Divides into two stages: 155274 and 158692. In his vacillating position on the Lord's Supper, P. Melanchthon* was the father of Crypto-Calvinists (name derived from Gk. krypto, hide). His followers tried to suppress Luther's views and replace them with Calvin's views while professing loyalty to Lutheranism. G. Major,* P. Eber,* P. Crell,* and K. Peucer* were leading Crypto-Calvinists. J. Westphal* (151074) sounded warning 1552 in Farrago confusanearum et inter se dissidentium opinionum de coena Domini, ex sacramentariorum libris congesta (Medley of Confused and Mutually Dissenting Opinions on the Lord's Supper, Gathered from the Books of the Sacramentarians). He was aided by Johann(es) Timan(n) of Bremen, E. Schnepf,* N. Gallus,* M. Flacius,* J. Brenz,* Jakob Andreä,* M. Chemnitz,* P. von Eitzen,* and others. August,* Elector of Saxony, was influenced by his advisers to fill all positions with Philippists.* In 1567 he recognized the Corpus doctrinae Christianae, or Philippicum (so called after Philipp Melanchthon; also called Misnicum, after the Lat. name for the territory of Meissen); it included the 3 ecumenical creeds and such writings of Melanchthon as the altered AC, the altered Ap, and the altered Loci communes theologici. Those who refused to subscribe were deposed, jailed, or banished. In 1573 Duke John William, patron and protector of faithful Luths., died; August became guardian of his sons and immediately deposed and banished J. Wigand,* T. Hesshus,* and others, in all ca. 100 true Luth. preachers and teachers. In 1574 the Philippists pub. the anonymous Exegesis perspicua et ferme integra controversiae de sacra coena with its Sacramentarian errors. When the Elector saw that he, too, was to be drawn into the Calvinistic camp, he drove the Philippists from power and jailed and banished their leaders. True Lutheranism was restored 1574 by the Torgau Confession (Confessio paucis articulis complectens summam doctrinae de vera praesentia corporis et sanguinis Christi in coena dominica). Unmasking of the Philippists led also to adoption of the Maulbronn Formula, parts of which were embodied in the FC (see Lutheran Confessions, C 2), which deals with Sacramentarianism in VII and VIII.
Christian* I made N. Crell* chancellor 1589. Crell put Calvinists into places of power. Luth. books were suppressed; a new catechism was Calvinistic; exorcism was abolished. Many Luth. leaders, including N. Selnecker* and P. Leyser,* were deposed, jailed, and banished. On the death of Christian I (1591) the administrator, Duke Frederick William, suppressed Calvinism and reest. true Lutheranism by the Saxon Visitation* Articles.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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