(152575). Prof. Roman law, Wittenberg; chancellor under August of Saxony 1565; imprisoned on charges of Crypto-Calvinism 1574.
(May 26, 1812May 3, 1891). B. Kleinlangheim, Bavaria; studied theol. Erlangen 183032; mem. of a Patriotic Students' Soc. (Burschenschaft); imprisoned for participation in the 1833 Frankfurt Insurrection; released 1839, but remained under police surveillance; studied Gk. Ger., Fr., and Eng.; tutor to the only son of Count Carl von Einsiedeln 184143; tutor of the children of Lord and Lady Lovelace (the latter a daughter of Lord Byron), Devonshire, Eng., 1843; tutor of Ger. language and literature Oxford 1843. Took issue with Tractarianism* there and followed F. C. D. Wyneken's* appeal for Luth. ch. workers in Am.; this took him first to J. K. W. Löhe* in Neuendettelsau 1844; traveled through N Ger. in the interest of miss. in Am.; ordained by T. F. D. Kliefoth* in the cathedral of Schwerin April 4, 1845. Founded miss. colony at Frankenmuth, Michigan, 1845; mem. Michigan* Syn., but left it 1846 in protest against liberalism; helped found Missouri* Syn. 1847; continued till 1850 as pastor and Indian miss.; succeeded A. Wolter* as prof. at the Practical Sem., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1850 and later became pres. of the sem.; when it was combined 1861 with the Theoretical Sem. at St. Louis, C. F. W. Walther* and he for a while were the faculty. For the sake of the many Norw. students he studied Norw. In 1875 he went with the Practical Sem. to Springfield, Illinois, as sole prof.; he was chief instructor after the arrival of H. C. Wyneken* 1876 and became dir. 1878. His activities included as many as 23 lectures a week; in summer vacations he often prepared emergency workers to be sent out in fall. While in Fort Wayne he also served the country cong. at Cedar Creek; while in St. Louis he founded and served the cong. at Minerstown; while in Springfield he served as vacancy pastor and as assistant pastor of the local cong., and at Chatham, 10 mi. SSW of Springfield.
L. Fuerbringer, Friedrich August Crämer, L. u. W., LXVIII (1922), 18, 3340; F. Lochner, Ehrengedächtniss des seligen Herrn Friedrich August Crämer, Der Lutheraner, XLVII (1891), 147 to 149, 155157, 173174, 181182, 190191, 197 to 198, 203205; XLVIII (1892), 35, 1213, 2728. 3940, 4849, 5556, 7072, 7980, 8586.
(Kranach; Kronach). Family of Ger. painters that apparently took its name from Kronach in Upper Franconia. 1. Lucas the Elder (14721553). B. Kronach; d. Weimar; influenced by humanists while at Vienna (ca. 1503); court painter under Frederick* III (the Wise) ca. 1505 and under John* the Constant and John* Frederick. Friend of Luther; active in arrangements and formalities of his marriage; sponsor of his oldest son. Mem. of the council and mayor of Wittenberg. Influenced by A. Dürer* and painters of Bavaria and Austria. Painter of princes of Saxony and N Ger. and of the Reformation. Works include portraits, altar pieces, woodcut designs, copperplate engravings, and sketches for dies. Early espoused cause of Reformation; his art shows ev. understanding of Scripture and ch. Painted portraits of Luther and practically all important Luth. reformers. Noted also for secular paintings (e.g., Venus and Cupid; Judgment of Paris; Jealousy). 2. Hans (d. 1537). D. Bologna; son of 1; worked with father; after his death Luther addressed words of comfort to his father. 3. Lucas the Younger (151586). B. and d. Wittenberg; son of 1, worked with father and continued his style.
