(160559). Ger. poet. B. Memel; educ. Königsberg, Wittenberg, and Magdeburg; private tutor Königsberg, asst. in Cathedral school 1633, conrector 1636, prof. poetry at the U. 1639, repeatedly dean philos. faculty, rector at the U. 165657; invalid; prominent mem. of group of poets at Königsberg; H. Albert* and J. Stobäus* contributed music for some of his poems; hymns include Ich bin bei Gott in Gnaden and O wie selig seid ihr doch, ihr Frommen.
(ca. 1487ca. 1561). Studied at Erfurt; Dominican monk at Strasbourg; left order and joined Reformation movement ca. 1524; organist at Strasbourg cathedral 1541; remained there and served RC Ch. after Interim* became effective in Strasbourg 1549; composer; hymnist; coed. Kirchenampt.
1. Isaac (17981860). B. Amsterdam; of Port. Jewish descent; studied law at Leiden; poet; converted to Christianity 1822; supported orthodoxy and opposed liberalism and Groningen* School. 2. Uriel (15851640). Freethinking Port. Jewish philos.; fled to Amsterdam; condemned by Port. Jews 1618; regarded by some as forerunner of B. Spinoza.*
(April 2, 1845January 18, 1923). B. Baastad, Norw.; educ. Christiania, Norw.; to Am. 1865; studied theol. Paxton, Illinois, at the Augustana school moved to Rock Island, Illinois, 1875; pastor Litchfield, Minnesota, Green Bay, Wisconsin, Stoughton, Wisconsin; pres. Norw. Dan. Conf. 188186; pres. United Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. 190217. Works include Saloonforretningern and Fred og Strid.
(18431925). B. Stavanger, Norw.; miss. of Norw. Miss. Soc. to Madagascar 1870 (see Africa, B 9); supt. Madagascar; gen. secy. Norw. Miss. Soc. 18891920; helped tr. Malagasy Bible and create native theol. literature. Works include Madagaskar og dets beboere; Specimens of Malagasy Folk-Lore; Livet efter döden (Ger. tr. O. Gleiss, Das Leben nach dem Tode; Eng. tr. J. Beveridge, Life After Death); Et tilbakeblik paa mitliv.
(182995). Eng. Cong. minister; noted for pol. and educ. activity. Works include The Atonement, in which he maintains penal doctrine against liberals but emphasizes the ethical rather than the forensic.
(December 22, 1862 to February 2, 1952). B. Neu Damerow, Pomerania; to Am. 1868; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1886. Pastor Marshfield, Missouri (mem. The Eng. [Ev.] Luth. Conf. of Missouri) 1886; Baltimore, Maryland (mem. The Gen. Eng. [Ev.] Luth Conf. of Missouri and Other States 1888; NYC (mem. The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri and Other States) 1898; Milwaukee, Wisconsin (mem. Mo. Syn.) 1905. Pres. Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri and Other States 18991901, vice-pres. 190105; vice-pres. Mo. Syn. 192632; ed. The Luth. Witness 1891 to 1895. Works include John Hus; John Wiclif; William Tyndale; Martin Luther; Kate Luther; The Christian; The Ten Commandments; The Lord's Prayer; The Battle of the Bible with the Bibles; The Titles of the Christian in the New Testament; My Life; John; Peter; Paul.
(Marx; 18551941). B. Silesia; prof. Leipzig 1895; dir. Ger. Ev. Inst. for Archaeology of the Holy Land in Jerusalem 1902; prof. Greifswald 1917; engaged in research into 1st c. Judaism; held that Christ ordinarily spoke Aramaic. Works include Arbeit and Sitte in Palästina.
ca. 304384). B. probably Rome; pope (bp. Rome) 366384; opposed Arianism,* Apollinarianism,* Donatism (see Donatist Schism), Luciferians,* and Macedonianism (see Macedonius); commissioned Jerome* to rev. the Old Lat. Bible. See also Bible Versions, J 2; Fides Damasi.
(Peter Damian; 100772). B. Ravenna, It.; studied at Ravenna, Faenza, Parma; entered Benedictine monastery at Fonte Avellana, near Gubbio, It., 1035; prior ca. 1043; cardinal bp. Ostia 1057. Est. penitential exercises for hermits; opposed simony and other vices of clergy. Works include Liber Gomorrhianus; Liber gratissimus; Disceptatio synodalis.
