Christian Cyclopedia

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Elbogen, Ismar

(1874–1943). B. Schildberg, Poland; Ger. Jewish theol.; to Am. 1938. Works include Der jüdische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung; Geschichte der Juden seit dem Untergang des jüdischen Staates (tr. A. I. Shinedling, History of the Jews After the Fall of the Jewish State); A Century of Jewish Life, tr. M. Hadas.

Elbrecht, Paul George

(September 30, 1921–January 16, 1972). B. Cleveland, Ohio; educ. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois; pastor Lubbock, Texas, 1954–58; taught at Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 1958–66. Pres. Alabama Luth. Academy and Coll., Selma, Alabama, 1966–70; Conc. Luth. Coll. of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1970–72. Works include The Christian Encounters Politics and Government.


1. Term derived from OT and NT (Ex 3:16; Lk 7:3). The Gk. word presbyteros (“elder”) in the NT is a synonym for “bishop (overseer)” (Acts 20:17, 28), “ruler” (1 Ti 5:17), “pastor (or shepherd)” (1 Ptr 5:1–4). Large congs, had a number of presbyters or elders (Ja 5:14; Jerusalem Acts 15:4, 6, 23; 21:18; Ephesus Acts 20:17, 28). At least some elders preached and taught (1 Ti 5:17). In course of time differences in rank were introd. into ch. offices, with elders in the lower ranks.

2. In the modern ch., eldership is characteristic of Presb. chs., which derive their name from this institution. Two classes of elders, teaching and ruling, are distinguished. The former are the pastors; the latter are laymen set apart as assistants to pastors in overseeing and ruling the congs. Pastor and ruling elders form the “session,” lowest of the ruling powers of the ch.; the Gen. Assem., composed of representatives of elders and pastors, is the highest legislative body of the ch. See also Polity, Ecclesiastical, 7; Reformed Churches, 1.

3. In the Luth. Ch. the terms “elders” and “deacons*” are often used synonymously with reference to laymen chosen by a cong. for a specified term to assist the pastor in his official duties. They and the pastor form the Board of Elders; with reference to the cong. they have only advisory or executive, not legislative, power. The office of trustee is often united with that of elder, trusteeship being prescribed by law when congs., are inc. Duties of trustees concern property management and maintenance.

Eleatic School.

Gk. school of philos, at Velia (or Elea), S It.; founded, according to tradition, by Xenophanes*; Parmenides* and Zeno* of Velia were among its leaders. It held that the world is in a state of rest, not motion; being is real and eternal.

Elephantine Papyri.

Found toward the end of the 19th and early in the 20th c. at Elephantine, an is. in the Nile, Upper Egypt; date from the 5th c. BC; furnish information on a syncretistic Jewish colony.

Elert, Werner

(1885–1954). Ger. historical and systematic theol. B. Heldrungen; d. Erlangen. Educ. Breslau, Erlangen, Leipzig, 1906–12; pastor and army chaplain 1912–19; dir. Old Luth. free ch. sem. Breslau 1919–23; prof. Erlangen 1923.

Made Erlangen world-famous center of neo-Lutheranism. Though critical of classical Luth. dogmaticians including P. Melanchthon,* Elert regarded M. Luther,* the Confessions, and classical dogmaticians as being essentially in harmony. His theol. is oriented in the ev. thought of Luther and in the dialectic of Law and Gospel. Though Luth. and confessional (often called Lutheranissimus), he was in constant dialog with his age and emphasized the task of theol. and the ch. in the contemporary world. He based his findings on thorough Biblical and hist. research.

Works include Der Kampf um das Christentu; Der christliche Glaube; Das christliche Ethos (tr. C. J. Schindler, The Christian Ethos); Morphologic des Luthertums, 2 vols. (Vol. I tr. W. A. Hansen, The Structure of Lutheranism); Abendmahl und Kirchengemeinschaft in der alten Kirche, hauptsächlich des Ostens (tr. N. E. Nagel, Eucharist and Church Fellowship in the First Four Centuries); Zwischen Gnade und Ungnade: Abwandhmgen des Themas Gesetz und Evangelium; Der Ausgang der altkirchlichen Christologie, ed. W. Maurer and E. Bergsträsser.