(14891556). B. Aslacton, Nottinghamshire, Eng. Educ. Cambridge. In 1529 came to the attention of Henry VIII by suggesting that the question of annulment of the royal marriage be referred to the canonists and universities. Sent on an embassy to Charles* V 1531. At Nürnberg he became acquainted with A. Osiander* the Elder, whose niece Margaret he married 1532. Abp. Canterbury 1533. Annulled marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon; this was a preliminary step to the 1534 Act of Supremacy, which dissolved the obedience of Eng. to the pope. Cranmer supported Erastianism.* Opposed the Six Articles of 1539 (see Anglican Confessions, 3). Changed his views on the Lord's Supper from belief in the Real Presence to belief in the spiritual eating and drinking, similar to beliefs held by H. Zwingli,* J. Calvin,* and M. Bucer.* (See also Calvinism; Grace, Means of, IV 3). Promoted reading of the Scriptures; the 1540 Bible (see Bible Versions, L 5) is known as Cranmer's Bible because of his preface. Cranmer's Catechism, entitled A Short Instruction into Christian Religion, is a tr. of J. Jonas's* Lat. Brandenburg-Nürnberg catechism, which was a tr. of Ger. sermons (mostly by A. Osiander the Elder) for children. He helped draw up the Forty-two Articles (see Anglican Confessions, 5). His greatest contribution was the first Book* of Common Prayer. His 4 sermons in the 1547 Homilies were on salvation, faith, good works, and Bible reading. When Mary* I came to the throne 1553 he was condemned for treason but pardoned by the queen, only to be condemned for heresy 1555; deposed as abp. February 14, 1556; signed a series of recantations, but finally retracted them all; burned at the stake March 21.
Writings and Disputations of Thomas Cranmer, ed. J. E. Cox (Cambridge, 1844); Miscellaneous Writings and Letters of Thomas Cranmer, ed. J. E. Cox (Cambridge, 1846); Cranmer's Selected Writings, ed. C. S. Meyer (London, 1961); G. W. Bromiley, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop and Martyr (London, 1956) and Thomas Cranmer, Theologian (New York, 1956); A. F. Pollard, Thomas Cranmer and the English Reformation, 14891556, new ed. (New York, 1926); J. G. Ridley, Thomas Cranmer (London, 1962). CSM
(ca. 161349). B. London; son of a Puritan poet and clergyman; metaphysical poet; often shows great genius in treating religious subjects despite excessive use of figures of speech called conceits. Refused to accept the Solemn League and Covenant (see Presbyterian Confessions, 1); fled to Fr.; embraced RCm Works include Steps to the Temple.
(Johann Krafft; 151985). B. Breslau; educ. Wittenberg; intimate of Luther 6 yrs.; gathered material later pub. in Luther's Table Talk (see Aurifaber, Johann ); studied medicine at Leipzig and Padua; became famous as a physician at Breslau; physician of emp. Ferdinand I, Maximilian II, and Rudolf II; influential in the cause of Protestantism in Austria; first of Melanchthonian persuasion, he later inclined to Ref. views. See also Luther, Table Talk of.
The first book of the Bible begins with the affirmation that God created the heaven and the earth (Gn 1:1) and the last hymns adoration to the Creator God. (Rv 4:11)
In the OT there are numerous short references to creation, usually as axiomatic bases from which something is deduced (e.g., 1 Sm 2:8; 2 Kgs 19:15; 1 Ch 16:26; Jb 12:710; Neh 9:6; Ps 24:12; 74:16; 95:36; 121:2; 124:8; 136:19; 146:56; Pr 3:19; 22:2; 30:45; Is 37:16, 20; 44:9, 24; 45:910, 1718; 48:1213; Jer 10:1013; 51:1516; Hos 8:14; Zch 12:1), and some longer sections on creation (e.g., Gn 12 [often divided, as in the RSV, into 2 sections: 12:4a and 2:4b25]; Jb 3841; Ps 104; Pr 8; Is 40:1826; Is 51:916). The Bible speaks of creation by fiat (Ps 148:5), creation by Word (Ps 33:6), creation in the past (Gn 1:1; Jb 3841), creation in the sense of providence, or preservation, in the present (Neh 9:6; Jb 10:812; 3841; Ps 95; 104), and creation of events (Is 48:37). God's entire creation and preservation is connected with trust, adoration, judgment, and mercy. (SC II; LC II)
