(Abdhiso bar Berikha; ca. 12501318). Metropolitan of Nisibis, Armenia; one of the last prominent Nestorians (see Nestorianism) who wrote in Syriac. Works include The Pearl (a dogmatic work); poetry; catalog of Syriac authors; collection of ecclesiastical canons.
(17841861). B. Passenheim, E Prussia; theosophist (see Theosophy); Luth. pastor Königsberg 1810; deposed 1841; found refuge with pietists in Ludwigsburg. Influenced by J. H. Schönherr*; taught pneumatologic harmony of knowledge and faith. Emphasized dualism (light nature - darkness nature), primary (haupt) and secondary (neben) natures. Aimed at restoration of the divine image and renewal of the cosmos.
(163776). B. Lüneburg, Ger.; musical dir. and teacher at St. Nicholas Ch., Berlin; composed melodies for many of P. Gerhardt's* hymns; prof. music and Gk. at Gymnasium Carolinum, Stettin 1668. Issued Pauli Gerhardt geistliche Andachten, a collection of 120 sacred songs.
(151169). B. Kitzingen, Bavaria; educ. Nürnberg and Wittenberg; prof. Lat. 1541, Heb. 1557 Wittenberg; castle preacher, later city preacher and gen. supt. of electorate 1558; assoc. with Melanchthon; poet. Hymns include Helft mir Gott's Güte preisen; Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir; Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein; Herr Jesu Christ, wahr'r Mensch und Gott. See also Altenburg Colloquy.
C. H. Sixt, Dr. Paul Eber, der Schüler, Freund und Amtsgenosse der Reformatoren (Heidelberg, 1843); T. Pressel, Paul Eber, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII in vol. 4 (Elberfeld, 1862), separate pagination 1108; G. Buchwald, D. Paul Eber, der Freund, Mitarbeiter und Nachfolger der Reformatoren (Leipzig, 1897).
(January 3, 1831April 27, 1893). B. Lauffen, Württemberg; educ. Basel Miss. Inst. (see Basel Missionary Society); to Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1860 in response to F. Schmid(t)'s* plea for help; Michigan Syn. miss.; pastor St. Paul's, Saginaw, 1861; stood for sound Lutheranism; Father of Michigan Sem.; helped found 2d Michigan Syn. and was its pres. 188190. See also Michigan Synod.
B. Béthune, Fr.; teacher and literary historian of Flanders. Works include Graecismus de figuris et octo partibus orationis, a long Lat. poem on rhetoric, prosody, grammar, and syntax; also ascribed to him: Liber antihaeresis, against Cathari* and Waldenses.*
(von Günzburg) (ca. 14681533). B. Kleinkötz, near Günzburg, Bavaria; Franciscan preacher Tübingen, Ulm, and Freiburg; gained for Reformation through Luther's writings; strove for peace and order during Peasants'* War. Works include Wie sich ein Diener Gottes Worts in all seinem Thun halten soll.
(170262). B. Jettingen, Bavaria; composer; organist Salzburg. Works include oratorios, toccatas and fugues, masses, motets, sonatas, and preludes.
(Heb. poor). Some early writers derive the name Ebionites from an otherwise undocumented man named Ebion, but it is now gen. regarded as derived from the Heb. word (ebjÊn) for poor, reflecting asceticism. Term perhaps first applied to Christians in gen., then esp. to Jewish Christians at Jerusalem (cf. Gl 2:10). Origen uses it for Jewish Christians. It was applied also to an extreme Judaistic sect of the 2d c. that gen. professed loyalty to the Torah* reinterpreted to harmonize with tenets of varying groups and that apparently practiced severe asceticism. Jesus was regarded as the Messiah but not divine, nor born of a virgin; Paul was rejected; they used a Heb. Gospel apparently based on Matthew.
(12771356). Of Nürnberg; not related to Margareta; prioress Dominican nunnery Engeltal, near Nürnberg; mystic, prominent in the Friends* of God movement.
(18821931). B. Wiener Neustadt, Austria; teacher, Gablitz, Austria; exponent of an I-Thou philos.; acc. to his view man is a personality because he can address and be addressed by a Thou; for the I to shut itself off from the Thou is the essence of sin and leads to I-loneliness. Works include Das Wort und die geistigen Realitäten. See also I-It and I-Thou.
(12911351). Of Donauwörth; not related to Christina; Dominican mystic; lived in nunnery Medingen, near Dillingen; prominent in the Friends* of God movement.
(181888). B. Erlangen; educ. Erlangen and Berlin; prof. Zurich and Erlangen; held mediating position bet. orthodoxy and F. D. E. Schleiermacher*; his doctrine on the Lord's Supper and predestination tried to reconcile Luths. and Ref.; justification explained in light of regeneration.
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