(15531611). B. Mühlhausen in Thüringen, Ger.; Luth. composer; pupil of O. di Lasso*; musician in household of Johann (Hans) Jakob Fugger (151679; patron of art; counselor of Duke Albert IV of Bavaria) at Augsburg 1578; court musician Königsberg 15791608, Berlin 160811. Works include songs, cantatas, motets, and settings for hymns.
Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft, ed. E. Bücken, vol. X: F. Blume, Die evangelische Kirchenmusik (New York, 1931); H. J. Moser, Geschichte der deutschen Musik, 3 vols. in 4 (Stuttgart, 192024); C. G. A. V. v. Winterfeld, Der evangellsche Kirchengesang und sein Verhältnis zur Kunst des Tonsatzes, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 184347).
(Lat. behold the man). Title of various representations of the suffering Jesus before Pilate as described Jn 19:5.
1. That part of dogmatics or doctrinal theol. which treats of the concept of the ch. chiefly according to its internal religious aspect, the holy Christian Ch., the communion of saints. 2. Science of bldg. and decorating chs. 3. Science of ecclesiastical institutions in society. 4. Science of soc. phenomena resulting directly from religious motives.
(Johann Maier, or Mayer; 14861543). B. Eck (now Egg) on the Günz, Swabia, Ger.; d. Ingolstadt; RC controversialist; educ. Heidelberg, Tübingen, Cologne, and Freiburg im Breisgau; at Freiburg came under the influence of Ulrich Zasius (14611536; humanist, and jurist); prof. Ingolstadt 151043. On friendly terms with M. Luther* 1517; soon turned against him; pub. Obelisks against Luther's theses 1518; Luther answered with Asterisks. The Leipzig* Debate was a turning point in the Reformation. Eck was unsuccessful in his plan to burn Luther's books (J. Reuchlin* opposed him at Ingolstadt). Wrote De primatu Petri adversus Ludderum ca. 1519 and went to Rome to get papal action against Luther; Leo X (see Popes, 20) issued the bull* Exsurge, Domine (see Luther, Martin, 13; Reformation, Lutheran, 9), which threatened Luther and others (e.g., W. Pirckheimer* and L. Spengler*) with excommunication. In 1530 Eck wrote 404 articles against Luther and his co-workers and was one of the main authors of the RC Confutatio (see Lutheran Confessions, A 3). Attended various colloquies (Hagenau* 1540, Worms* 1540, Regensburg* 1541). Issued a Ger. tr. of the Bible; other works include many treatises against Luther. See also Switzerland. 2.
T. Wiedemann, Dr. Johann Eck (Regensburg, 1865).
(18551920). B. Erfurt, Ger.; ev. theol.; prof. Königsberg 1900, Bonn 1903; followed the theol. of K. M. A. Kähler.* Works include Die evangelischen Landeskirchen Deutschlands im neunzehnten Jahrhundert; Die theologische Schule Albrecht Ritschls and die evangelische Kirche der Gegenwart; Unverrückbare Grenzsteine.
(March 26, 1868January 24, 1938). B. Frankenberg, Saxony, Ger.; to US 1884; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor near Byron. Nebraska, 18911904; Blair, Nebraska, 190411; Battle Creek, Nebraska, 191121. Mo. Syn. statistician 192138. Literary ed. Amerikanischer Kalender für deutsche Lutheraner; Lutheran Annual. Other works include Homiletisches Reallexikon nebst Index Rerum.
(January 31, 1866May 11, 1949). B. Reisterstown, Baltimore Co., Maryland; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Cleveland, Ohio 1889; joined The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri* and other States 1898; pastor Jersey City, New Jersey, 1909; Mo. Syn. pastor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1911. Pres. The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri and Other States 190511; Mo. Syn. Eng. Dist. 191112; Mo. Syn. vice-pres. 191726; pres. American* Luth. Publicity Bureau. Works include Confirmation Booklet; The English District.
(Meister Eckhardt; Eckart; Eckardt; Eccard; Eckehart; ca. 1260ca. 1327). B. Thuringia; Ger. Dominican theol., mystic, preacher; founded Ger. mysticism and philos. language. Magister theol. Paris 1302; Dominican provincial, Saxony, 1303; vicar-gen. Bohemia, with power to reform convents 1307; taught at Paris, Strasbourg, Cologne (H. Suso* and J. Tauler* his pupils); charged at Cologne with teaching pantheism, but disclaimed it. Tried to explain the mysteries of the Trin. and the relation bet. Creator and man. Influenced by Aristotle,* Augustine* of Hippo, Neoplatonism,* Avicenna (see Arabic Philosophy), Thomas* Aquinas, et al. Works include Opus tripartitum; commentaries; sermons.