The NT also emphasizes creation and preservation. Jesus and His contemporaries presuppose both (Mt 5:45; 6:26, 30; 19:4); the prayer of early Christians Acts 4:2430 begins with a declaration of faith in God as Creator; in the sermons of Acts 14:1517 and 17:2428 Paul emphasizes God's continual creative work. Creation is referred to for various purposes (e.g., comfort, Acts 4:24; show the nature of faith, Heb 11:3). Creation's close relation to salvation and redemption stated in the OT (e.g., Is 45:1718) is emphasized, and creation is explicitly connected with Christ in the NT; in the Word who became flesh and by Him (or through Him) and for Him all things are created (Jn 1:13; Cl 1:15 to 17). Creation out of nothing (ex nihilo) is based on such passages as Gn 1:1; Ro 4:17; Heb 11:3. In Pr 8 wisdom is personified in terms related to Jn 1:118 and is connected with creation (Pr 8:2430). Wisdom is identified or associated with Jesus (1 Co 1:24, 30; Cl 2:3). As the Word, so the Spirit (wind, breath) was active in creation (Jb 26:13; Ps 33:6). In the work of Jesus Christ and of the Holy Spirit creation reaches its climax. (Mt 3:16; Lk 1:1517, 35; 4:18; Jn 3; Ro 8:1827; 1 Co 12; 2 Co 5:1721; Rv 21)
In the early ch., esp. against gnosticism, creation of the world by the one, good, all-ruling, omnipotent Father was emphasized. There is one Creator, the Father of the world, the Father of Jesus Christ; with His Word and Wisdom, His Son and Spirit, He created all things visible and invisible out of nothing. The nature and role of the Trin. in creation became a matter of discussion in the 3d c. (see Adoptionism; Arianism; Monarchianism). Differences on other matters connected with creation did not develop into serious controversies in the early church. Some fathers held a creation out of nothing; others assumed a preexistent or precreated material. Some (e.g., Clement* of Alexandria, Fragments, XII 1) held that God's creative activity ceased after the 6th day; others (e.g., Origen,* De Principiis, III vi 7) held that the created universe is in process of transmutation and transformation. The 6 days of creation were conceived as 1,000 yrs. (Barnabas 15:4) or long periods (E Orthodox Ch.), or as an instant (Athanasius, Contra Arianos, II 60); Augustine relates time to form, order, and change (Confessions, XII xii 15; XII xiii 16; XII xv 22; XII xxix 40). Rational reconstruction of the how of creation differed in the early ch.
The Reformers spoke of 6 days of creation, though their interpretations differed. Luther emphasizes that the personal, holy, almighty God, Creator, Redeemer, and Vivifier, is his Lord. This God is still creatively active and is the Source of all action. Man and world are creatures of the Creator, dependent on and responsible to Him. Luther stresses the role of Christ, the Word, in creation. He lauds the present creative work of God. The beginning and the present is often held in tension by Luther, as when he speaks of man's birth as unconnected with the beginning of creation, yet holds that in God's sight he was born already at the beginning of the world. He relates natural birth to spiritual rebirth. Man and Satan are God's creatures even after the fall, but God is not responsible for sin (FC SD I 5462 follows some of the early fathers in solving this problem by distinguishing substance and accident). Because the world and total man are God's creation, Luther rejected the division of life into spiritual and earthly duties. Finally, according to Luther, God, veiled in His creatures (larvae dei), actively confronts man. In the Luth. Confessions the doctrine of creation is treated at length in Luther's explanation of the 1st Article of the Apostles' Creed. (SC II 2; LC II 1024)
Theistic creation has frequently been challenged in modern times. Idealists tend to despise the material world and favor Platonic idealism. Materialists regard only the empirical and material as real and often ally with atheistic evolutionists.
Christians have at times joined humanists or idealists in opposition to materialism. When they have placed the Bible in opposition to science, they have at times wrongly interpreted some statements of the Bible; yet there must be proper Christian apologetics and even polemics.
Some have applied the personalist emphases of existentialism in such a way that creation becomes only an affirmation of one's creation in the present. In the middle of the 20th c. a tendency to emphasize the soteriological significance of God's revelations regarding creation became prominent.
