(17991859). B. Trenton, New Jersey; educ. Union Coll., Schenectady, New York; Prot. Episc. cleric; prof. Trin. Coll., Hartford, Connecticut; rector Trin. Ch., Boston; bp. of New Jersey; founded Burlington (New Jersey) Coll.; hymnist; hymns include Thou Art the Way, to Thee Alone; issued Songs by the Way 1824.
(170666). B. Münchsroth, Swabia; Moravian miss., with D. Nitschmann* II, to Dan. W Indies (Virgin Islands of the United States beginning 1917); arrived St. Thomas 1732; then to St. Croix; left for Eur. 1734, arrived 1735; superintending elder of cong. at Herrnhut 1735; miss. to Jews, Amsterdam, 1738; bp. 1747; hymnist. See also Caribbean Islands, E 8.
(18701934). B. Halle; educ. Leipzig, Halle, and Berlin; prof. NT Jena 1899, Strasbourg 1904, Breslau 1910, Halle 1913. Works include Die Thessalonicher-Briefe; The Eschatology of the Gospels; The Influence of the Bible on Civilization; Der Apostel Paulus; Das apostolische Zeitalter; Das Kerygma Petri kritisch untersucht; reworked E. Nestle, Einführung in das griechische Neue Testament.
(probably from Gk. dokein, appear, seem). Ancient and modern view that Christ had no real but only an apparent body and that He therefore did not really suffer but only apparently; related to Gnosticism.* Among those assoc.; with Docetism: Apollinaris* of Laodicea. The name Docetae (Gk. doketai) occurs in Serapion of Antioch (Eusebius, HE, VI, xii, 6), Clement* of Alexandria (Stromata, III, xiii; VII, xvii), Hippolytus,* and Theodoret.* See also Albigenses; Apocrypha, C 3.
(Lat. learned ignorance). Term traced to Augustine* of Hippo; used by Nicholas* of Cusa for man's limited insight into the incomprehensibility of the infinite; applied to men's knowledge of God gleaned from phenomenal world.
Title given to eminent ch. fathers as teachers of the church. Gk. doctors include Athanasius,* J. Chrysostom*; Lat. doctors include Ambrose,* Jerome,* Augustine* of Hippo, Gregory I (see Popes, 4). See also Cappadocian Theologians.
1. Jesus commanded His disciples to teach all nations to observe all that He commanded them (Mt 28:20). What the disciples taught was Christian doctrine. When men teach what Jesus commands, they teach the truth; when they teach anything contrary to His commands, they teach error or heresy. The teachers of the ch. soon found it necessary to defend the truth of their faith against error in their midst and against attacks from Jews and pagans. This made it necessary for them to formulate their doctrine so that it would be clear to others. This led to the fixation of dogma. Those who taught error also formulated their doctrine; as the cents. passed, error increased in scope and variety. The hist. of doctrine is the record of the development of doctrinal forms and the fixation of dogma in the ch.
2. The earliest pronouncements of doctrine subsequent to the books of the NT are in the writings of the Apostolic* Fathers. These are followed by the writings of the so-called Gk. Apologists* (Epistle to Diognetus,* Quadratus,* Aristides,* Melito,* Claudius Apollinaris,* Miltiades,* Athenagoras,* Theophilus* of Antioch, Tatian,* and Justin* Martyr; see also Patristics, 34; Christian Church, History of the, I 2). These defended the faith in an era of persecution. But in praising Christianity as the highest form of philos. wisdom and truth, they weakened its power as the only means of salvation. During this period the ch. also had to defend itself against error in its midst (Gnosticism*; Encratism*; Montanism*; Monarchianism*). Controversy with errorists led to the declaration that revelation and prophecy had ceased and to fixation of the NT canon (see Canon, Bible, 35). During this time the schools of Alexandria and Antioch were founded, marking the beginning of scientific theol. (see Exegesis, 34). Tertullian* became the father of Lat. theol. He, Irenaeus,* and Hippolytus* were among the principal anti-Gnostic writers. The development of scientific theol. coincides with serious attacks on fundamental Christian doctrine, but also with the correct formulation of the challenged doctrines and their successful defense. The doctrine of the Trin. was attacked by Monarchianism and Arianism* (see also Christological Controversies). The resulting controversy led to the first Council of Nicaea* 325 and to the Nicene Creed (see Ecumenical Creeds, B), which also took note of the error of the Macedonians or Pneumatomachians,* who denied the deity of the Holy Ghost. Apollinarianism (see Apollinaris of Laodicea) was condemned by the 381 council at Constantinople.* Nestorianism* denied the unity of Christ's person. Cyril* of Alexandria brought about the condemnation of Nestorius* at the council at Ephesus* 431. Eutychianism* taught that Christ, after the incarnation, had only 1 nature. The ensuing controversy was settled by the council at Chalcedon* 451. The resulting agreement is found in the Athanasian Creed (see Ecumenical Creeds, C). The Chalcedonian settlement was unsuccessfully challenged by Monophysitism (see Monophysite Controversy) and Monothelitism.* Summary: Nicaea 325, Christ is divine; Constantinople 381, Christ is human; Ephesus 431, Christ 1 in person; Chalcedon 451, Christ 2 in nature. A fierce anthropological controversy was stirred up by Pelagius* (see Pelagian Controversy), who taught freedom of the will in spiritual matters and salvation by works. Augustine* of Hippo was one of his chief opponents. Persecution* of Christians by Decius* and Diocletian* and the problem of the lapsed gave rise to Novatianism* and Donatism (see Donatist Schism).