Meister Eckhart, ed. F. Pfeiffer, tr. C. de B. Evans (London, 1924); Meister Eckhart, tr. R. B. Blakney (New York, 1941); H. Bornkamm, Eckhart und Luther (Stuttgart, 1936); J. Ancelet-Hustache, Master Eckhart and the Rhineland Mystics, tr. H. Graef (New York, 1957); Meister Eckhart: Die deutschen und lateinischen Werke, pub. under auspices of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Stuttgart, 1936 ).
(religious enthusiasm*). Abnormal mental condition or state of exaltation or rapture that preoccupies mind and feelings. In the practice of some heathen religions narcotics, intoxicants, and other means are used to experience the ecstatic state. Some Christian sects use fasting, contemplation, music, psychol., emotional appeals. See also Mysticism.
(Ekthesis; Gk. a setting forth). Edict issued 638 by E Roman emp. Heraclius (ca. 575641; emp. 610641); accepted by syns. of Constantinople 638 and 639; forbade mentioning either I energy or 2 energies in the person of Christ; advocated monothelitism.* See also Sergius (d. 638).
Creeds called ecumenical: Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian. Ecumenical means worldwide, gen., or universal. Though not all these creeds are used by all chs., they are used by chs. throughout the world.
The Apostles' Creed is characteristically Western. The Nicene Creed in its original form (without filioque [see Filioque Controversy]) is the chief confession in the E Ch. The Athanasian Creed has been in the Russ. liturgy since the 17th c. and was used for a time in the Gk. liturgy beginning 1780.
The Luth. (see Book of Concord), Angl. (see Anglican Confessions, 1), and RC Chs. (see Roman Catholic Confessions) have included the 3 creeds in their Confessions. But the Prot. Episc. Ch. in the US refused to include the Athanasian Creed in its liturgy 1785, 1786, 1789 (see also Protestant Episcopal Church, 5). The Ref. bodies, though gen. endorsing the Christological doctrines of the Nicene and Athanasian Creeds, adhered chiefly to the Apostles' Creed and inc. it in their catechisms, e.g., the Heidelberg Catechism (see Reformed Confessions, D 2).
A. Apostles' Creed.
1. This creed was not formulated by councils of theologians but grew spontaneously out of the needs of the living ch.
2. The tradition that the Creed was composed on Pent. or shortly thereafter by the 12 apostles, each contributing an article, is stated, e.g., by T. Rufinus* ca. 403 in Commentarius in symbolum apostolorum and in the Explanatio symboli ad initiandos, usually ascribed to Ambrose.* This view was embodied in the Catechismus Romanus (see Roman Catholic Confessions, A 3). Some Luths. defended the tradition. The theory was attacked by L. Valla* and D. Erasmus* and ultimately proved false on basis of intrinsic improbability, silence of the Scriptures, silence of ante-Nicene fathers, and various forms extant in the early ch.
3. The Creed grew from NT beginnings (e.g., Mt 10:3233; Jn 1:49; 6:69; 11:27; 20:28; Acts 8:37: 14:15; 2 Co 13:14; 1 Ptr 1:2). The confession of Peter (Mt 16:16) and the baptismal formula (Mt 28:19) influenced the development of the Creed esp. More developed creedal statements are found in such ch. fathers as Ignatius of Antioch (see Apostolic Fathers, 2) and Justin* Martyr. For a long time the Creed was usually memorized but not written (disciplina* arcani). It was explained to the catechumens in the last stages of their preparation. The ante-Nicene fathers called the early forms of the Creed the rule* of faith, rule of truth. apostolic tradition. and symbol. Such rules of faith are mentioned by Irenaeus,* Tertullian,* Novatian,* Cyprian* of Carthage, and Origen.*
4. That the Creed developed indep. in different regions is shown by the differences existing among early creeds. The Old Roman creed read: I believe in God the Father Almighty; and in Christ Jesus, His only (begotten) Son, our Lord; and in the Holy Spirit, the holy church, the forgiveness of sins, (and) the resurrection of the flesh. A longer form finally became standard in the West. T. Rufinus* gives a Lat. version; Marcellus* of Ancyra gives it in Gk. Later additions were made (descended to hell in a 4th c. creed; catholic from Eastern usage; communion of saints [see Communio sanctorum] in a commentary on the creed by Niceta[s]* of Remesiana) until the present form triumphed in the W (6th8th c.) as a result of RC efforts.