Beiträge zur historischen und systematischen Theologie: Gedenkschrift für D. Werner Elert, ed. F. Hübner, W. Maurer, E. Kinder (Berlin, 1955). EL


Ceremony of elevating the consecrated elements in the celebration of Holy Communion; may occur several times in a service; the term usually refers to elevation after consecration of each element. The practice was inst. in the 13th–14th c. M. Luther* permitted the practice to continue for the sake of the weak (um der Schwachen willen). because it could have a good meaning (WA 54, 163). In 1542 he did not oppose abolishing elevation in Wittenberg (he did not want to oppose J. Bugenhagen*), though personally he would rather have had it retained (WA 54, 122). In 1544 he favored retention of it as witness against sectarians who denied the Real* Presence (WA 54, 162–167). Many 16th c. orders retained the practice. Today most Luth. chs. do not follow it. Luths. who retain it regard it as a visible witness to the church's faith that the consecrated bread and wine are the body and blood of Christ. EFP

Elgar, Edward

(1857–1934). Eng. RC composer; organist St. George's Ch. Worcester. Works include Pomp and Circumstance, a march; oratorios: The Apostles; The Kingdom.


1. of Cortona (ca. 1180–1253). B. near Assisi, It.; d. Cortona, It.; studied law; early companion of Francis* of Assisi; 1st Franciscan provincial of Syria 1219; vicar of the order 1221; gen. of the order 1232; deposed and banished 1239. 2. Levita. See Levita, Elijah.


(acronym for Evangelical Lutherans in Mission). Organized 1973 in Chicago, Illinois Launched an indep. miss. soc., Partners in Mission, 1974 and adopted Seminex* as part of its program for continued theol. educ.

Elim Fellowship.

Est. 1947; Pentecostal; outgrowth of Elim Ministerial Fellowship, formed 1933.

Eliot, Charles William

(1834–1926). B. Boston, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; asst. prof. Harvard 1858–63, prof. (Cambridge) Massachusetts Inst. of Technology 1865–69; pres. Harvard 1869–1909; made divinity school nonsectarian. Works include The Religion of the Future; ed. Harvard Classics.

Eliot, John

(1604–90). “Apostle to the Indians” of N Am.; b. Eng.; Puritan; to Am. 1631; teacher in the Roxbury, Massachusetts 1632; first preached to Indians in their own tongue 1646; his Mahican Bible (NT 1661, OT 1663) was the 1st Bible pub. in Am.; founded 13 chs. (no. of converts est. 1674: ca. 4,000); educ. many native workers, including 24 preachers; received financial help from a miss. corporation in Eng.; many results of his work destroyed by King Philip's War (1675–76; named after Indian chief Philip, son of Massasoit).

Missionary Explorers Among the American Indians, ed. M. G. Humphreys (New York, 1913), pp. 1–28; W. G. Polack, John Eliot: The Apostle to the Indians in Men and Missions, ed. L. Fuerbringer, I (St. Louis, 1924); J. T. Adams, “John Eliot,” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. A. Johnson and D. Malone, VI (New York, 1943), 79–80.

Eliot, Thomas Stearns

(1888–1965). Am.-born Brit. poet., dramatist, ed. pub. essayist, pol. lecturer. B. St. Louis, Missouri; d. London; buried E Coker, Somerset, home of his ancestors; grandson of W. G. Eliot*; educ. Smith Academy (a dept. of Washington U., St. Louis), Milton (Massachusetts) Academy, Harvard, the Sorbonne, Ger., and Oxford; London resident 1914; Brit. subject 1927.

Eliot became major influence in modern poetry through pub. of The Waste Land 1922. Voiced concern over depressing situation of modern man: his aimlessness, maladjustments, frustrations, and lack of faith.