(February 8, 1848May 6, 1931). B. Odense, Den.; sent 1869 by Chrischona Miss. Soc. to the Gallas, E Afr., to Jews of Khartoum, Egypt, and Palestine 187071; to Am. 1871; pastor Racine (Wisconsin) 187180, Salinas and San Francisco (Cal.) 188084, Minneapolis 188493, Chicago 189396, Cedar Falls (Iowa) 18961900, Boston 190002, Chicago 1902 to 1926, Clinton (Iowa) 192631; helped found Kirkelig Missionsforening (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3); its 1st pres. 1872; knighted by Christian X of Den.; founded and ed. Kirkelig Samler; ed. Dansk Börneblad. Works include novels, hymns, and books of poetry and travel.
1. In the widest sense, a springing or leaping in evidence of great emotion (e.g., joy or elation, Jn 11:34; 21:21, 23; Jb 21:11; Eccl 3:4; Mt 11:17), stern determination (e.g., in certain war dances), or religious fervor and ecstasy (e.g., 2 Sm 6:14).
2. The dance plays a prominent part in primitive cultures, where it is often assoc. with religion or romantic love. The ancient Gks. developed the artistic qualities of the dance, and festive choruses tried to express the beauty of harmony, often in correlation with poetry and music.
3. The U. of Wittenberg permitted dances for the sake of discipline, so that students might learn propriety and modesty in conversation and behavior. Dances were also to teach students how to show proper attention to females. Luther reportedly said: When young ladies and their boyfriends engage in round dances and it is done with decent music and conduct, it is an urbane exercise that pleases me very much (WA-T 2, 100, No. 1434). He would not condemn the dance, except when it is excessive, indecent, or immoderate, and held that dancing itself could not be properly blamed if sin is connected with it at times (WA 17 II, 64). Older people should attend dances to watch over the young. (WA 32, 209; see also WA 24, 418419; 34 II, 214; 43, 315; 47, 361)
5. Christian chs. in the 19th and 20th cents. often opposed certain types of dancing. C. F. W. Walther* and other Luths. in Am. opposed dancing that included close embrace, suggestive gestures and acts, and accompanying music that tended to inflame passions. The dance of the daughter of Herodias was often cited as sensuous (Mk 6:22). Such warnings of Scripture as 2 Sm 11:24; Pr 5:2021; Jer 17:9; Mt 5:28; 15:19; 1 Co 10:12; 2 Ti 2:22; Ja 1:1415 were applied.
6. After 1918 renewed emphasis was placed on purification of the dance and on its recreational and artistic values. But as some other arts, so also some dances of more recent yrs. express a confused outlook on life. Though the dance continues to be watched with suspicion by many religious groups and meres of chs., some ch. groups have used forms of dancing.
C. Andresen, Altchristliche Kritik am Tanz, Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte, LXXII (1961), 217262; F. Bowers, The Dance in India (New York, 1953); Religion and the Dance: A Report of the Consultation on the Dance (sponsored by the Dept. of Worship and the Arts, Nat. Council of the Chs. of Christ in the USA, New York 1960; mimeographed 1961); M. Berndt, Adaptation of the Religious Dance and Similar Physical Movements in the Indigenous Church (STM thesis, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1961 ); C. F. W. Walther, Tanz und Theaterbesuch (St. Louis, 1885); J. T. Crane, An Essay on Dancing (New York, 1853); C. F. Hafermann, The Evils of Dancing, Lutheran Standard, XCVIII, 39 (September 28, 1940), 3; T. Graebner, The Borderland of Right and Wrong, 9th rev. ed. (St. Louis, 1956); T. G. Tappert, Luther in His Academic Role, The Mature Luther, Martin Luther Lectures, III (Decorah, Iowa, 1959), 68. EL
(Danaeus; Dannaeus; 153095). Fr. Prot. Studied law at Orléans; to Geneva 1560; met J. Calvin*; joined Ref. Ch.; pastor Glen, Fr., 1561; prof. Geneva 1574, Leiden 1581; thereafter at Gent (Belgium) and Orthez, Lescar, and Castres (Fr.). Strict Calvinist. Wrote in area of philos., law, and theol.
(Det Danske Evangeliske Lutherske Kirkesamfund i Amerika). See Danish Lutherans in America, 5.