5. Though secondary in the E Ch., the Apostles' Creed is a strong bond of union bet. all ages and sections of Christianity. It was highly regarded e.g. by Augustine* of Hippo, M. Luther,* and J. Calvin.* Attacking this creed is tantamount to attacking Scripture.
B. Nicene Creed (Symbolum Nicaeno-Constantinopolitanum).
a. The Nicene Creed of 325 grew out of the immediate necessity of safeguarding the apostolic teaching concerning the deity of Christ against the Arian heresy. It closed with the words and in the Holy Ghost but added an anathema against Arians.
b. The Constantinopolitan Creed is so called because, when presented to the Council of Chalcedon* 451, it was ascribed to the 381 Council of Constantinople.* It differs slightly from the Nicene Creed of 325 and has a long 3d article asserting the true deity of the Holy Spirit.
c. The 3d form differs from the others by including the word filioque. The E Orthodox Ch. held to the monarchia (sole rule) of the Father and the single procession of the Spirit; it differentiated the latter from the temporal mission of the Spirit from the Father and the Son. The addition of filioque emphasized the procession from the Father and the Son. In the 11th c. the RC Ch. added the word to the Creed; this led to the great schism* bet. E and W (see also Filioque Controversy).
2. The Nicene Creed, more than the Apostles' Creed, echoes sharp distinctions (e.g., begotten, not made) drawn by the orthodox against heresies.
C. Athanasian Creed (Symbolum Quicunque).
1. The 3d and last of the creeds called ecumenical. Its origin is obscure. Since the 9th c. it has been ascribed to Athanasius*; this view has been contested since the 17th c. and is today rejected (early councils do not mention this creed; it was written in Lat., whereas Athanasius wrote in Gk.; it presupposes later heresies: Nestorianism,* Eutychianism*). It seems to have originated in Gaul or N Afr. as a summary of the doctrinal decisions of the 1st 4 ecumenical councils. It also seeks to state the doctrine of the Trinity* in Augustinian terms.
2. By the 9th c. this creed was in the liturgy in Ger. and was used at prime (see Hours, Canonical). Luther regarded it as possibly the grandest production of the ch. since the time of the apostles. EL
See also Te Deum.
F. J. Badcock, The History of the Creeds, 2d ed. (London, 1938); H. A. Blair, A Creed Before the Creeds (New York, 1955); A. E. Burn, An Introduction to the Creeds and to the Te Deum (London. 1899): J. H. Crehan, Early Christian Baptism and the Creed (London, 1950); O. Cullmann, The Earliest Christian Confessions, tr. J. K. S. Reid (London, 1949); F. W. Danker, Creeds in the Bible (St. Louis, 1966); P. Feine, Die Gestalt des apostolischen Glaubensbekenntnisses in der Zeit des Neuen Testaments (Leipzig, 1925); A. Hahn, Bibliothek der Symbole und Glaubensregeln der alten Kirche, ed. G. L. Hahn, 3d ed. (Breslau, 1897); F. Kattenbusch, Das apostolische Symbol, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 18941900); J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 2d ed. (New York, 1960) and The Athanasian Creed (New York, 1964); H. Lietzmann, Symbole der alten Kirche (Bonn, 1914); P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, 3 vols., first issued 1877, vol. 1 6th ed., vol. 3 4th ed. (New York, 1919); T. Zahn, Das apostolische Symbolum (Leipzig, 1893).
1. The Ecumenical Movement, a major 20th c. ecclesiastical development, is a many-sided effort to overcome existing divisions in the ch. and to manifest the unity of the ch. as the body of Christ. It finds its text in Jesus' prayer: that they may all be one; even as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee. (Jn 17:21)
2. Though the term Ecumenical Movement is applied to a 20th c. development, the phenomenon that it describes has always been present in the ch. Even before Christians were separated into major denominational families the ch. put forth considerable effort to maintain unity in the face of heresy and schism; unity was a primary purpose of the early ecumenical councils (see Councils and Synods, 4). After the ch. split into E and W (see Schism, 6) there were several unsuccessful attempts at reunion, culminating at the Council of Ferrara-Florence, 143839 (see Basel, Council of).
