Christian Cyclopedia

About the Cyclopedia

Eichelberger, Lewis

(August 25, 1801–September 16, 1859). B. Frederick Co., Maryland; educ. at the Gen. Syn. theol. sem. at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; pastor Winchester, Virginia; principal of women's sem. there; prof. SC Syn. theol. sem., Lexington, SC


1. Albert (1856–1926). B. Garlstorf, near Lüneburg, Ger.; prof. ch. hist. Halle 1888, Kiel 1901. Helped found Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule. 2. Johann Gottfried (1752–1827). B. Dörrenzimmern, Württemberg, Ger.; Prot. theol.; hist.; educ. Göttingen; prof. oriental languages Jena 1775, philos. Göttingen 1788. See also Bauer, Georg Lorenz; Higher Criticism, 12. 3. Karl. See Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 9.

Eichmann, Eduard

(1870–1946). B. Hagenbach, Ger.; RC hist. and canonist; specialized on the relationship of ch. and state in the Middle Ages. Works include Lehrbuch des katholischen Kirchenrechts auf Grund des Codex iuris canonici.

Eidetic Science.

Term used by E. Husserl* to denote a knowledge of universal essences.

Eielsen, Elling

(1804–83). B. Voss, Norw.; Luth. lay preacher in Norw. and elsewhere in Scand. 1832–39; to Am. 1839; ordained 1843 by F. A. Hoffmann*; helped organize the Eielsen* Syn.; its pres. 1846–83. Works include a catechism.

Eielsen Synod

(Ev. Luth. Ch. in [or of] Am.; also called Elling Syn.; Ellingian Syn.; Ellingianerne). Organized 1846 at Jefferson Prairie, Wisconsin, by E. Eielsen* and others. The constitution, written by Eielsen and adopted April 13–14, made proof of conversion a condition of membership. In 1875–76 changes in emphasis led to revision of the constitution and change of name to Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. in Am. In 1876 a separation occurred, Eielsen and his followers reorganizing under the old constitution and name. The syn. faded as a syn. in the 1960s; a few congs. continued at least into the 1980s. See also Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 5–6, 12; Hauge Synod.

Eifrig, Charles William Gustav

(September 23, 1871–November 1, 1949). B. Waldheim, Ger.; to Am. 1878; educ. Fort Wayne, Indiana and St. Louis, Missouri; pastor McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, 1895–99, Cumberland, Maryland, 1899–1903, Ottawa, Ont., Can., 1903–9; president of Can. Dist. of the Missouri Syn. 1906–09; prof. natural science at the Addison (Illinois) Teachers Sem. and Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, V 6), 1909–42. Works include Our Great Outdoors, 2 vols.


In Germany, a ch. in which the local ruler or owner, spiritual or secular, appointed the clergy. See also Investiture Controversy.

Einarsson, Gissur

(Gizur; ca. 1508–48). First Luth. bp. of Iceland 1540–48; attended cathedral school, Skalholt; Ögmundur Palsson, RC bp. Skalholt, sent him to Ger. for further study; attracted to Lutheranism, but did not tell Palsson, who approved the election of Einarsson as his successor; went to Den. and received consent of Dan. king for Luth. ordination; on Einarsson's return, Palsson was arrested and taken to Den., dying perhaps en route; Einarsson was ordained in Copenhagen 1542; energetic, an efficient administrator, and poet. SP

“Ein feste Burg”

(“Ein' feste Burg”). “Battle Hymn of the Reformation”; written by M. Luther*; Eng. translations include “A Mighty Fortress.” See also Amsdorf, Nikolaus von; Luther, Hymns of.


(ca. 770–840). Confidant and biographer of Charlemagne*; architect; abbot.

Einstein, Albert

(1879–1955). B. Ulm, Ger.; naturalized Swiss at 15; prof. Zurich 1909–11, Deutsche U., Prague, 1911–12, Berlin 1914; adopted Ger. citizenship; to US 1933; mem. Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, 1933–45; naturalized Am. Contributions to science include special (1905) and gen. (1916) theory of relativity; formula for laws of gravitation and electromagnetism; formula for Brownian movement; law of photoelectric effect. Held the external world can only be grasped by speculative means since sense-perception gives only indirect information of it. Distinguished 3 stages in religious development: anthropomorphic, moral, and stage of “cosmic religion”; the last is the belief that the world is rationally ordered and that God is impersonal. Judaism, he held, is no transcendent religion; its God is “negation of superstition.” Works include The World As I See It. See also Time.

Eiriksson, Magnus

(1806–81). B. Iceland; educ. Copenhagen; private tutor in Copenhagen; Unitarian; engaged in bitter polemics against H. L. Martensen.*


Opposite of exegesis.* Reading thoughts into a text (as of the Bible) rather than drawing thoughts from it.

Eisenacher Bund.

Founded 1902 as Eisenacher Konferenz by G. Lepsius, S. Keller,* and T. Jellinghaus.* A. v. Schlatter,* K. M. A. Kähler,* and others joined the movement. Original purpose was to foster fellowship. Became Eisenacher Bund 1905; opposed sectarianism* and modernism.*


1. Martin (1535–78). Originally ev.; RC ca. 1558; leader of Counter* Reformation in Bavaria. 2. Wilhelm (1534–84). RC ch. hist.; nephew of Martin; wrote against Magdeburg Centuries of M. Flacius* Illyricus.

Eisenmenger, Johann Andreas

(1654–1704). B. Mannheim, Ger.; prof. oriental languages Heidelberg. Ed. unpointed OT 1694 with J. Leusden; other works include Entdecktes Judenthum (tr. J. P. Steckelin, The Traditions of the Jews).

Eitzen, Paul von

(1522–98). Educ. Wittenberg and Rostock; friend of M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon*; Gen. Supt. Schleswig. In 1574 introd. Gottorper ordination oath, which pledged loyalty to AC, Ap, Luther's Catechism, and SA; rejected FC for personal reasons.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.

Content Reproduced with Permission

Stay Connected! Join the LCMS Network:

Contact Us Online
(Staff Switchboard)
(Church Info Center)
1333 S Kirkwood Rd
Saint Louis, MO 63122-7226 | Directions


Featured Publication

The Lutheran Witness

LCMS Communications

Interpreting the contemporary world from a Lutheran Christian perspective.
Visit TLW Online