3. The early Middle Ages found the E and W Ch. in controversy regarding the use of images (iconoclastic* controversy) and the addition to the Nicene Creed of the words and the Son (see Filioque Controversy). The 2d Council of Nicaea* 787 marked the virtual end of development of doctrinal forms in the E Ch. In the W Ch. the adoptionist controversies (see Adoptionism), predestinarian* controversy, and eucharistic* controversies are to be noted.
4. In the later Middle Ages, philos. became the handmaid of theol. The great scholastics aimed to harmonize various doctrines of the ch. by the dialectic* method (see also Scholasticism). The sacramental and sacerdotal system that had developed in the course of cents. was fortified and papal supremacy explained. The number of sacraments grew from 2 to 7 (see Sacraments, Roman Catholic). Augustinianism* gave way to semi-Pelagianism (see Pelagian Controversy, 710. The immaculate conception of Mary was still being debated, but the trend was in favor of the dogma (defined 1854). The papal victory over the conciliar movement (see Councils and Synods, 7) prepared the way for the definition of papal infallibility 1870. Debates centering on the terms realism,* nominalism,* and conceptualism* influenced the development of doctrine in the medieval ch. The Council of Trent* (154563) crystallized RC dogma.
5. Earlier reformers (P. Waldo,* J. Wycliffe,* J. Hus*) had not been able to change the direction of RCm The greatest challenge to RC doctrinal aberrations came with Prot. Reformation. Prot. doctrinal formulation is linked with M. Luther,* H. Zwingli,* and J. Calvin.* The name Luther suggests his 2 catechisms,* the AC, and the SA (see Lutheran Confessions, A, B 2). Zwingli's views are set forth in his 67 theses of 1523 and in a modified way in the Tetrapolitan Confession (see Reformed Confessions, D 1). Calvinism gave rise to many symbolic expressions (e.g., the Zurich Consensus, the Gallican Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Thirty-nine Articles, the Lambeth Articles; see Reformed Confessions, A 8, B, C 1; Anglican Confessions, 6, 7). Arminianism* was a synergistic protest against Calvinism (Remonstrants* vs. Counter-Remonstrants). Post-Reformation controversies in the Luth. Ch. (Interimistic or Adiaphoristic,* Majoristic,* Antinomian,* Osiandrian* or Stancarian, Synergistic,* Flacian [see Flacius Illyricus, M.], Crypto*-Calvinistic) led to the FC and the Book* of Concord (see Lutheran Confessions, C 2), the last dogmatic formulation of the Luth. Ch. as such. For the Calvinistic Ref. Ch. the final dates are 1619 (Syn. of Dordrecht) and 1643 (Westminster Assembly). The last 2 cents. have been as marked by deviations from accepted standards as by adherence to them (Deism,* Ecumenical* Movement, Evangelicalism,* Fundamentalism,* Liberalism, Modernism,* Rationalism*). Unfaithfulness to the Word of God has led to innumerable doctrinal aberrations and the rise of many religious sects and cults, each with its own doctrinal idiosyncrasies. But by the grace of God there is still a host of believers faithful to His Word.
E. H. Klotsche and J. T. Mueller, The History of Christian Doctrine (Burlington, Iowa, 1945); O. W. Heick, A History of Christian Thought, rev. ed., 2 vols., I originally by J. L. Neve and O. W. Heick (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 196566); R. Seeberg, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 4 vols. in 5 books, 2d and 3d ed. (Leipzig, 191323), tr. C. R. Hay, Text-Book of the History of Doctrines (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1952); A. v. Harnack, History of Dogma, 7 vols., tr. from the 3d Ger. ed. by N. Buchanan (Boston, 18991903).
Statement signed at Cleveland, Ohio, September 18, 1845, by 9 men including W. Sihler,* J. A. Ernst,* J. G. Burger,* and C. A. T. Selle,* giving reasons for withdrawal from the Ohio* Syn. The reasons: 1. Lax confessionalism and unionistic practices of the syn.; 2. Repeal by the syn. of the resolution that guaranteed the fundamental Ger. character of the sem. at Columbus, Ohio. See also Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, I 12.
(170251). B. London; educ. at a nonconformist sem. at Kibworth, Leicestershire; minister Kibworth 1723; minister and head of a sem. at Northampton 1729; author and poet; works include The Family Expositor; hymns include Hark the Glad Sound! the Savior Comes.
(18341909). Scot. Biblical scholar; b. Belford, Northumberland, Eng.; educ. Edinburgh; minister Glasgow; prof. NT exegesis at New Coll., Edinburgh; ed. J. P. Lange's The Life of the Lord Jesus Christ and works of Augustine* of Hippo; other works include commentaries on Gn and 1 Co in The Expositor's Bible; articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and in J. Hastings, A Dictionary of the Bible.
1. Henry, Sr. (16411711). Irish theol. and hist.; educ. Dublin; prof. hist. Oxford 168891; removed because he refused to swear allegiance to William and Mary; joined nonjurors*; returned to Angl. Ch. 1710. Wrote in area of hist., dogmatics, patristics, and philol.
