In Biblical criticism the letter E is the symbol for one of the alleged sources of the Pentateuch. See also Higher Criticism, 613.
Organized 1898 in Seattle, Washington, for mutual benefit, protection, improvement, and soc. enjoyment; requires belief in a Supreme Being; stresses betterment of lives. Ritual, initiation, and memorial services are set in a religious framework that promises eternal salvation in the Grand Aerie beyond to all mems. of the order. Local branches are called aeries and the headquarters grand aerie. The order offers beneficial (sick and death benefits) and nonbeneficial memberships, both only on basis of initiation into the order. 1967 membership ca. 850,000. PHL
Formed after WW I as a section of the Allgemeine Evangelisch-Protestantische Missionsverein, of which it was a part till 1939. Collaboration with the Swiss and Ger. bds. alternated with the ebb and flow of the tides of war, leading finally to closer connection with the Swiss than with the Ger.; no miss. stations of its own. See also East Asia Mission, German; East Asia Mission, Swiss; General Evangelical Protestant Mission Society.
(SEAM). Began 1884 as part of the Allgemeine Evangelisch-Protestantische Missionsverein; indep. after WW II; active esp. in Jap. See also East Asia Mission, German; General Evangelical Protestant Mission Society.
The day of Christ's resurrection from the dead. Easter duty obligates RCs to receive Holy Communion at Easter time (1st Sunday in Lent to Trin. Sunday in the US; Ash Wednesday to Low* Sunday in Eng.; Ash Wednesday to the octave of SS. Peter and Paul [July 6] in Ireland; 1st Sunday in Lent to the octave of the Ascension in Scot., or in some places to Low Sunday). See also Church Year; Easter Controversy; Pasch; Sunday Letter.
Arose from lack of uniform time of celebrating the Christian Passover. The E Ch. commemorated the death of Christ on the 14th (hence Quartodecimans, from Lat. for 14th) of Nisan, and as a result on any day of the week; the W commemorated the death of Christ on a Friday and the resurrection on the Sunday following. The former practice emphasized Christ's death, the latter His resurrection. The difference was discussed by Polycarp* and Anicetus.* Under Victor* I it almost led to a schism. The 325 Council of Nicaea* declared itself against the Quartodecimans, who were henceforth treated as heretics. In the W the controversy was ended by the Syn. of Whitby.* See also Church Year, 7; Polycrates; Sunday Letter.
Gregory* XIII ordered the Julian calendar revised 1582 in this way, that Thursday, October 4, be followed by Friday, October 15, giving the month 21 days that yr.; the Eng. parliament adopted this New Style when it ordered that in 1752 Wednesday, September 2, be followed by Thursday, September 14, giving the month 19 days that yr. The resultant calendar in common use among us is New Style Gregorian (see Gregorian Calendar), with Easter dates (M is March. A is April):
2001 A 15 2026 A 5 2051 A 2 2076 A 19
2002 M 31 2027 M 28 2052 A 21 2077 A 11
2003 A 20 2028 A 16 2053 A 6 2078 A 3
2004 A 11 2029 A 1 2054 M 29 2079 A 23
2005 M 27 2030 A 21 2055 A 18 2080 A 7
2006 A 16 2031 A 13 2056 A 2 2081 M 30
2007 A 8 2032 M 28 2057 A 22 2082 A 19
2008 M 23 2033 A 17 2058 A 14 2083 A 4
2009 A 12 2034 A 9 2059 M 30 2084 M 26
2010 A 4 2035 M 25 2060 A 18 2085 A 15
2011 A 24 2036 A 13 2061 A 10 2086 M 31
2012 A 8 2037 A 5 2062 M 26 2087 A 20
2013 M 31 2038 A 25 2063 A 15 2088 A 11
2014 A 20 2039 A 10 2064 A 6 2089 A 3
2015 A 5 2040 A 1 2065 M 29 2090 A 16
2016 M 27 2041 A 21 2066 A 11 2091 A 8
2017 A 16 2042 A 6 2067 A 3 2092 M 30
2018 A 1 2043 M 29 2068 A 22 2093 A 12
2019 A 21 2044 A 17 2069 A 14 2094 A 4
2020 A 12 2045 A 9 2070 M 30 2095 M 24
2021 A 4 2046 M 25 2071 A 19 2096 A 15
2022 A 17 2047 A 14 2072 A 10 2097 M 31
2023 A 9 2048 A 5 2073 M 26 2098 A 20
2024 M 31 2049 A 18 2074 A 15 2099 A 12
2025 A 20 2050 A 10 2075 A 7
See also Sunday Letter.