1. The 1st Luth. minister in Am. was the Dan. pastor Rasmus Jensen of Aarhus, Den. He came 1619 with the Jens Munk expedition, sent by Christian* IV of Den., to Nova Dania on Hudson Bay; reached the mouth of the Churchill R. September 1619; died there 1620. A number of Danes settled in New Amsterdam (later NYC) with the Butch in the 17th c. Lauritz Anderson Rhodesius was ordanined 1656 for work in the Dan. W Indies, which became the Virgin Islands of the United States 1917 (see Caribbean Islands, E 8). Dan. Luth. pastors served there till 1918. Many Danes, including Luth. pastors, joined the Moravian Ch. Some Dan. Luth. laymen became Moravian pastors. Two Dan. pastors became Moravian bps.: John Christian Jacobsen (went to Nazareth, Pennsylvania, 1816; ordained bp. 1854; d. 1870) and George Frederik Bahnsen (180569; pastor Bethany, North Carolina, 1834; ordained bp. 1860). Moravian missionaries reached the W Indies 1732 and Greenland 1733. A number of Luths. who became Moravians went to Labrador. Otto Christian Krogstrup (b. 1714; ordained 1741), a Dan. Luth. pastor who joined the Moravians, went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1753. Others who went to Am. in the 18th and 19th cents. included Michael Knoll,* Peter Brunnholtz,* J. C. Leps,* H. Hayunga, A. R. Rude, and Edmund Balfour. All served Eng. or Ger. congs. except where a native tongue had to be used.
2. The chief wave of Dan. immigration began ca. 1850. During the next 80 yrs. ca. 331,000 Dan. immigrants came to the US Many joined Mormon, Adv., Bap., and Meth. chs.; others joined Norw., Swed., and Ger. Luth. chs.; many remained unchurched.
3. C. L. Clausen* helped lay the foundation for Dan. Luth. work in Am. As a result of his influence a commission (known as Udvalget) to assure the preaching of the Gospel among Danes in N Am. was organized in Den. 1869; Norw. Luth. pastors had organized several congs. among Dan. settlers. In 1871 the commission, which was leaning toward Grundtvigianism (see Denmark, Lutheranism in, 8), sent pastor A. C. L. Grove-Rasmussen, lay preacher A. S. Nielsen, and student Rasmus Andersen* to survey the field among the Danes. They met Clausen, pres. of The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Norwegian-Danish Augustana Synod in America, The) founded 1870. Nielsen was called to serve the Danes at Cedar Falls, Iowa, and was ordained by Clausen 1871. Nielsen, Andersen, A Dan,* and N. Thomsen* rejected cooperation and fellowship with The Conf. for the Norw. Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. and organized the Kirkelig Missionsforening (Ch. Miss. Soc.) 1872. The name was changed unofficially 1874 and officially 1878 to The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (Den Danske Evangeliske Lutherske Kirke i Amerika). Doctrinal differences involving Grundtvigianism led to the exclusion of more than 20 conservative pastors and their congs. 1894. These pastors and congs. formed The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. 1894 (also known as North Ch.). The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. helped form the NLC 1918; changed name to The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. of Am. 1945, to Am. Ev. Luth. Ch. 1953. HQ Des Moines, Iowa, where it had Grand View Coll. and Sem. Official papers: Kirkelig Samler and Lutheran Tidings. In 1962 the AELC merged with 3 other chs. to form the Lutheran* Ch. in Am.
4. Pres. of Kirkelig Missionsforening, The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in [of] Am., and the AELC: A. Dan 187274, J. A. Heiberg* 187479, A. S. Nielsen* 1879 to 1883, T. Helveg* 188385, A. S. Nielsen 188587, J. Pedersen 188788, A. L. J. Söholm 188891, A. S. Nielsen 189193, O. L. Kirkeberg* 1893, A. S. Nielsen 189394, K. C. Bodholdt 189495, P. Kjölhede 18951903, K. C. Bodholdt 190311, N. P. Gravengaard 191118, K. C. Bodholdt 191822, S. D. Rodholm 192226, H. Jörgensen 192636, A. Jensen 193660, A. N. Farstrup 196062. Final bap. membership 23,808 in 76 congs.