(18791961). B. Mohrungen, E Prussia; pastor Fischau, W Prussia; court and cathedral pastor Berlin 1914; prof. Berlin 1947; wrote on contemporary ch. situation in Ger.; works include Die deutsche Volkskirche; Gott, das Leben und der Tod.
Systematic and critical arrangement of the faith and message of the ch. derived from the Word of God in the OT and NT The Bible was revealed to man in the course of cents. through different penmen; statements of divine truth are found in various parts of the Bible. Christian dogmatics tries to bring all teachings concerning each divine truth together and to arrange these truths in a systematic way. Thus the truths of the Bible must first be studied and understood (see Exegesis; Hermeneutics); then they may be stated and arranged.
A. Nature and Function.
1. Dogmatics (from Gk. dogma, that which one holds to be true; dokei moi, methinks) deals not only with that which seems best and right, but also that which is determined and to be held or believed. The term is used in the LXX for decrees and laws (Est 3:9; Dn 2:13; 6:910). In the NT it is used for Mosaic law (Cl 2:14; Eph 2:15) and for decisions of the Jerusalem council (Acts 16:4). In the ch. fathers it is used for est. truths of Christianity (e.g., Ignatius, Epistle to the Magnesians, xiii, 1; Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, VII, xvi) and for heretical doctrines (e.g., Origen,* Homilia XVI in Jeremiam, 9 [MPG, 13, 449]). For some time after the Reformation the terms sacra doctrina and theologia (cf. the Loci* theologici of P. Melanchthon* and others) included not only religious truths taken from the Word of God but also ethical principles (e.g., among scholastics). After the science of morals or ethics* had been separated from that of dogmas (chiefly as a result of G. Calixtus,* Epitome theologiae moralis, 1634), the name dogmatic theology (theologia dogmatica) was given (e.g., by L. F. Reinhart,* J. Hildebrand,* J. F. Buddeus,* and C. M. Pfaff*) to the part of theology* that presents Bible doctrines in systematic arrangement.
2. Particularly after the age of rationalism* there was widespread discussion regarding the scope and purpose of dogmatics. RCs continued to emphasize the position expressed by the Council of Trent* that Scripture and tradition determine doctrine. Prots. for some time after the Reformation gen. held that the Bible is normative, but views championed since that time include: (a) dogmatics is the systematizing of Bible doctrine; (b) it is the systematizing and evaluation of doctrines held by the ch. throughout hist.; (c) it is the systematizing of the creed of a particular ch. in which the material principle is basic and cen.; (d) it is the systematizing of the doctrines held by a ch. in a particular period of hist.; (e) it is the systematizing of religious truths as perceived by the individual dogmatician.
3. For Luth. dogmaticians the principle laid down 1521 by P. Melanchthon* in his Loci communes was formative: Evangelium est promissio, not philosophia coelestis or lex Christi. Melanchthon also emphasized the center of Luth. dogmatics: God's grace in Christ appropriated through faith (gratia universalis [see Grace], sola* gratia, sola* fide) as revealed in the Word (sola* Scriptura).
1. From earliest times the ch. tried to systematize its teachings, though few treatments were complete systematizations. Religious and Platonic elements were prominent in the treatises of Clement* of Alexandria and Origen.* Athanasius,* Gregory of Nyssa (see Cappadocian Theologians, 3), and Cyril* of Jerusalem made the Trin. and esp. Christ cen. in their treatments. John* of Damascus was 1st to attempt a complete system of dogmatics (I. Trinity; II. Anthropology; III. Christology; IV. Ascension of Christ, Faith, Prayer, Sacraments, Resurrection). Gregory* of Nazianzus, Cyprian,* Hilary* of Poitiers, and Augustine* of Hippo also made important contributions to dogmatics.
2. In the 9th c. J. S. Erigena* gave Scholasticism* a Neoplatonic (see Neoplatonism) character. Later the influence of Aristotle became prominent. The scholastic movement caused dogmatics to become a logical system of deductions and dialectical elaborations. See Abelard, P.; Albertus Magnus; Alexander of Hales; Anselm of Canterbury; Biel, Gabriel; Bonaventura; Duns Scotus; Ockham, William of; Peter the Lombard; Roscellinus.
3. RC dogmatics is concerned with veritates revelatae (revealed truths) blended with the veritas (truth) of philos. Hence Aristotelian logic and philos. are united with the content of revelation in Thomas* Aquinas. Systematicians like R. Bellarmine* and Cajetan* (ca. 14681534) wrote in the Reformation era. Some prominent modern RC systematicians: Karl Adam, Hans Urs von Balthasar, Marie Joseph Congar (originally George Ives, or Yves), Jean Daniélou, Hans Küng, F. Diekamp,* Joseph Pohle, Erich Przywara, Peter Lengsfeld, Karl Rahner, Edward (Henry) Cornelis Florentius Alfons Schillebeeckx, Michael Schmaus, Dominikus Thalhammer, Gustave Thils, Gustave Weigel.