3. At the time of the Reformation and afterward numerous efforts to overcome resulting fragmentation of the ch. were gen. unsuccessful in healing the breach bet. RCs, Luths., Ref., and Anglicans. In 19th-c. Protestantism there were several major unitive efforts: the Prussian* Union of 1817 and other instances of Luth.-Ref. union; Angl. efforts to est. intercommunion with other chs.; voluntary movements that united Christians of all denominations increasingly interested in the miss., educ., and moral concerns of the ch.; the Evangelical* Alliance, an assoc. of individuals committed to basic ev. theol. and opposition to RCm; the formation of world fellowships.
4. In the 20th c., concern for ch. unity developed into a full-fledged, comprehensive movement that affected all chs., including those that remained outside ecumenical organizations (e.g., the RC Ch., LCMS, S Baps.). The Ecumenical Movement is composed of many movements, including efforts to unite Christians for miss. work, Christian service, and theol. discussions. It tries to bring Christians of separate denominations together in councils, agencies, and federations and achieve organic union both bet. chs. of the same denomination and bet. those of different denominations. The movement reaches also beyond ecumenical organizations into theol. dialog and other exchanges bet. local groups of Christians.
5. Impetus for the modern Ecumenical Movement can be traced to the 1910 World Missionary Conference, Edinburgh. The Ecumenical Movement arose from the miss. movement; the church's concern for miss. has nurtured the concern for unity. The Edinburgh conf. was a consultative assem. that brought together delegates of miss. socs. at work in non-Christian lands. It was the result of a demonstrated need for cooperation in carrying out the church's miss.; from it flowed 3 main streams of ecumenical activity: cooperation in missions, discussions of faith and order, and a common concern to apply the Christian faith to practical problems.
6. From a continuation committee est. by the 1910 conf. the Internat.* Missionary Council emerged 1921 under leadership of John Raleigh Mott (18651955), chm. of the 1910 conf. and a dominant figure in the Ecumenical Movement in its 1st decades. Composed of official representatives of miss. associations, the Internat. Miss. Council served as an agency for coordination and cooperation on miss. fields, for study of common miss. problems, and for counsel to missionaries and miss. chs. It sponsored several miss. conferences and was integrated with the WCC 1961 as its Commission on World Mission and Evangelism.
7. Episc. miss.-bp. Charles Henry Brent (18621929) came away from the 1910 Edinburgh conf. convinced that it was time for chs. to take up issues of faith and order in an attempt to resolve differences. Under his leadership the Prot. Episc. Ch. in the US extended an invitation to all chs. of the world to join in sponsoring a World Conference on Faith and Order. WW I and post-war problems delayed the conf., held 1927 at Lausanne. It brought together official representatives of all major denominations except RC, to discuss uniting and dividing issues for the 1st time.
8. The success of the Lausanne Conf. initiated the Faith and Order Movement, which tries to bring official ch. representatives together for systematic theol. discussion. Other world confs. on Faith and Order: Edinburgh 1937, Lund 1952, Montreal 1963. The Faith and Order Movement was absorbed by the WCC 1948. Faith and Order confs. demonstrated both how much unity in faith exists and how great the difficulty is in resolving differences in faith and order.
9. The 1910 Edinburgh conf. showed that cooperation bet. Christians is possible despite division. Some held that chs. should cooperate in areas other than miss. In 1914 threat of major war led to formation of the World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship Through the Churches. At the close of WW I this organization led the way in bringing ch. representatives together for consideration of other internat. and soc. problems. A conference on Life and Work was held 1920 Geneva. Under leadership of Luth. Abp. N. Söderblom* of Uppsala, a Universal Christian Conference on Life and Work was held in Stockholm 1925 to encourage Christian cooperation in treating soc. ills. Under the assumption that Christians could and should cooperate in works of love and service despite differences in faith, the Universal Christian Council for Life and Work was organized a few yrs. later (name adopted 1930) to strengthen the fellowship of chs. in the application of Christian ethics to modern soc. problems. A 2d Conf. on Life and Work was held at Oxford 1937 to deal with ch-state problems.