5. In 1884 the Dan. pastors and congs. of the Norw.-Dan. Conf. withdrew and formed The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. Assoc. in Am. (Det Danske Evangeliske Lutherske Kirkesamfund i Amerika). Headquarters: Blair, Nebraska, where the ch. est. Trin. Sem. 1884 and added a coll. 1899 (first called Blair Coll., but called Dana Coll. since 1903). In 1896 the Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. merged with the Ch. Assoc. of 1884 to form the United Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (name changed in 1945 to United Ev. Luth. Ch.). Its periodicals included Dansk luthersk Kirkeblad (18771920) and Danskeren (18921920), which merged to form Luthersk Ugeblad. De Unges Blad i Amerika (18961918) became bilingual and changed name to Our Lutheran Youth; it became all-Eng. 1921 and was absorbed into The Ansgar Lutheran 1927. See also Publication Houses, Lutheran.
6. Pres. of United Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in America and the UELC: G. B. Christiansen* 18961921, M. N. Andreasen 192125, N. C. Carlsen 192550, Hans C. Jersild 195056, William Larsen 195660. Final statistics: ca. 73,000 bap. mems. in ca. 182 congs. The UELC merged with 2 other chs. to form The American* Luth. Ch. as of January 1, 1961. JMJ
Danske i Amerika, 2 vols. (Minneapolis, 1908, 1916); P. S. Vig, Dansk Luthersk Mission i Amerika i Tiden för 1884 (Blair, Nebraska, 1917); E. Mortensen, Stories from Our Church (Des Moines, Iowa: The Committee on Publications of the Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. of America. Blair, Nebraska: LPH, 1952); P. C. Nyholm, The Americanization of the Danish Lutheran Churches (Copenhagen, 1963); J. M. Jensen, The United Evangelical Lutheran Church: An Interpretation (Minneapolis, 1964).
Founded 1821 Taarbaek, Den.; supported work of the Basel* Miss. Soc. in Afr.; engaged in work in India beginning 1863, Manchuria 1896. Merged 1946 with the Danish* Ch. Miss. in Arabia. Began work in Tanzania 1948. Taiwan ca. 1948, Jap. 1957.
(March 7, 1887August 14, 1971). B. Bennet(t), Nebraska; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; miss. in Wyoming, based at Wheatland, 191015; miss. for Nebraska Dist. (included Wyoming) of the Mo. Syn. 191516. Pastor Jonesville, Indiana, 191621; Cincinnati, Ohio, 192127; Fort Wayne, Indiana, 192756. Chm. Mo. Syn. Army and Navy Commission (name changed 1947 to Armed Services Commission) from 1940. Ed. The Central District Messenger 192733.
(160366). B. Köndringen, Ger.; educ. Strasbourg, Marburg, Altdorf, and Jena; prof. Strasbourg. Opposed RC and Ref. theol.; rejected theol. of G. Calixtus* as syncretism.* Theologian of the Luth. orthodox tradition; influenced P. J. Spener.* Works include Collegium decalogicum; Hodosophia christiana sive theologia positiva; Liber conscientiae apertus sive theologia conscientiaria; Katechismusmilch; Mysterium syncretismi detecti, proscripti, et symphonismo compensati. See also Dogmatics, B 6; Inspiration, Doctrine of, B 3 c; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 3, 4.
(Durante; 12651321). It. poet. B. Florence; first sided, with his family, with the Guelphs, then assoc. with the Ghibellines, then broke with both; received good educ. typical of patrician youths in Florence; met Beatrice (possibly Bice Portinari; 126690) ca. 1274; memory of her became a semireligious, mystical longing that found mature expression in the (Divina) Commedia (three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso). Because of his involvement in pol. dissensions as adherent of the White party and opposition to Boniface VIII (see Popes, 12), Dante was accused of corrupt practices and hostility to the pope; banished 1302; spent rest of life wandering from one It. city to another (including Verona, Bologna, Padua, and Ravenna). His De Monarchia advocated secular monarchy to match spiritual monarchy of pope. Other works include Vita Nuova; Convivio; Rime (or Canzoniere, a collection of canzoni, ballate, and sonnets).
Le Opere di Dante, ed. M. Barbi et al., 2 vols. (Florence, 192122); Le Opere di Dante Alighieri, ed. E. Moore, rev. and reed. P. Toynbee, 4th ed. (Oxford, 1924); The World of Dante, eds. S. B. Chandler and J. A. Molarino (Toronto, 1966).