W. F. Albright, The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra (New York, ); D. Bonhoeffer, Creation and Fall (London, 1959); L. F. Gruber, Creation ex nihilo (Boston, 1918) and The Six Creative Days (Burlington, Iowa, 1941); A. Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis (Chicago, ); E. Jacob, Theology of the Old Testament (London, 1958); J. W. Klotz, Genes, Genesis, and Evolution (St. Louis, 1955) and The Challenge of the Space Age (St. Louis, 1961); P. L. Maier, Test-tube Theology: A Postscript on the Conflict Between Science and Religion or IS There a Conflict? (St. Louis, 1963); M. Metzger, Die Paradieserzählung, die Geschichte ihrer Auslegung van J. Clericus bis W. M. L. De Wette (Bonn, 1959); H. W. Reimann, Luther on Creation, CTM, XXIV (January 1953), 2640 and Let's Study Theology: An Invitation to the Excitement of Christian Thought in the 20th Century (St. Louis, 1964), pp. 2331; H. Renckens, Israel's Concept of the Beginning: The Theology of Genesis 13 (New York, 1964); A. Richardson, The Bible in the Age of Science (Philadelphia, 1961); W. R. Roehrs, The Creation Account of Genesis: Guidelines for an Interpretation, CTM, XXXVI (May 1965), 301321; H. Thielecke, How the World Began (Philadelphia, 1961); B. Vawter, A Path Through Genesis (New York, ); G. Viehweg, The Doctrine of Creation, The Abiding Word, I (St. Louis, 1946), 117; W. Wegner, Creation and Salvation, CTM, XXXVII (September 1966), 520542; C. Westermann, The Genesis Accounts of Creation, tr. N. E. Wagner (Philadelphia, 1964); Darwin, Evolution, and Creation, ed. P. A. Zimmerman (St. Louis, 1959).
1. The theory that every human soul is created by a special divine act. This view is rejected by traducianism.* 2. The doctrine, based on Gn 1:1 and other Bible passages, that all that exists, except God, has its origin in God as Creator. Opposed to the theory of evolution.* See also Cosmogony; Creation.
(Lat. I believe because it is absurd). Expresses the view that to believe the absurd shows greater faith than manifested by belief in the logical or rational.
A creed (credo, suvmbolun, regula fidei) is a confession of faith for pub. use or a form of words setting forth with authority certain articles of belief. Creeds do not precede faith, but follow it. Christian creeds express the convictions of the believer toward Christ and His Word. Confession is, then, the outward manifestation of a deed and gift of God. A conf. is subjective inasmuch as faith springs from the heart and objective inasmuch as such faith can be characterized only by its foundation and content.
Creeds were used as summaries of doctrine, bonds of union, safeguards against error, and means of instruction. Creeds have, to a remarkable degree, inc. the basic principles of their confessors, and an understanding of creeds is indispensable in the study of ch. cultures. In the RC Ch. creeds are regarded as absolute and infallible in authority. In Prot. chs. creeds (norma* normata,) are relative to the Bible (norma* normans). As instruments, creeds have been nobly used (in proclaiming, teaching, defending, preserving the truth) but also abused (in compulsion, persecution, suppression, misdirection).
Creeds arose from the gen. ch. (e.g., Apostles' Creed), from councils (e.g., Nicene Creed), from syns. (e.g., Westminster Conf.), from committees (e.g., FC), from an individual (e.g., Luther's Catechism), or from an individual acting for a group (e.g., AC). They developed from precedents beginning with NT creedal statements: Jesus is Christ, God, Lord, Savior (Mt 16:16; Mk 8:29; Lk 9:20; Acts 4:12; 8:37; Ro 1:3; 10:9; 1 Co 12:3; Heb 4:14; 1 Jn 4:15; 5:5; amplified in 1 Co 15:34; 2 Ti 2:8; Ph 2:511; 1 Ptr 3:1822); the fish was early used as a symbol for this confession because the letters of the Gk. word for fish (ichthys) are the first letters of lesous Christos Theou (H)yios Soter (Jesus Christ, God's Son, Savior). In the history of creeds may be traced the unfolding of Scriptural thought (not a development of Scriptural doctrine, but, as Luther said in speaking of the Apostles' Creed, honey gathered from many flowers) as well as the development of false religious premises. In their stress creeds bear the impress of their age and purpose. Though they may not give the Bible's answer to unforeseen crises at all times, their hist. is a demonstration of the fact that they contain basic principles from which new formulations continually proceed. Thus ecumenical creeds (one or more) are usually considered basic by Christian chs. and later creeds extend or explain them.
After the ecumenical* creeds (the term indicates coextension with the visible ch. but the 3 creeds have not been equally received in all Christendom) had been written, few creeds were written until the Reformation era. The creeds of that era incorporated the principles which were developed in the succeeding age. The creeds of the 16th c. bore the impress of the profound theol. controversies. When the controversies subsided, a climax in creed making had been reached, and a reaction is indicated in the brief, popular, and practical creeds of succeeding ages.