1. Developed in E (Byzantine; Oriental) part of Roman Empire as distinguished from the W (Roman; Occidental) part; often referred to collectively as the Oriental Ch., Gk. Ch., Greco-Slav Ch., E Orthodox Ch., Orthodox Cath. Ch., Orthodox Cath. Ch. of the E. Ch. of the 7 Ecumenical Councils, Holy Orthodox Cath. Apostolic E Ch.; to be distinguished from Assyrian (or Nestorian: see Nestorianism) and Monophysite* chs. of the E.
2. History. Almost from the beginning a difference of opinion bet. the E and W parts of the ch. appeared which may, in part, be accounted for by differences in language and temperament. Though the E produced most of the prominent early fathers, e.g., Ignatius, Polycarp, Papias (see Apostolic Fathers, 2, 3, 4). Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa (see Cappadocian Theologians), Clement* of Alexandria, Origen,* Eusebius* of Caesarea, Athanasius,* John Chrysostom,* Cyril* of Alexandria, and Cyril* of Jerusalem, and though it had the strong sees of Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Constantinople (earlier name: Byzantium) to represent it at ecumenical councils, in the first 7 of which it largely assumed theol. leadership (see Councils and Synods, 4), yet its productive period did not survive the attack of Islam*; the W Ch., with only one great see, Rome, became the more influential in Christendom. Evidences of difference in spirit appeared in the Easter* Controversy and at the Council of Nicaea,* which failed to settle the Arian controversy and led to further conflict; it became more pronounced in the Iconoclastic* Controversy; it became more bitter in the Filioque* Controversy and the veiled accusation of heterodoxy attending its discussions; it culminated in the mutual recriminations and condemnations and attending declarations of excommunication in 1054 (see Schism, 4, 6). Meanwhile John* of Damascus, last great theol. of the E Orthodox Ch., had summed up results of labors of some of the fathers in a fairly complete system of theology. Between the 1054 schism and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks 1453 there were such teachers as Theophylact* and Euthymius* Zigabenus. In the 9th and 10th c., the E Orthodox Ch. had made a great conquest in the conversion of Slavs, in whose territory it has maintained itself to the present. The Russian (Bolshevik) Revolution of 1917 all but liquidated the E Orthodox Ch. in Russia. But since 1941 there has been a recovery of the ch., and the Soviet state again tolerates it. See also Russia.
3. Doctrinal Position. During the period of the first 7 ecumenical councils (see Councils and Synods, 4) the E Ch. was orthodox in doctrine, except for rejecting the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son (see Ecumenical Creeds, B 1 c.; Filioque Controversy). For almost 9 cents. after the 787 Council of Nicaea the E Ch. accepted no further symbols and made no collection representing its doctrinal position. Its chief characteristic has been a tenacious adherence to old forms. Innovations were viewed as heresies. No changes in liturgy, doctrinal formulations, and ch. polity were countenanced. This accounts for the fact that the E Ch. has not followed the RC Ch. in such innovations as priestly despotism of the penitential system, introduction of sacerdotal celibacy, and absolute supremacy and infallibility of the pope (see Roman Catholic Confessions). The mysteries (sacraments) are the heritage of Christ or the apostles; in them a visible sign is combined with some invisible factor; both soul and body are benefited. Christian piety is systematized. Icons are used. Intercession, invocation, and veneration of saints is taught. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine.
4. Liturgy. The purpose of all services, mysteries (sacraments), and sacramentals, and of the veneration of relics and icons is to unite the believer mystically with God. The belief that the sacraments impart the divine life is reflected esp. in pub. worship. Union with God is est. through visible and tangible means. The Divine Liturgy is regarded as the crowning service, because all others draw their central sanctification from it, because it was celebrated by Christ, and because it joins the believer, by communion of the body and blood of Christ, to the source of all graces. See also Divine Liturgy.