5. The Loci of Melanchthon and Institutes of Calvin laid the foundation for Luth. and Ref. orthodoxy. Some Ref. systematicians of the classical period: H. Bullinger,* W. Musculus,* B. Aretius,* Peter* Martyr, H. Zanchi,* T. Beza,* L. Daneau,* P. Viret,* W. Bucanus,* Z. Ursinus,* C. Olevian(us).* P. Boquin,* J. J. Grynäus,* J. Piscator,* C. Pezel,* A. Polanus,* von Polansdorf, G. Sohn(ius),* B. Keckermann,* J. H. Alsted,* M. Martini,* L. Crocius (see Crocius, 2), J. H. Alting and son Jakob (see Alting, 1, 2), L. Trelcatius,* Sr. and Jr., G. Voet,* W. Perkins,* W. Ames,* J. Cocceius,* H. Wits,* and J. H. Heidegger.* Some more recent or contemporary: C. Hodge,* H. F. Kohlbrügge,* K. Barth,* Gerrit Cornelis Berkouwer, H. E. Brunner,* Arnold Albert van Ruler, Reinhold Niebuhr.*
6. Luth. dogmaticians in the age of orthodoxy (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 3, 4, 5) tried to separate anti- and extra-Biblical teachings from Biblical truth. They are noted for their Scriptural learning, accuracy of statement, and devout application of theol. Outstanding Luth. dogmaticians of the 16th and 17th cents.: M. Luther,* P. Melanchthon,* M. Chemnitz,* A. Hunnius,* L. Hutter,* J. Gerhard,* J. F. König,* A. Calov,* J. A. Quenstedt,* D. Hollaz,* J. W. Baier,* J. R. Brochmand.*
7. The age of orthodoxy was followed by emphasis on piety, emotional warmth, and correct living (see Pietism) rather than correct doctrinal formulation (P. J. Spener,* A. H. Francke,* J. A. Freylinghausen*). The overemphasis on man led to rationalism,* which first sought to explain doctrine rationally, then treated the doctrines themselves rationally (e.g., J. S. Semler,* J. C. Döderlein*), and finally used Scripture only to corroborate logical deductions (J. F. Röhr,* J. A. L. Wegscheider*). Since this method could not lead to comprehension of God, F. D. E. Schleiermacher* turned the investigation to a consideration of the experience of man. G. W. F. Hegel* turned the investigation toward revelation by seeking a God who seeks to reveal Himself. This position influenced the dogmaticians known as mediating theologians (see Mediating Theology). The 19th c. produced more positive men, though their emphases varied, J. T. Beck,* A. Hahn,* K. I. Nitzsch,* K. A. v. Hase,* P. K. Marheineke,* A. D. C. Twesten,* Julius Müiler,* I. A. Dorner,* H. L. Martensen,* and K. F. A. Kahnis.* More positive still: E. W. C. Sartorius,* G. Thomasius,* F. A. Philippi,* C. E. Luthardt,* H. F. F. Schmid,* F. H. R. Frank,* A. F. C. Vilmar,* and A. v. Öttingen.*
9. In the 19th c. in Fin., A. F. Granfelt* approached the mediating theol. of H. L. Martensen* and I. A. Dorner,* tried to reconcile Christianity and culture, faith and reason. In the 19th and 20th cents.: G. Johansson* opposed liberal theol., materialism, and positivism with the theol. of J. T. Beck*; noted for loyalty to Scripture. His successor was G. G. A. Rosenqvist,* philos. and student of cultural ethics; espoused critical hist. approach to Scripture. A. J. Pietilä,* successor of Rosenqvist, is regarded by some as the greatest dogmatician in Fin. in the 1st half of the 20th c. (see also Finland, Lutheranism in).
10. The liberal movement in Norw. led to the est. of a free faculty at Oslo 1908. O. Hallesby,* leader of the free faculty for many yrs., advocated a theol. that combined orthodoxy and pietism.* At the U., dogmatics was taught by J. Ording,* C. Ihlen,* and H. N. H. Ording.* See also Norway, Lutheranism in.
11. In Den., Grundtvigianism, pietism,* and liberalism influenced theol. in the 19th c. In the middle of the 19th c. S. A. Kierkegaard* attacked the humanism and socialism of the ch. Toward the end of the 19th c. Olfert Ricard advocated a theol. of the ideal personality. After WW I the reaction against Christian idealism and humanism was very pronounced. Theol. was influenced by Kierkegaard and K. Barth (see Switzerland, Contemporary Theology in). Noted 20th c. theologians: Regin Prenter (b. 1907 Frederikssund, Den.; pastor Hvilsager and Aarhus; prof. dogmatics Aarhus 1945), Kristen Ejner Skydsgaard (b. 1902 Fünen, Den.; prof. dogmatics Copenhagen 1942), and N. H. Söe. See also Denmark, Lutheranism in.
12. Outstanding theologians in Swed. in the 19th20th cents. include G. E. H. Aulén,* E. M. Billing, Ragnar Bring (see Lund, Theology of), A. T. S. Nygren,* and N. Söderblom.* See also Sweden, Lutheranism in.