Many platforms and statements have been formulated in modern times, though none has attained paramount importance. One trend is indicated by statements which seek to reunite Christendom on the simplest formulations. Diametrically opposed to such statements are attempts to develop creeds in greater detail in whole or part. In the late 19th and early 20th c. there was a trend away from creedal subscription in some chs. This trend was reversed by the middle of the 20th c., and a new interest in creeds and confessions became evident.
See also Anglican Confessions; Democratic Declarations of Faith; Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine; Lutheran Confessions; Presbyterian Confessions; Reformed Confessions; Roman Catholic Confessions; Theology. American sects and cults listed by individual name. EL
P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vols. (New York, 1877; reprint. and rev. to 1966) W. Elert, Morphologie des Luthertums, I (Munich, 1931; 1952 print.), 176185, tr. W. A. Hansen, The Structure of Lutheranism, I (St. Louis, 1962), 200210; H. Heppe, Die Bekenntnisschriften der altprotestantischen Kirche Deutschlands (Cassel, 1855); F. W. Bodemann, Vergleichende Darstellung der Unterscheidungslehren der vier christlichen Hauptkonfessionen (Göttingen, 1869); W. A. Curtis, A History of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in Christendom and Beyond (New York, 1912); Creeds of the Churches, ed. J. H. Leith (Chicago, 1963); Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, 4th rev. ed. (Göttingen, 1959); E. L. Lueker, Functions of Symbols and of Doctrinal Statements, CTM, XXXII (May 1961), 274285; T. G. Tappert, The Symbols of the Church, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 343367; The Church and the Confessions, ed. V. Vajta and H. Weissgerber (Philadelphia, 1963).
(Krell; ca. 15501601). B. Leipzig; brought into govt. 1580 by August* of Saxony; councilor of Christian* I 1586; chancellor of Saxony 1589; sought to reintroduce Crypto*-Calvinism into Saxony by removing the oath of obligation to the FC and exorcism at baptism; autocratic; opposed the Hapsburgs and supported the Fr.; condemned by court of appeals at Prague after Christian's death; beheaded.
The practice of burning corpses. Early practiced by Hindus, by Gks. in the Homeric age, and by Etruscans in It. Christianity, continuing Jewish custom, fostered burial. Charlemagne* forbade cremation 784. An attempt was made to introd. the custom in Eng. 1874. Though the RC Ch. and others, including Luths., viewed cremation negatively, esp. when assoc. with denial of the resurrection of the body, active opposition has waned in recent yrs. See also Adiaphora; Burial.
(18341903). Luth. theol.; b. Unna, Westphalia; educ. Halle and Tübingen; pastor Ostönnen 1859; prof. systematic theol. Greifswald 1870. Works include Die paulinische Rechtfertigungslehre; Biblisch-theologisches Wörterbuch der neutestamentlichen Gräcität. See also Lexicons, B.
Term used in epistemology* to define a position distinguished from naive realism.* Critical realists agree that there is a difference bet. an object and the perception of an object. But there is wide disagreement as to the nature of the media, vehicles, or essences that convey knowledge and by means of which, or through which, we perceive and think.
1. Johannes (15901659). B. Laasphe, Westphalia; educ. Herborn and Marburg; prof. theol. Marburg 1617; rector U. of Cassel 1633, Marburg 1653; exponent of mediating Calvinism; present at Leipzig Colloquy (see Reformed Confessions, D 3). Works include commentaries; sermons; polemics against RCs and Luths. 2. Ludwig (15861655). B. Laasphe, Westphalia; brother of Johannes; educ. Marburg and Basel; pastor and supt. Bremen; prof., later rector, Gymnasium Illustre, Bremen; attended Syn. of Dordrecht* 161819; proponent of Ger. Ref. theol. (see Reformed Churches, 3). Works include Syntagma sacrae theologiae.
(Crofts; ca. 16771727). Eng. composer; pupil of J. Blow*; organist Westminster Abbey and Chapel Royal; helped found Academy of Vocal Music 1725; pub. choral works as Musica Sacra, 2 vols., 1724, claimed to be the first engraved in full score on plates.
