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1. Agreement bet. civil and ecclesiastical authorities, particularly bet. the pope and civil govts., to regulate ecclesiastical matters. Concordats are pub. as civil law on ratification by the state and as canon law on ratification by the ch. The 3 theories regarding the nature of concordats: (1) the legal theory, that the state as superior grants the ch. certain privileges revocable at will; (2) the compact theory, that state and ch. as equals make an agreement abrogated only by mutual consent; (3) the privilege theory, that the ch. grants concessions and indults to the state, which acknowledges duties toward the ch.

2. The 1122 Concordat of Worms, usually cited as the 1st concordat, consisted of 2 declarations. Calixtus II (Guido of Vienne; Guido of Burgundy; d. 1124; pope 1119–24) addressed emp. Henry V without mentioning his successors, but the effect of the concordat was felt for centuries. Henry's declaration was made to the pope and the Holy Roman Ch. The declarations regulated the conferring of regalia and the consecration of bps. and abbots. See also Investiture Controversy.

3. In the 1448 Concordat of Vienna bet. Nicholas V (Tommaso Parentucelli; Tommaso da Sarzana; ca. 1397–1455; pope 1447–55) and emp. Frederick III free canonical election of abps., bps., and some abbots was permitted; some papal reservations were allowed for lesser benefices, and the payment of annates was regulated.

4. The 1516 Concordat of Bologna bet. Leo X (see Popes, 20) and Francis I of Fr. influenced affairs of the RC Ch. in Fr. for centuries. It revoked the Pragmatic* Sanction of Bourges (see France, 3; Gallicanism). The king, in gen., received the right to nominate candidates for all important ecclesiastical positions.

5. The 1801 concordat bet. Pius VII (see Popes, 27) and Napoleon* I, First Consul since 1799, recognized the restoration of the RC Ch. in Fr. after the revolution. It acknowledged that “the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion is the religion of the vast majority of French citizens.” Diocesan reorganization was conceded; all bps. were required to resign. Ch. property remained in the hands of the state, but ample provision was made for maintenance of bps. and priests. The 1802 “Organic Articles” by Napoleon unilaterally modified the concordat, which, however, remained in force till 1905. See also Consalvi, Ercole; France, 5, 6; Roman Catholic Church, The, D 8.

6. Concordats with Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Haiti, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia in the 2d half of the 19th c. recognized RCm as the state religion.

7. The 1929 Lateran Treaty bet. Pius XI (see Popes, 32) and It. restored the pope's temporal power by creating the state of Vatican* City and recognizing the pope as a sovereign prince, thus settling the “Roman Question” (see Popes, 28). The 1929 concordat, attached to the Lateran Treaty, dealt with relations bet. the Vatican and the kingdom of It.; it guaranteed the clergy free exercise of religion, but prohibited them from engaging in political activity in opposition to the state.

8. The 1933 concordat bet. Pius XI and the Nazi govt. of Ger. allowed the RC Ch. authority in religion, but excluded it from politics. Freedom of communication within the ch., its educ. interests, and the assocs. of Catholic* Action were guaranteed. But encroachments of the Ger. govt. led to the 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge.

9. Pius XI also completed concordats with Latvia 1922, Bavaria 1924, Poland 1925, Romania 1927, Lithuania 1927, Prussia 1929, Baden 1932, and Austria 1933. The 1940 concordat bet. Pius XII and Port. recognized RC ethics and morals as basic to state activity; at the same time it recognized separation of ch. and state in principle. The 1953 concordat bet. Pius XII and Sp. names RCm as the state religion but grants some freedom of worship and religion to non-Caths.; ecclesiastical courts were allowed competence in some causes. CSM

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
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Content Reproduced with Permission

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