13. In the 20th c. K. Barth strongly influenced Luth. and Ref. theol., and the existentialism* of R. Bultmann (see also Demythologization) is debated. The theol. of D. Bonhoeffer* influenced Eur. and Am. theol. Prominent Ger. Luth. dogmaticians (or systematicians) of the mid-20th c.: A. P. J. and P. A. W. H. Althaus,* Peter Brunner (b. 1900 Arheilgen, Ger.; prof. systematic theol. Heidelberg 1947), Oscar Cullmann (b. 1902 Strasbourg; prof. NT Strasbourg 1930, ch. hist. Strasbourg 1936, ch. hist. and NT Basel 1938, ch. hist. Paris 1949, NT Paris 1951), Hermann Diem (b. 1900 Stuttgart; prof. systematic theol. Tübingen 1957), Gerhard Ebeling (b. 1912 Berlin; prof. ch. hist. Tübingen 1946; prof. systematic theol. Tübingen 1954, Zurich 1956, Tübingen 1965), W. Elert,* Gerhard Gloege (b. 1901 Crossen on the Oder; prof. systematic theol. Jena 1946, Bonn 1961), Ernst Kinder (b. 1910 Barmen; prof. systematic theol. Neuendettelsau; prof. dogmatics and hist. of dogma Münster 1953), Walter Künneth (b. 1901 Etzelwang; prof. systematic theol. Erlangen 1953), Wolfhart Pannenberg (b. 1928 Stettin; prof. systematic theol. Wuppertal 1958, Mainz 1961), Edmund Schlink (b. 1903 Darmstadt; prof. systematic theol. Heidelberg 1946), Helmut Thielicke (b. 1908 Barmen; prof. systematic theol. Tübingen 1945, Hamburg 1954), Wolfgang Trillhaas (b. 1903 Nürnberg; prof. Göttingen 1946, prof. systematic theol. Göttingen 1954).
C. Arrangement. The material of dogmatics has been variously arranged. A popular arrangement: 1. Bibliology (doctrine of the Bible); 2. Theology (in the narrow sense: doctrine of the natural knowledge of God, the Trin., God's essence and attributes); 3. Cosmology (doctrine of creation, preservation, divine providence); 4. Angelology (doctrine of angels); 5. Anthropology (doctrine of man in his relation to God, of the image of God, state of innocence, fall, sin, free will); 6. Christology (doctrine of Christ's person, state, office); 7. Soteriology (doctrine of salvation); 8. Pneumatology (doctrine of the Holy Spirit and His work); 9. Sacramentology (doctrine of the means of grace); 10. Ecclesiology (doctrine of the ch.); 11. Eschatology (doctrine of the last things).
Historical treatments: E. H. Klotsche and J. T. Mueller, The History of Christian Doctrine (Burlington, Iowa, 1945); O. W. Heick, A History of Christian Thought, rev. ed., 2 vols., I originally by J. L. Neve and C. W. Heick (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 196566); W. Rohnert, Die Dogmatik der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche (Braunschweig, 1902); F. Loofs, Leitfaden zum Studium der Dogmengeschichte, 4th ed. (Halle, 1906); R. H. Grützmacher, Textbuch zur systematischen Theologie und ihrer Geschichte im 16., 17., 19., trod 20. Jahrh., 2d ed. (Leipzig, 1923) and Textbuch zur deutschen systematischen Theologie und ihrer Geschichte yore 16. bis 20. Jahrhundert, ed. G. G. Muras, 4th ed., 2 vols. (vol. 1 Gütersloh, 1955; vol. 2 Bern and Tübingen, 1961); H. W. Bartsch, Handbuch der evangelisch-theologischen Arbeit 1938 bis 1948 (Stuttgart, 1949); H. L. J. Heppe, Die Dogmatik der evangelisch-reformierten Kirche, ed. E. Bizer (Neukirchen, 1958); F. Diekamp, Katholische Dogmatik nach den Grundsätzen des heiligen Thomas, ed. K. Jüssen, 12th and 13th ed. vol. 1, 11th and 12th ed. vols. 23 (Münster, 195459); R. F. Weidner, Theological Encyclop(a)edia and Methodology, 2d ed., 2 vols. (Chicago, 18981910).