Eliot's belief that the only way out of the “waste land” is Christianity moved him to join the Ch. of Eng. 1927. Ash-Wednesday (1930) portrays his religious beliefs. In it he describes the progress from disillusionment to faith, from hopelessness to hope, but not a hope for pol. and soc. progress.

An excellent craftsman, Eliot adapted the poetic technique begun by the Fr. symbolists Charles Pierre Baudelaire (1821–67), Stéphane Mallarmé (1842–98), and Jules Laforgue (1860–87); shows influence of Dante,* J. Donne,* and Ezra Loomis Pound (b. 1885); influential in reviving verse plays.

In his Weltanschauung the pessimism and agnosticism of the post-WW I generation gives way to Christian faith.

Works include The Waste Land; Ash-Wednesday: After Strange Gods; Murder in the Cathedral; The Idea of a Christian Society; Four Quartets; The Cocktail Party; Selected Essays; The Elder Statesman; Collected Poems, 1909–1962. EEF

F. O. Matthiessen, The Achievement of T. S. Eliot: An Essay on the Nature of Poetry, 3d ed. (New York, 1959); G. Smith, T. S. Eliot's Poetry and Plays: A Study in Sources and Meaning, 1st Phoenix ed. (Chicago, 1960); H. Howarth, Notes on Some Figures Behind T. S. Eliot (Boston, 1964).

Eliot, William Greenleaf

(1811–87). Grandfather of T. S. Eliot*; b. New Bedford, Massachusetts; educ. Columbian Coll., Washington, D. C., and Harvard Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts; ordained 1834; to Saint Louis, Missouri and est. First Congregational Society 1835, dedicated The Church of The Messiah 1851; founded Eliot Sem. (now Washington U.) 1853, Mary Institute 1859; advocated emancipation of slaves, woman suffrage, and temperance reform. Works include Discourses on the Doctrines of Christianity; The Story of Archer Alexander: From Slavery to Freedom.


(Elipandus; ca. 717–808). Abp. Toledo, Sp.; held that Christ is son of God by adoption, not by nature. See also Adoptionism.

Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg

(1510–58). Wife of Duke Eric of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Calenberg); after his death 1540 she helped A. Corvinus* introd. the Reformation into her land.

Elisabeth of Schönau

(ca. 1129–64). Rhenish Benedictine visionary. Works include Visiones; Liber viarum Dei. See also Apocalyptic Literature.

Elisabeth of the Trinity

(Elisabeth of Dijon; Marie-Joséphine Catez; 1880–1906). Carmelite mystic at Dijon convent. Works include Écrits spirituels, tr. Benedictines of Stanbrook, The Praise of Glory.


(1207–31). Wife of Landgrave Louis IV of Thuringia; devoted herself to religion and charitable works; emphasized mystical love of Christ and His presence in the poor; canonized.

Elizabethan Settlement.

The Eng. Ch. as organized under Elizabeth* I. See also England, B 6.

Elizabeth I

(1533–1603). Queen of Eng. 1558–1603. Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Steered middle course in religion; completed establishment of Angl. Ch., that is, it was made the state ch.; in 1563 she authorized the Lat. text of the Thirty-nine Articles adopted 1562; excommunicated 1570; took severe measures against dissenters. See also Anglican Confessions, 6; England, B 6; Popes, 21.

Elks, Benevolent and Protective Order of.

Organized 1868, the Elks lodge originally catered to those in pursuit of soc. enjoyment; benevolent and protective features added later est. the “fraternal” character of the order.

Activities of Elks include an obligation to charity, justice, and brotherly love; religious principles stressed in the ritual have salvation by works as their dominant note.

A blessed hereafter is assured to all mems. in good standing, burial and memorial rituals stressing an eternity of bliss in reward for faithfulness in charity, justice, and brotherly love.

