(ca. 170941). B. Swed.; to Am. 1737; served Swed. chs. along the Delaware 173741; preached in English, German, and Swedish; helped organize Ger. congs. at Germantown and Lancaster, Pennsylvania; often preached in Episc. chs.; one of the most influential Swed. Luth. pastors in Am.
(from Gk. dynamis, power). Philos. system which holds that all phenomena are manifestations of force; distinguished from mechanism.* Examples: 1. The view of Anaximenes* of Miletus (of the Ionian school of philos.) that things grow by condensation and rarefaction, or heat and cold; 2. G. W. v. Leibniz'* explanation of substance; 3. I. Kant's* explanation of matter as forces of attraction and repulsion; 4. Arnold van Gennep's (18731957) description of an attitude of the savage mind toward the sacred and hidden; 5. The view of W. Ostwald,* exponent of energetics; 6. The élan vital (vital force) of H. Bergson* and the philos. of organism of A. N. Whitehead.* See also Africa, A. 3.
(Diphysites; from Gk. dyo, two, and physis, nature). Those who held that in Christ 2 natures, divine and human, coexist as expressed by the Council of Chalcedon.* Opposed the Monophysites (see Monophysite Controversy).
(dithelitism; from Gk. dyo, two, and thelema, will). The doctrine that in Christ there are 2 wills, divine and human; Christ had a human soul (Mt 26:38) and a human, but sinless, will (Mt 26:39). The doctrine was upheld by orthodox theology against monothelitism.* See also Constantinople, Councils of, 3.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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