5. Polity. E Orthodox chs. are a group of self-governing chs. without centralized organization. The ancient patriarchates: Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem; Constantinople is regarded by many as having primacy of honor. Patriarchates formed later: Bulgaria 917, Serbia (Yugoslavia) 1346, Moscow 1589, and Romania 1925. The chs. of Cyprus, Sinai, Greece, Poland, Albania, and Czechoslovakia are indep. (autocephalous*). Others (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, China, Japan, Macedonia, 3 Russ. chs. outside Russ., Ukrainians, and Ruthenians abroad) have some self-govt. and are called autonomous, though canonically bound to a patriarchate. Bps. constitute the highest authority (singly in diocese; jointly in larger territories).
Relation to the Reformation. In the last half of the 16th c. leaders of the Luth. Ref. est. contact with the patriarch of Constantinople. A Gk. tr. of the AC sent to Joasaph 1559 apparently did not reach him. In 156984 D. Chytraeus* issued information on the E Orthodox Church. In 157381 M. Crusius.* Jakob Andrea,* L. Osiander* the Elder and others corresponded with Jeremias* II. C. Lucaris* favored Ref. doctrine; he gathered no great permanent following. In the 2d half of the 17th c. a reaction against Protestantism set in. In the 19th and 20th cents. overtures of the Angl. Ch. to est. fraternal relations with E Orthodox Chs. have helped to break down the wall that formerly separated E Chs. from the Prot. Chs. of Europe. Some E Orthodox Chs. took part in the Faith and Order Movement and in the WCC (see also Ecumenical Movement, 8, 10, 11; Union Movements, 15). See also Demetrius of Thessalonica.
6. American Eastern Orthodox Bodies. In Am., the E Ch. is represented by the Albanian Orthodox Archdiocese in Am.; Albanian Orthodox Diocese of Am.; The Am. Carpatho-Russ. Orthodox Gk. Cath. Ch.; The Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America; Bulgarian E Orthodox Ch. (Diocese of New York and Diocese of Akron [Am. Bulgarian Diocese of N. & S. Am. and Australia]); Ch. of the E (Assyrians); E. Orthodox Cath. Ch. in Am.; Gk. Orthodox Archdiocese of N. and S. Am.; Holy Orthodox Ch. in Am. (E Cath. and Apostolic), Holy Ukrainian Autocephalic Orthodox Ch. in Exile; The Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of Am.; The Russ. Orthodox Ch. Outside Russ.; The Orthodox Ch. in Am.; Serbian E. Orthodox Ch. in the USA and Can.; Syrian Orthodox Ch. of Antioch (Archdiocese of the US and Can.); Ukrainian Orthodox Ch. of Am. (Ecumenical Patriarchate); Ukrainian Orthodox Ch. in the USA
See also Altar Bread.
S. N. Bulgakov, The Orthodox Church [ed. D. A. Lowrie, tr. E. S. Gram] ([London] 1935); R. M. French, The Eastern Orthodox Church (London, 1951); Die Orthodoxe Kirche in griechischer Sicht, ed. P. I. Bratsiotis (Mpratsiotes), 2 vols. (Stuttgart. 195960); C. N. Callinicos, The Greek Orthodox Catechism (New York, 1953; 2d print. 1960); N. Zernov, Eastern Christendom (New York, 1961); D. Attwater, The Christian Churches of the East, rev. ed., 2 vols. (Milwaukee, 196162); J. Meyendorff, The Orthodox Church, tr. J. Chapin (New York, 1962); E. Benz, The Eastern Orthodox Church, tr. R. and C. Winston (Chicago, 1963); A. Schmemann. The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy, tr. L. W. Kesich (New York, 1963); T. Ware, The Orthodox Church (Baltimore, 1964); D. J. Constantelos, The Greek Orthodox Church: Faith, History, and Practice (New York, 1967).