Works by Luths. in Am.: S. S. Schmucker, Elements of Popular Theology, 5th ed. (Philadelphia, 1845); C. Löber, Evangelisch-Lutherische Dogmatik, with foreword by C. F. W. Walther (St. Louis, 1893); J. W. Baler, Compendium theologiae positivae, ed. C. F. W. Walther (St. Louis, 1879); S. Sprecher, The Groundwork of a System of Evangelical Lutheran Theology (Philadelphia, 1879); C. P. Krauth, The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology, first issued 1871 (Philadelphia, 1913); H. E. Jacobs, Elements of Religion (Philadelphia, 1894) and A Summary of the Christian Faith (Philadelphia, 1905); H. Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Latheran Church, tr. C. A. Hay and H. E. Jacobs, 3d ed. (Minneapolis, 1961); W. Linsenmann, Die Dogmatik der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche, 2 vols. (Saginaw, Michigan, 190102); M. Valentine, Christian Theology, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1906); A. L. Graebner, Outlines of Doctrinal Theology (St. Louis, 1910); A. Hoenecke, Ev.-Luth. Dogmatik, 4 vols. plus index vol. (Milwaukee, 190917); A. G. Voigt, Biblical Dogmatics (Columbia, SC, 1917); The Distinctive Doctrines and Usages of the General Bodies of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States, 4th ed. (Philadelphia, 1914); J. Schaller, Biblical Christology (Milwaukee, 1919); C. E. Lindberg, Christian Dogmatics and Notes on the History of Dogma, tr. C. E. Hoffsten (Rock Island, Illinois, 1922); F. Pieper, Christliche Dogmatik, 3 vols. plus index (St. Louis, 191728), tr. T. E. W. Engelder, W. W. F. Albrecht, F. E. Mayer, L. F. R. Blankenbuehler, Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols. plus new index vol. by W. W. F. Albrecht (St. Louis, 195057); W. E. Schramm, What Lutherans Believe (Columbus, Ohio, n. d.); G. H. Gerberding, Lutheran Fundamentals (Rock Island, Illinois, 1925); E. Hove, Christian Doctrine (Minneapolis, 1930); P. L. Mellenbruch, Doctrines of Christianity (New York, 1931); J. Stump, The Christian Faith (New York, 1932); C. H. Little, Disputed Doctrines (Burlington, Iowa, 1933); J. T. Mueller, Christian Dogmatics (St. Louis, 1934); E. C. Fendt, Christian Dogmatics (Columbus, Ohio, 1938); H. Sasse, Here We Stand, tr. T. G. Tappert (New York, 1938); E. W. A. Koehler, A Summary of Christian Doctrine, 2d ed. (n. p., 1952); J. M. Reu, Lutheran Dogmatics, mimeographed (Dubuque, Iowa, 194142); T. E. W. Engelder, Scripture Cannot Be Broken (St. Louis, 1944); The Abiding Word, 3 vols., vols. 12 ed. T. F. K. Laetsch (St. Louis, 194660); W. J. Kukkonen, Faith of Our Fathers (New York, 1957); E. H. Wahlstrom, God Who Redeems (Philadelphia, 1962). EL
1. An incorrect use of the logical-dialectical method, often not beginning with the matter under consideration, but applying concepts and categories elsewhere derived. 2. Any persistent promulgation or defense of an idea that is false or for which there is little or no evidence.
F. Blume, 'Doles, Johann Friedrich (sen.),' Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, III (Kassel and Basel, 1954), col. 627639; H. J. Moser, Geschichte der deutschen Musik, vol. 2, part 1 (Stuttgart, 1922); P. Spitta, Johann Sebastian Bach, tr. C. Bell and J. A. Fuller-Maitland, 3 vols. (London, 1951); H. Banning, Johann Friedrich Doles (Leipzig, 1939).
(18921934). Austrian chancellor 1932; opposed Nazis; proclaimed dictatorship 1933; shot by Nazi rebels. See Christian Socialism, 3.
(17991890). B. Bamberg, Ger.; ch. historian. At first supported ultramontanism.* Factors contributing to break with Rome included nationalism, his fear of scholasticism,* definition of the Immaculate* Conception 1854, pub. of the 1864 Syllabus* of Errors, definition of papal infallibility* 1870. Excommunicated 1871. Became a leader of Old* Catholics. Ed. Beiträge zur politischen, kirchlichen und Cultur-Geschichte der 6 letzten Jahrhunderte. Works include Kirche und Kirchen, Papstthum und Kirchenstaat; Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der römischkatholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert; Beiträge zur Sektengeschichte des Mittelalters.
J. Friedrich, Ignaz von Döllinger: Sein Leben auf Grund seines schriftlichen Nachlasses, 3 vols. (Munich, 18991901).
In the E Caribbean, most northerly Windward Is. Area: ca. 290 sq. mi. Brit. colony since 1805; indep. 1978. Ethnic groups; nearly all Afr. or mulatto, Caribs. Official language: Eng.; other: Fr. patois. Religion: mainly RC See also Caribbean Islands, E 5.
One of the Lat. names of the 1st Sunday after Easter. In full: Dominica in albis deponendis (or depositis). The reference is to laying aside white robes used in connection with Baptism at Easter. See also Church Year, 14; Low Sunday.
White linen veil worn by women to Communion. Term applied both to the veil worn gen. in ch. and the napkin with which women were to receive Communion, the bread being laid on it instead of on the bare hand.
(Ordo Praedicatorum, Order of Preachers; also called Fratres Praedicatores, Friars Preachers, Black* Friars [in England], and Jacobins*). The Spaniard Dominic (Dominicus; Domenico; Domingo; Dominikus; ca. 11711221; RC priest; canon at Osma), while engaged in efforts to convert the Albigenses* of S Fr., founded the order 1215. It adopted the Augustinian* rule and was committed to poverty (see also Mendicant Friars) and dedicated to teaching, preaching, and scholarship; but the rule of poverty was soon disregarded and was abrogated for the whole order by 1477. The order grew rapidly, esp. in cities. It engaged in missions, but its chief purposes were strengthening faith and combating heresy. The Inquisition* was largely, but not exclusively, staffed by Dominicans. They preached crusades. Notable Dominicans include Albertus* Magnus, Fra Angelico,* Fra Bartolommeo,* Cajetan,* T. Campanella,* T. de Torquemada,* Pius V (see Popes, 21), G. Savonarola,* J. Tetzel,* and Thomas* Aquinas. Attached to the Dominicans are a Second* Order and Tertiaries.*
Term used in the early ch. to designate bldgs. in which Christian services were held (in this sense also dominica); also applied to the wealth or treasury of the ch. and to the celebration of the Lord's Supper.