10. It soon became evident that the Faith and Order and the Life and Work movements needed to be more closely related. Leadership in both was often the same; theol. differences often were at the root of differences in how to deal with soc. and internat. problems. Therefore the 1937 Faith and Order and Life and Work confs. recommended formation of a World* Council of Churches incorporating the activity of both movements. Delayed by WW II, the WCC came into being 1948 at Amsterdam with a membership of 147 Prot., Episc., Luth., and E Orthodox chs.
11. The WCC works through an Assem. consisting of official representatives of mem. chs. The Assem. meets ca. every 6 yrs. Assemblies since Amsterdam: Evanston, Illinois, 1954; New Delhi 1961; Uppsala, Sweden, 1968. Between assemblies WCC affairs are handled by a Central Committee of ca. 100. The WCC has 3 commissions: The Commission on Faith and Order, which holds confs, for theol. discussion; The Commission of the Churches on International Affairs, which continues in a new form the work of the Life and Work movement; The Commission on World Mission and Evangelism, which incorporates the concerns and activity of the former Internat. Miss. Council.
12. The Ecumenical Movement is broader and more diverse than the WCC It includes less official but influential internat. and interdenominational organizations, e.g., the Young* Men's Christian Association and the Young* Women's Christian Association, the Student* Christian Movement, and the World* Council of Christian Education and Sunday School Association. As counterpart of efforts to unite Christians in world organizations, local and nat. councils of chs. have been formed. The NCC was organized 1950, incorporating the Federal* Council of the Churches of Christ in America and other agencies of cooperation (see Union Movements, 13).
13. A major phase of the Ecumenical Movement is the effort to bring about organic union of separated chs. Too many mergers have taken place since 1910 to mention in detail. Merger efforts in gen. have been successful in bringing together separate chs. within a denominational family. The est. and the United Free ch. of Scot. merged 1929; the major Meth. chs. of the US united 1939; several mergers produced The American* Lutheran Church 1960 and the Lutheran* Church in America 1962.
14. Some important mergers have crossed denominational lines. In 1925 the United ch. of Can. resulted from mergers of 40 bodies after 19 acts of union (see Canada, C). In 1947 the Church* of South India was formed out of Angl., Meth., Presb., Cong., and Ev. components, a notable union because of its disposition of the episcopacy question. In Ger. in 1948 Luth., Ref., and union chs. est. a fed., the Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (EKD Ev. ch. in Ger.), which does not, however, include intercommunion (see Union Movements, 89). In the US a Consultation on Church Union has brought representatives of major Prot. chs. together to consider organic union.
15. For decades the RC Ch. remained aloof from the Ecumenical Movement. It declined an invitation to take part in the Lausanne Conf. on Faith and Order; in 1928 Pius XI (see Popes, 32) stated in effect in the encyclical Mortalium Animos that the one way to unity was through return to the RC Ch.; RCs were forbidden to attend the Amsterdam Assem. of the WCC 1948.
16. Vatican* Council II produced a major change in attitude toward the Ecumenical Movement among RCs John XXIII (see Popes, 34) stated that Christian unity was one of the major aims of the Council and invited other chs. to send official observers, calling non-RC Christians separated brothers. Official RC observers attended the 1961 WCC Assem. at New Delhi. The Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity, est. 1960, became an instrument for directing ecumenical discussion. As a result of the action of pope and council, RCs everywhere entered the Ecumenical Movement. Though the RC Ch. has not become part of any major ecumenical organizations, it has developed an approach to dialog with the WCC and the Lutheran* World Federation and engages in considerable dialog on a local level.
17. Involvement of the RC Ch. in the Ecumenical Movement has important implications for the future of the movement. RC participation raises new problems and new possibilities as chs. continue efforts for unity.
A History of the Ecumenical Movement, 15171948, ed. R. Rouse and S. C. Neill (Philadelphia, 1954); N. Goodall, The Ecumenical Movement (London, 1961); S. McC. Cavert, On the Road to Christian Unity (New York, 1961); W. R. Hogg, Ecumenical Foundations: A History of the International Missionary Council And Its Nineteenth-Century Background (New York, 1952) and One World, One Mission (New York, 1960); J. T. McNeill, Unitive Protestantism, rev. ed. (Richmond, Virginia, 1964). JHT
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