The whole E Orthodox Ch. accepts the doctrinal decisions of the 7 oldest ecumenical councils (see Councils and Synods, 4). Some add the Quinisext* (ca. 691692) and the one held 879880 at Constantinople under Photius.* After these councils the doctrinal system in the E Orthodox Ch. remained fixed till manifestos were evoked against Romanism and Protestantism in the 17th c.
A. Confessions Formally Endorsed.
1. The Orthodox Confession of the Faith of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church, written ca. 1640 by P. Mogila* as a catechism for the Russ. Ch., revised, sanctioned 1643 by a Gk. and Russ. syn., sanctioned again 1672 at Jerusalem, was a defensive measure against RCm (Jesuits*) and Protestantism (Calvinism,* promoted by C. Lucaris*; see par. C below). It treats doctrine under 3 heads: Faith (Nicene Creed), Hope (Lord's Prayer, Beatitudes) and Love (virtues, vices, and the Decalog).
2. Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem, or Confession of Dositheus* (1672). The 1672 syn. at Jerusalem is the most important in the modern hist. of the E Ch. and may be compared to the Council of Trent.* It issued a new Defense, or Apology, of E Orthodoxy directed chiefly against the Calvinism of C. Lucaris* and his followers. It endorsed the answers given by Jeremias* II to M. Crusius,* sanctioned the confession of P. Mogila,* and condemned that of C. Lucaris. It consists of Six Chapters and Confession of Dositheus. The latter contains 18 decrees: (1) single procession of the Spirit; (2) Scripture not of private, but ecclesiastical interpretation; (3) double election is conditioned on man's use of his free will; (4) creation; (5) providence; (6) sin, with Christ and Mary exempt; (7) incarnation, death, resurrection, ascension, and judgment of Christ; (8) work of Christ - He is the only Mediator, but Mary, saints, and angels bring petitions to Him; (9) faith, which works by love, alone saves; (10) Cath. and Apostolic Ch. contains all believers, and bps. are necessary; (11) mems. of the ch. are those who hold the faith of Christ, apostles, and holy syns.; (12) the Cath. Ch. cannot err or be deceived; (13) man justified by faith and works; (14) in the fall man did not lose his intellectual and moral nature or free will; (15) 7 sacraments; (16) necessity and effect of Baptism; (17) Eucharist both a sacrament and a sacrifice; (18) souls of dead are either at rest or in torment (those dying in penitence but without satisfaction go to Hades, whence they may be delivered by prayers of priests, alms, unbloody sacrifice of the mass).
3. Synods of Constantinople (1672, 1691). The 1st adopted a statement in harmony with the Confession of Dositheus; the 2d condemned logothete John Caryophylles, who accepted views of C. Lucaris.*
5. Answers of Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople to Lutherans. When Jakob Andreä* and M. Crusius* sent the AC to Jeremias* II they received in his Answers (1576) a rejection of nearly all distinctive Luth. doctrines.
B. Private Confessions.
2. Of Metrophanes* Kritop(o)ulos (1625). Metrophanes was sent by C. Lucaris* to study theol. in Eng. and on the Continent; became close friend of G. Calixtus,* at whose request he prepared the confession, which opposed Romanism but was conciliatory to Protestantism.
See also Eastern Orthodox Churches. 3.
P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, rev. eds., 3 vols. (New York, vol. 1 preface date 1931); W. Walther, Lehrbuch der Symbolik (Leipzig, 1924); C. N. Callinicos, The Greek Orthodox Catechism (New York, 1953; 2d print. 1960); Die Orthodoxe Kirche in griechischer Sicht, ed. P. I. Bratsiotis (Mpratsiotes), 2 vols. (Stuttgart, 195960); N. Zernov, Eastern Christendom (New York, 1961).
(March 19, 1863July 23, 1929). B. Höiland, near Stavanger, Norw.; to Am. 1880; educ. Red Wing (Minnesota) Sem. and Chicago Luth. Sem.; pastor Minnesota, Iowa, and South Dakota; pres. Hauge* Syn. 190410, 1917; pres. Jewell (Iowa) Luth. Coll. ca. 1911ca. 1912; mem. of bds. for for. missions; pres. Stavangerlag (fed. of immigrants and their descendants of the Stavanger diocese of Norw.).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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