1. Columns of unhewn stone supporting a tabular block and forming a chamber that covered a burial place or perhaps was a place of worship. Also called dolmn. 2. At times cromlech designates a stone circle as distinguished from dolmen.
(15991658). Eng. soldier and statesman. B. Huntingdon; descended from Richard Williams, who took the maiden name of his mother, T. Cromwell's* elder sister; mem. of parliament for Huntingdon 1628, for Cambridge 1640; championed cause of Puritans and Independents; prominent in parliament struggle with Charles I; an effective leader of the New Model army; signed Charles I's death warrant; suppressed Irish and Scot. revolts; appointed Lord Protector 1653; buried in Westminster Abbey; disinterred and hung after Charles II became king. See also England, B 7.
(ca. 14851540). Adviser of T. Wolsey*; after the latter's fall 1529, in the service of Henry* VIII; vicar gen. 1535; chief adviser and agent of the king in ch. affairs; Earl of Essex 1540; supported Eng. Protestantism; planned and executed the pol. maneuvers that gave the Ch. of Eng. indep. from Rome; these maneuvers included support of the king's marriage to Anne Boleyn, negotiations with the Luth. Schmalkaldic princes, dissolution of monasteries, and pub. of the Eng. Bible. When the internat. pol. situation 1540 made Henry VIII seek the goodwill of Charles V, the king repudiated his Prot. policy of the 1530s; his marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled; Cromwell was condemned to death by a parliamentary act of attainder and beheaded. See also Bible Versions, L 5.
R. B. Merriman, Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1902); A. G. Dickens, Thomas Cromwell and the English Reformation (New York, 1959); N. S. Tjernagel, Henry VIII and the Lutherans (St. Louis, 1965). NST
(February 22, 1841March 9, 1931). Luth. clergyman and hymnist; educ. Capital U., Columbus, Ohio; ordained Woodville, Ohio; pastor Carrollton, Waynesburg, Wooster, and Delaware, Ohio, and Butler, Pennsylvania; hymns and poems pub. 1926; translations include Lord God, We All to Thee Give Praise, Lord Jesus Christ, Thou Hast Prepared, and Lord, as Thou Wilt, Deal Thou with Me; original hymns include We Have a Sure, Prophetic Word and Invited, Lord, by Boundless Grace.
(crozier; pastoral staff; baculus pastoralis; OF crocier, from crosse, shepherd's staff). Staff curved at top, straight in middle, pointed at end. Shepherd's staff early became symbol of authority to rule flock. Also given to abbots at their consecration. Though its presentation to abbesses at consecration has been discontinued, it is still used by them in some cases as symbols of their office.
1. In NT times the cross was used to torture and kill. It is used figuratively in the NT for suffering (Mt 10:38; Mk 8:34; 10:21; Lk 9:23; 14:27) and as a symbol of Christ's atoning death (e.g., 1 Co 1:17; Gl 6:12, 14; Eph 2:16; Ph 3:18; Heb 12:2).
2. Over 50 forms of the cross have been distinguished and used in symbolism, including crux decussata (St. Andrew's cross, or saltire, shaped like the letter X); crux commissa, or tau cross (St. Anthony's cross, shaped like the letter T.; the crux ansata, or ankh, is a tau cross with a loop at the top); crux immissa (Lat. cross, shaped like the symbol +).
3. In RC chs. on Good Friday a ceremony called adoration, or veneration, of the cross, or creeping to the cross, is observed, in which the worshipers remove their shoes, kneel, and kiss a crucifix,* clergy preceding laity.
4. The practice of making the sign of the cross may be traced at least to the time of Tertullian,* who wrote of it as a custom of Christians everywhere, observed as a reminder of the crucified Savior on all ordinary occasions of life. In the 2d c. superstitious use was made of the sign of the cross. The Luth. Ch. condemned superstitious abuse of the symbolic act, but retained its proper use. Luther (SC VII 1, 4) recommends the use of the sign of the cross in connection with the morning and evening prayer. The cross is also found in Christian art as the most significant and eloquent symbol of Christianity. In some chs. it lies flat on the altar or is suspended from the ceiling of the apse.* In the Luth. Ch. a crucifix may stand on a shelf above the mensa (see Church Furniture, 1 and 2). A cross may also be used as ornament on other furniture and on ch. bldgs.