In some places “Elks Clubs” have been organized which offer soc. membership without obligating on any ritual. Such membership is unauthorized by the Order and uses the “Elks” name without sanction.



(Ronsdorf Sect; Zionites). Founded 1726 in Elberfeld, Ger.; removed 1737 to Ronsdorf by Elias Eller (1690–1750), who declared that his 2d wife was divinely designated as “mother of Zion” and that she would give birth to the Savior a 2d time. After Eller's death the sect declined.

Ellermann, Louise Elisabeth

(August 3, 1884–January 11. 1957). B. Evansville, Indiana; trained for nursing Evansville; to India as 1st Missouri Syn. med. miss. 1913; discontinued work in India 1926 and returned to US; resigned from miss. service 1927.

Ellerton, John

(1826–93). B. London; educ. King William's Coll., Isle of Man, and Trin. Coll. Cambridge; held various appointments; hymnist. Works include Notes and Illustrations of Church Hymns; hymns include “Savior, Again to Thy Dear Name We Raise.”

Ellicott, Charles John

(1819–1905). B. Whitwell, near Stamford, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; ordained deacon 1846, priest 1847. Prof. King's Coll., London, 1858; also Cambridge 1860. Dean Exeter 1861; bp. Gloucester and Bristol 1863. Chairman of group that worked on NT RV Other works include Historical Lectures on the Life of Our Lord Jesus Christ.

Elliott, Charlotte

(1789–1871). Angl. hymnist; b. Clapham, London; invalid 1821; hymns include “Just as I Am, Without One Plea.”

Elliott, Julia Anne

(d. 1841). Wife of Henry Venn Elliott, brother of Charlotte Elliott*; hymnist, hymns include “Hail, Thou Bright and Sacred Morn” (known in altered versions as “Great Creator, Who This Day” and “Father, Who the Light This Day”).

Ellis, William

(August 29, 1794–June 9, 1872). B. London; LMS miss. to South Seas 1816; est. printing press at Tahiti; to Sandwich Islands 1822; to Eng. 1825; visited Malagasy Rep. (see Africa, B 9) in attempt to reintroduce Christianity 1853, 1854, 1856; reest. miss. 1862; to Eng. 1865. Works include Polynesian Researches; The Martyr Church: A Narrative of the Introduction, Progress, and Triumph of Christianity in Madagascar.

Eloheimo, John William

(December 9, 1847–December 8, 1913). B. Sahalaks, Fin.; educ. Abo (Turku), Borgo (Porvoo), and Helsingfors (Helsinki); ordained 1874; to US ca. 1887/88. Pastor Astoria, Oregon, 1888; Calumet, Michigan, 1889. Helped found Suomi Syn. See also Finnish Lutherans in America, 1–3.


(Eligius; ca. 588–ca. 660). Patron saint of goldsmiths and metalworkers; skilled metalworker; served under Merovingian kings Clotaire II and Dagobert I; later bp. Noyon, Fr., and active as miss. among Franks and Frisians.

Elven, Cornelius

(1797–1873). Bap. pastor Bury Saint Edmunds, Suffolk, Eng.; wrote the hymn “With Broken Heart and Contrite Sigh.”

Elvira, Synod of.

Convened ca. 306 at Elvira (Illiberis, or Eliberis, probably near modern Granada, Sp.); dealt with disciplinary matters; strongly condemned heathen immorality; forbade sacred pictures on walls of ch. bldgs.; approved E custom that forbids unmarried priests to marry after ordination; enjoined continence on clerics already married; canon 63 condemned abortion*. See also Agapetae; Usury, 3.


(radio station). See Africa, C 7.

Elwert, Eduard

(1805–65). B. Cannstatt, Ger.; prof. ch. hist. and hist. of dogma Zurich; as exegete, endeavored to overcome atomistic-supernatural approach to Scripture by hist.-individual approach to doctrine of inspiration; indebted to J. G. v. Herder* and F. D. E. Schleiermacher.*

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
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Content Reproduced with Permission

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