambeth Quadrilateral (rev. ed. of the 4 Arts. agreed on at the Gen. Conv. of the [Angl.] Prot. Episc. Ch. held at Chicago 1886) stated the Angl. program for unifying Christendom: Bible, Apostles' and Nicene Creed, 2 Sacraments, and hist. episcopate. On this basis intercommunion has been est. with Old* Catholic and Eastern* Orthodox chs. Reciprocal arrangements have been made with Luth. chs. of Scand. in the Swed. episc. succession, though these arrangements have been strained by Scand. ordination of women.
12. Anglicans have played a leading role in the Ecumenical* Movement, commending to other chs. as the unifying way their comprehensive view of the ch., their doctrinal elasticity, and their episcopate. The last has been a roadblock to reunion with Methodists and Presbyterians in Brit. The Church* of South India, est. 1947 under a compromise formula, gained gen. approval 1948, but comparable union projects for N India/Pakistan and Ceylon were received with fewer reservations 1958. For N India/Pakistan a 4th rev. ed. of the 1951 Plan of Ch. Union was approved 1965 by the Negotiating Committee and submitted to the negotiating chs. with request for response by 1969. For Ceylon a 4th rev. ed. of Scheme of Church Union was pub. 1963 and presented for voting. For further developments see Church of North India. A program of larger mutual helpfulness among Angl. chs. was agreed on at Toronto 1963.
14. After Mary, Calvinism was dominant. Then the High Ch. harked back to the RC heritage. Its doctrinal theol. since that time has operated largely with RC and Ref. alternatives, with little understanding of the Luth. position.
15. Use of the Strangers' Ch. (Ecclesia peregrinorum) was given to Eur. Prots. in London under Edward VI and again from Elizabeth I on. The Lutherans' right to their own ch. was granted by the 1669 Latin Charter of Charles II, who was interested in helping trade. Trin. Luth. Ch., London, was dedicated 1673, the yr. of the Test* Act. After the Act* of Toleration (1689) the Luths. split into nat. groups. Most Eur. Luth. chs. now have outposts in Brit. serving Luths. in their own for. tongue. The Hanoverian kings had Luth. chaplains, but this practice declined and finally ended.
16. Eng.-speaking Lutheranism goes back to the beginning of the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. 1896. Six Ger. bakers did not feel at home in the liberalism and nationalism of the Ger. Luth. Ch. of their day and called a pastor from the Missouri* Synod. This ch. became Eng.-speaking, and after WW II it began energetically to face its responsibilities among a largely unchurched people.
17. After WW II help was needed by Luth. refugees from Poland, Latvia, Estonia, and Ger. The Luth. Council of Gt. Brit. was founded 1948 under leadership of E. G. Pearce* to sustain and draw these Luths. together. Funds were provided equally by the LCMS and the NLC Later the whole burden was assumed by the LWF and the Luth. Council became its nat. committee. Efforts continue to draw the various Luths. closer together. Pastors meet twice a yr. under auspices of the Luth. Free Conf. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. trains pastors at its Westfield* House, Cambridge; the Council has attached a theologian to Mansfield Coll., Oxford, for similar purposes.
J. R. H. Moorman, A History of the Church in England (London, 1953); An Ecclesiastical History of England, ed. J. C. Dickinson, 5 vols. (London. 1961 ); C. S. Meyer, Elizabeth I and the Religious Settlement of 1559 (St. Louis, 1960); E. G. Pearce, The Lutheran Church in Britain (London, 1953).
Traces its beginning to a quarrel in 1843 bet. Henry Phillpotts* (17781869). bp. Exeter and High Churchman who espoused Tractarianism,* and James Shore, one of his clergy and who opposed the movement. The ch. received definite shape in 1863 in assoc. with the Calvinistic Methodists known as the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion. It adopted the Thirty-nine Articles. Later in the c. it became assoc. with the Reformed* Episcopal Church, formed in the US by G. D. Cummins, through which it obtained episc. orders.
(190664). B. Linköping, Swed.; prof. Lund and Uppsala. Coed. Svensk bibliskt uppslagsverk. Other works include Studies in Divine Kingship in the Ancient Near East; Gamla Testamentet: en traditionshistorisk inledning; Profetia och tradition; The Call of Isaiah.
(Ger. Aufklärung). 1. Philos. movement that began toward the end of the Renaissance,* flowered esp. in the 2d half of the 18th c., and began to decay in the 19th c.; its elements were individualistic, rationalistic, and subjective; its goal was independence, also from authority of Biblical revelation; affected every phase of life; marked the beginning of modern secular culture; spread from Eur. to N and S Am.
2. Humanism began and developed in It. in the 15th16th c. Its influence was temporarily restricted by religious interest aroused by the Reformation but revived and found expression in R. Descartes,* B. Spinoza,* P. Bayle,* and Deism.* In the Fr. Enlightenment upper classes became frivolous and regarded RCm and Protestantism as equally ridiculous. Its leading exponents were the Encyclopedists.* It attacked religious, pol., and soc. traditions and reached its climax in the Fr. Revolution (see France, 2).
3. Ger. Enlightenment was influenced by the Eng. and the Fr. It drew strength from Freemasonry* and the philos. of C. v. Wolff.* Prominent factors in the Ger. movement were the influence of the skeptical Frederick II, C. F. Nicolai's* Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek, and the writings of M. Mendelssohn,* H. S. Reimarus,* and G. E. Lessing.* Theol. became grossly rationalistic. But vulgar features were sloughed off by J. W. v. Goethe* and I. Kant,* who criticized shallowness and led Ger. literature and philos. to their greatest heights. Ger. Enlightenment was followed by an influential philos. idealism.*
J. G. Hibben, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment (London, 1910); E. Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, tr. F. C. A. Koelln and J. P. Pettegrove (Princeton, New Jersey, 1951); Das Zeitalter der Aufklärung, ed. W. Philipp, in Klassiker des Protestantismus, VII, ed. C. M. Schröder (Bremen, 1963); H. G. Nicolson, The Age of Reason: The Eighteenth Century, in The Mainstream of the Modern World Series, ed. J. Gunther (New York, 1961).
(ca. 473521 ). B. probably Arles; taught rhetoric Milan; bp. Pavia ca. 514; held that the pope is de jure superior to human judgment; tried to reconcile E and W chs., pagan culture and Christian faith; hymnist. Works include a biography of Epiphanius, bp. Pavia.
MPL 63, 13364.
(from Gk.; fanaticism from Lat.; Ger. Schwärmerei). Belief that people receive special revelations of the Holy Spirit. Enthusiasts expect God to draw, enlighten, justify, and save them without means of grace.* Cf. FC Ep II 13; SD II 4, 46, 80. See also Ecstasy; Mennonite Churches, 2.
(Grecized: Dryander; Ger.: Eichmann; Fr.: Duchesne; known in Holland as Van Eyck; ca. 1520ca. 1552). B. Burgos, Sp.; educ. Louvain (Belgium) and Wittenberg; tr. NT into Sp., pub. Antwerp 1543; gave copy to Charles* V; imprisoned in Brussels; escaped to Wittenberg ca. 1545; to Eng. via Strasbourg and Basel; prof. Cambridge; returned to Strasbourg 1549. Works include Historia vera de morte sancti viri Ioannis Diazij. His brother Jaime wrote a Sp. ev. catechism pub. Antwerp 1545 and was burned in Rome as heretic 1547.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.
Content Reproduced with Permission