First mentioned 997 as the Polish town of Gdansk (Gyddanyzc); Gospel preached there 997 by Adalbert* of Prague; Reformation gained entrance 1525 and, though retarded by Sigismund I of Poland, continued to advance and was firmly est. by 1540; captured by Russia 1734; annexed to Prussia 1793; free state from 1919 to WW II; inc. in Ger. 1939; made part of Poland 1945.
(180982). Eng. naturalist; Christian in youth, later freethinker.* Works include On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, which substitutes mechanical (natural) for supernatural explanation of origin of varied forms of life. Held that in the struggle for existence the fittest survive and new species emerge as a result of natural selection. In The Descent of Man Darwin specifically included in his theory the human race as descended from an anthropoid animal. His theory of the origin and perpetuation of new species is called Darwinism.
See also Norway, Lutheranism in, 7.
(February 8, 1864April 21, 1944). B. Lauenburg, Pomerania; to Am. 1881; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1886; pastor Memphis, Tennessee, 188692; pres. Conc. Coll., Conover, North Carolina, 189299; pastor Hammond, Indiana, 18991905; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 190526; pres. Valparaiso (Indiana) U. 192629; ed. The Lutheran Witness; ed. Eng. part of Magazin für Ev.-Luth. Homiletik und Pastoraltheologie; managing ed. Theological Quarterly and Theological Monthly; consulting ed. Alma Mater; ed. Four Hundred Years; Ebenezer. Works include At the Tribunal of Caesar; The Great Renunciation; He Loved Me, and Gave Himself for Me; The Leipzig Debate in 1519; Luther Examined and Reexamined; joint author with A. L. Graebner* and L. Wessel* of The Proof Texts of the Catechism with a Practical Commentary; coed. and co-tr. with G. F. Bente* of Concordia Triglotta.
(17651836). Ger. Prot. theol.; tried to est. philos. reconstruction of orthodoxy; influenced by I. Kant,* F. W. J. von Schelling,* G. W. F. Hegel,* and P. K. Marheineke.* See also Theology, Speculative.
(15971670). Brit. clergyman; pastor in Eng. 161525. Puritan sympathizer; helped procure charter for Massachusetts Colony 1629; to Boston 1637; founded New Haven Colony 1638 and became its pastor; made laws for colony with Theophilus Eaton; pastor First Church, Boston, 1668.
Early in the hist. of the Iowa Syn. controversies arose bet. it and the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The) on the function of the Luth. Confs., the nature of open* questions, and doctrines (e.g., church and ministry). In 1873 the N Iowa Conf. requested the Iowa Syn. in session at Davenport, Iowa, to state its position toward the Mo. Syn., esp. for the sake of those pastors who had recently joined and were not acquainted with the course of the controversy. As a result the Iowa Syn. adopted 21 theses that sought to show the status of the controversies at the time by indicating on what points the syns. had approached agreement and on what points there was still divergence. Following doctrines are treated in the theses: Church and Ministry 15; Confessions 67; Antichrist 810; Chiliasm 1115; Open Questions 1621. See also Iowa and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of; Madison Theses; Toledo Theses.
J. Deindörfer, Geschichte der Evangel.-luth. Synode von Iowa und anderen Staaten (Chicago, 1897); G. J. Fritschel, Quellen und Dokumente zur Geschichte und Lehrstellung der ev.-luth. Synode von Iowa u. a. Staaten (Chicago, n. d.); J. L. Neve, A Brief History of the Lutheran Church in America, 2d rev. and enl. ed. (Burlington, Iowa, 1916); R. C. Wolf, Documents of Lutheran Unity in America (Philadelphia, 1966).
(18311902). Scot. divine; prof. oriental languages at New Coll., Edinburgh; mem. OT Rev. Committee 187084; exegetical works include a commentary on one third of Jb, regarded by some as 1st scientific commentary on the OT in the Eng. language; other works include An Introductory Hebrew Grammar.
(ca. 180798). Irish Presb., later Cong.; prof. Biblical literature at Lancashire Indep. Coll., Manchester, 184257; later mem. of the OT Rev. Committee; rationalistic in theol.; works include An Introduction to the Old Testament; An Introduction to the New Testament; The Canon of the Bible.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.
Content Reproduced with Permission