(17751847). Eng. composer; played the organ in pub. in London at age of 4; prof. music Oxford 1797; 1st principal Royal Academy of Music 1822; works include the oratorios Palestine and The Captivity of Judah.
(Rubeanus; Johannes Jäger; Venator[ius]; ca. 1480ca. 1545). Ger. humanist; b. Dornheim, Thuringia; ed. Erfurt; head of Fulda monastery school 1510; friend of Ulrich von Hutten* and J. Reuchlin*; one of the authors of Epistolae obscurorum virorum (see Letters of Obscure Men); for a time attracted to Luther; later opposed Reformation.
(ca. 181091). 1st native Angl. bp. in Afr.; b. Yorubaland, W Afr.; enslaved; rescued by Brit.; studied at Bathurst (Sierra Leone) and London; 1st student enrolled at Fourah Bay Coll. (founded 1827 by CMS), Sierra Leone; taught at schools in Sierra Leone, including Fourah Bay Coll.; attended CMS coll., London; ordained 1843 in Eng.; miss. in Yorubaland and esp. at Abeokuta; made bp. of the Niger 1864 in Canterbury Cathedral. Works include a grammar of the Yoruba language; vocabularies of the Ibo and Yoruba languages; Bible tr. See also Africa, C 6.
Representation of Christ on cross,* painted or sculptured in W Ch., only in painted form in E Ch. Probably not used gen. and pub. by Christians in 1st five cents., though figures of a lamb or bust of Christ on cross occur in the 5th c. Crucifixes in strict sense used from the last part of the 6th c. on. Came into gen. use as central piece of altar in 16th c. Frequently used also by Luths. See also Symbolism, Christian, 1.
(Creutziger; Creutzinger; Creuziger; Crutziger). 1. Caspar (Kaspar; 150448). The Eider; b. Leipzig; d. Wittenberg. Enrolled U. of Leipzig 1513; attended Leipzig* Debate; became follower of Luther; to Wittenberg 1521; studied theol., math, and botany at U. of Wittenberg; married Elisabethe von Meseritz (see 3); rector St. John's School, Magdeburg, 1525; helped make Magdeburg a Luth. stronghold; recalled to Wittenberg as prof. and pastor of the Castle Ch. 1528; secretary to Luther; aided Luther in tr. Bible; took part in theol. debates; willing to compromise with Zwinglians and RCs; helped draft Leipzig Interim* but died before it was pub. Works include In epistolam Pauli ad Timotheum priorem Commentarius; Enarratio Psalmi 116118; Der XX. Psalm für christliche Herrschaft zu beten; In Evangelium Johannis Apostoli Enarratio; Enarratio Psalmi: Dixit Dominus  et aliquot sequentium; Comment. in Matthaeum; In Epistolam Pauli ad Romanos Commentarius; De iudiciis piarum Synodorum sententia; Enarrationis Symboli Nicaeni articuli duo, de Synodis et tribus personis Divinitatis. See also Lutheran Confessions, B 1.
E. W. Löhn, Dr. Caspar Creutziger oder Cruciger, der Schüler, Freund u. Amtsgenosse Luther's u. Melanchthon's (Leipzig, 1859); T. Pressel, Caspar Cruciger, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begrüunder der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII, in vol. 4 (Elberfeld, 1862); H. Petrich, Caspar Cruciger (Hamburg, 1904); W. G. Tillmanns, The World and Men Around Luther (Minneapolis, 1959), pp. 9498. WGT
2. Caspar (Kaspar; 152597). The Younger; b. Wittenberg; son of Caspar the Elder (see 1) and Elisabethe (see 3); supported P. Melanchthon*; imprisoned; banished from Saxony as Philippist 1576; turned Reformed; pastor, and pres. of consistory, in Kassel. See also Altenburg Colloquy.
(170170). B. Aberdeen, Scot.; educ. Marischal Coll., Aberdeen; Presb.; life marked by eccentricities; London bookseller to Queen Caroline 1735; compiled Bible concordance 173637; spent last yrs. in efforts to reform nat. morals.
Vessel to hold wine or water for altar service.