(Donato de Nicolò di Betto Bardi; ca. 13861466). It. sculptor after the style of F. Brunelleschi. Works include the Evangelist John on the facade of the Dome of Florence and St. George at Or San Michele, Florence.
(Constitutum or Donatio Constantini). Forged document, probably of the 8th9th c.; presents Constantine* I as giving the pope and his clergy great temporal and spiritual powers. See also Popes, 1; Psendo-Isidorian Decretals, 1 a, 2; Valla. Lorenzo.
Grew out of conflict of views as to discipline of lapsed, esp. traditores (who had surrendered the Scriptures to persecutors). When on the death of Mensurius,* bp. of Carthage (d. ca. 311 or 307), who had frowned on voluntary martyrdom, the moderate party hastily elected his archdeacon Caecilian(us)* bp., the rigoristic-fanatical party (led by Donatus of Casae Nigrae) excommunicated him on the plea that consecrating bp. Felix of Aptunga (Aptonga; Aptungi; Aptungis) was a traditor. They set up Majorthus, a lector, as rival bp. An ecclesiastical commission and the syn. of Arles* decided against the Donatists. Ca. 315 Majorinus died and was succeeded by Donatus the Great (of Carthage; d. ca. 355; perhaps not the same as Donatus of Casae Nigrae). In 316 Constantine* I took a stand against the Donatists and initiated persecution. But they held that to be persecuted was a mark of the ch. and under leadership of Donatus spread throughout N Afr. They also held that sacraments administered by one deserving excommunication were invalid, that the Cath. Ch., failing to excommunicate such, had ceased to be the true ch., that its Baptism was invalid, and that they themselves alone were the true ch. (see AC VIII 3 and Ap VIIVIII 49). In 321 Constantine I gave the Donatists freedom of faith and worship. But Flavius Julius Constans (ca. 323ca. 350), his successor in Afr. 337, resumed persecution. The Donatists, now allied with the Circumcellions (vagabond mendicant monks that terrorized the countryside; named after the Lat. cellas circumientes rusticorum, wandering about among peasant cottages), increased in violence. Constantius II (317361; succeeded Constans in the E 351) continued the persecution. Donatus the Great died in exile. Under Julian* the Apostate the Donatists regained freedom of religion and flourished accordingly. But later they suffered from dissension reflecting reaction against extremism and from renewed persecution. The writings of Augustine* of Hippo against the Donatists, advocating spiritual measures against them, appeared 393412. At a conference in Carthage 411 bet. 286 Cath. and 279 Donatist bps. the imperial commissioner decided against the Donatists; severe restrictions were imposed on them, including a prohibition even to assemble, under pain of death. Augustine now tried to justify the use of force for bringing heretics into the fellowship of the ch.; he appealed, wrongly, to Lk 14:23. Vandals persecuted both Caths. and Donatists ca. 429. The schism ended in the 7th c. with the destruction of the ch. in Afr. by Saracens. See also Optatus.
G. G. Willis, Saint Augustine and the Donatist Controversy (London, 1950); W. H. C. Frend, The Donatist Church: A Movement in Protest in Roman North Africa (Oxford, 1952); S. L. Greenslade, Schism in the Early Church (London, 1953).
These terms denote the RC scholastic doctrine of super-added, supernatural grace given to Adam in addition to his natural powers and lost by him through the Fall. According to this doctrine, man lived in moral communion with God by virtue of an original righteousness that exalted him above merely human nature. According to RC doctrine, Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved from the stain of original sin (Immaculate* Conception) and for others all that was lost by the Fall is restored by Baptism: If anyone says that [in Baptism] the whole of that which belongs to the essence of sin is not taken away let him be anathema (Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Session V, Decree Concerning Original Sin, 5).
Luth. doctrine knows no such superadded, supernatural gift, but regards the original wisdom, righteousness, and holiness of man in his first estate as concreate (donum concreatum). Accordingly, man's nature (including that of Mary) after the Fall is corrupt, and the image of God, which was lost by man in the Fall and renewal of which is begun in believers on earth, will be fully restored only in heaven (Ap II, IV 351352; FC SD I).
(January 17, 1927January 18, 1961). B. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. Notre Dame (South Bend, Indiana) premedical school and St. Louis (Missouri) U.; participated as US navy doctor in evacuation of N Vietnamese; received Legion of Merit medal 1955; resigned from navy 1956. Began medical miss. work in Laos in fall 1956; it later expanded into the Medical Internat. Cooperation Organization (MEDICO). Works include Deliver Us from Evil; The Edge of Tomorrow; The Night They Burned the Mountain.
A. W. Dooley, Promises to Keep: The Life of Doctor Thomas A. Dooley (New York, 1962).
1. June 1628, 1574; provincial syn. of Ref. chs. of N Holland, S Holland, and Zeeland. Passed 91 acts pertaining to ch. structure and doctrine. Resolutions include that 14 classes be formed, that consistories consist of ministers and elders only (deacons under exceptional conditions), that consistories elect pastors (with possible participation of male members of ch.), that ministers and teachers subscribe only the Belgic Conf. (see Reformed Confessions, C 1), and that only the Heidelberg Catechism be used; the ch. order of Emden was approved in substance.
2. June 218, 1578; 1st nat. syn. in the Neth.; P. Dathenus* presided; a ch. order was est.; it was resolved that profs. of theol. subscribe the Belgic Conf. (see Reformed Confessions, C 1); use of the Geneva Catechism and of the Heidelberg Catechism (see Reformed Confessions, A 7, D 2) was sanctioned.
3. November 13, 1618May 1619 (for. delegates left May 9; Dutch delegates held further sessions till May 29); convened by the States Gen.; condemned Arminianism*; endorsed Belgic Conf. and Heidelberg Cat. See also Bible Versions, K; Reformed Churches, 2; Reformed Confessions, C 12, D 2.
Adopted by Mennonites at Dordrecht, April 21, 1632. Its 18 articles, which represent the mature development of Anabaptist thought, are a comprehensive statement of belief and express the distinctive ch. order and practice of Mennonites. See also Mennonite Churches.
(October 15, 1865April 4, 1918). B. Boeuf Creek, Franklin Co., Missouri; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1885; asst. pastor to his father in Pleasant Ridge, Illinois; pastor at Rockford, later at Belleville, Illinois; prof. of mathematics and natural sciences 1900, later of Ger. and hist., Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana; ed. Lutherisches Kinder- und Jugendblatt 1905; contributor Magazin für ev.-luth. Homiletik [und Pastoraltheologie] and Der Lutheraner.
1. Isaak August (180984). B. Neuhausen, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. Tübingen, Kiel, Königsberg, Bonn, Göttingen, and Berlin; mediating theol.; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher.* Works include Entwicklungsgeschichte der Lehre von der Person Christi. See also Mediating Theology.
2. August Johann(es) (18461920). B. Schiltach, Ger.; son of lsaak August; educ. Göttingen, Tübingen, and Berlin; lectured at Göttingen; prof. and co-dir. Wittenberg 1874; prof. systematic theol. Königsberg 1889; writings reveal his speculative-critical theol.
(Dorsch; Joannes Georgius Dorscheus; 15971659). B. Strasbourg; educ. Strasbourg; pastor En(-t)zheim, Alsace, 1622; prof. theol. Strasbourg 1627; leader of Luth. orthodoxy (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 15); opposed G. Calixtus* in syncretistic controversy (see Syncretism); prof. and consistory mem. Rostock 1653. Works include De unione collegiorum seu facultatum; Dissertatio de sanguine et suffocata, ad Act. XV. 20; Interventio pro mysterio Frinitatic; Latro theologus et theologus latro, vigiliis paschalibus expositus in universitate Argentoratensi gemino panegyrico Anno Chr. 1647 et 1653, notis nonullis auctior; Parallela monastica et academica; Synopsis theologiae Zacharianae; Thomas Aquinas veritatis evangelicae confessor; Tunica Christi inconsutilis ex Psal. XXII et Joh. XIX 23 explanata, cum confutatione fabulae de ejus asservatione apud Treviros.
Samaritan heretic(s) dated 3d c. BC to 1st c. AD Sources are confused on beliefs, practices, and pertinent hist.; it has been assumed that there were 2 heretics and sects bearing the name, the earlier denying, the later affirming the resurrection of the dead. Followers, called Dositheans, used the name Elohim (God) instead of Jahweh (Lord) and a 30-day calendar; practiced asceticism and Levitical purity.
(181265). Educ. Rutgers Coll. and the theol. sem. of the Ref. Prot. Dutch Ch. (see Reformed Churches, 4) at New Brunswick, New Jersey Mem. of 1st ABCFM and Ref. Prot. Dutch Ch. miss. to Java 1836; transferred to Borneo 1840, to China Amoy Miss. 1844.
Principle that seeks to determine when an action from which both evil and good result may be performed.
(Absolute Predestination). Predestination according to which, in the belief of some, God determined by eternal decree who is to be damned as well as who is to be saved. See also Calvin, John. 11; Predestinarian Controversy; Presbyterian Confessions, 3; Preterition: Reformed Confessions, A 9.
View of M. Amyraut* of a gen. or universal reference in the atonement* of Christ to all men that is theoretical or hypothetical, and of a limited reference to the elect, the saved, that is practical and real.
Term denoting the view that grants greater license in sexual matters to men than to women.
(18471907). B. Edinburgh, Scot.; to S Australia 1860; returned 1867; finished educ. at U. of Edinburgh; ordained Cong. pastor 1870; preacher at Alma and Sydney, Australia, 1870; during plague began ministry of divine healing*; left Cong. Ch. 1878; organized a Divine Healing Assoc. at Melbourne, Australia; to San Francisco, California, 1888; to Evanston, Illinois, 1890; to Chicago 1893; founded Christian* Cath. Ch. 1896; proclaimed himself Elijah the Restorer 1901; deposed 1906.
(Gk. doxologia, praise, laudation; from doxa, glory, and logos, word, speech, speaking). Stately and exultant hymn of praise addressed to the Triune God or to-a single person of the Godhead, as in Paul's letters, e.g., Ro 16:27; Eph 3:21; in particular, the Greater Doxology (Gloria in excelsis), the Lesser Doxology (Gloria Patri), and the long-meter doxology (Praise God, from Whom All Blessings Flow).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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