(Krüger; 15981662[not 1663]). B. Prussia; d. Berlin. Studied music at Regensburg under Paul Homberger; organist St. Nicholas Ch., Berlin, 1622; chorale* compositions include Auf, auf, mein Herz, mit Freuden; set many of P. Gerhardt's* hymns to music; contributed ca. 37 melodies to Geistliche Lieder und Psalmen; hymn collections include Newes vollkömmliches Gesangbuch Augsburgischer Confession; Praxis pietatis melica; Geistliche Kirchenmelodien.
(January 27, 1845April 17, 1923). B. Rostock, Ger.; educ. Rostock, Fort Wayne, and St. Louis; asst. pastor Trin. Luth. Ch., Milwaukee, 1865; dir. Luth. high school, Milwaukee; pastor Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1871; prof. Ger. and Fr., Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, 1873; lived in Milwaukee after retirement 1915; poet; hymn tr. include The Lord Hath Helped Me Hitherto, The Lord, My God, Be Praised, and Come, Thou Precious Ransom, Come: ed. collections of poetry entitled Gott segne Dich! and Gott tröste Dich!; ed. Das walte Gott!, a book of devotions drawn from C. F. W. Walther's* sermons; other works include Lehrbuch der deutschen Sprache and Kurze Gestenlehre.
1. Military expeditions initiated by the ch. against Muslim and others. They are variously numbered. Their purpose was to recover the Holy Land for Christianity. Ca. 1074 Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) gathered an army for war against the infidels, but his plans were not carried out, first because of the hostility of R. Guiscard,* later because of the investiture* controversy. At the end of the c. the time seemed more propitious; Urban* II preached a crusade against Islam* 1095, stirring the Council of Clermont* to a frenzy of enthusiasm further fanned by the fanaticism of Peter* the Hermit. Peasants, lower clergy, runaway monks, women, and children joined the movement and gave the advance guard of the crusading army the character of a mob; it came to a miserable end in Hungary and across the Bosporus.
2. The armies that set out 1096 on the 1 st Crusade lacked unity in motives, but were successful in this, that Nicaea* was taken 1097; the sultan of Iconium (now Konya, or Konia), another city in Asia Minor, was defeated soon thereafter; Antioch in Syria was captured June 1098; Jerusalem fell July 15, 1099. But increasing prosperity of the armies of occupation and of the It. merchants who settled in Syrian ports led to debility and internal strife, with disastrous consequences. The frontier fortress of Edessa (now Urfa, SE Turkey) was captured by Zangi, atabeg of Mosul, December 25, 1144, and the spirit of battle and conquest on the part of the Christians was decidedly quenched. See also Anna Comnena; Godfrey of Bouillon.
4. When Saladin (113893) came to power in Egypt, he made it his object to drive the Christians out of Palestine. He took Jerusalem 1187 and restricted Christian power to Antioch in Syria, Tripoli, Tyre, and the Hospitalers'* fortress at Margat by 1189. News of the fall of Jerusalem led immediately to the organization of the 3d Crusade, with Frederick* I of Ger., Richard* I of Eng., and Philip* II of Fr. as its leaders. But Frederick drowned 1190 in the Calycadnus (now Göksu) river near Selefke (Seleucia); after Acre was taken in 1191 by Richard and Philip, they quarreled; Philip left for Fr. immediately; Richard left for Eng. 1192. The Crusade failed in its object, but ended in a 3-yr. peace with Saladin, saved Antioch, Tripoli, and a coastal strip for the Christians, and secured permission for small groups of Christians to visit Jerusalem.
5. The following Crusades came to be marked by profoundly different aims and methods. The 4th Crusade (120204) was first promoted by Innocent III (see Popes, 10) along the old lines. But Philip* of Swabia and the Venetians under leadership of their doge, Enrico Dandolo (ca. 11081205), turned the Crusade to their own purposes; Zadar (It. Zara), an Adriatic port that had been taken by the Hungarians, was conquered 1202; Constantinople was taken and sacked 1204, the empire being divided bet. Venice and the Crusaders.
6. In 1212 an outburst of fanatical enthusiasm led to the Children's Crusade, an ill-conceived and disastrously executed venture led by Stephen, a 12-yr.old Fr. shepherd, and Nicolas, an 8-yr.-old Ger. Hardship, death, and moral and literal shipwreck took their toll; many Fr. children fell into the hands of slavers.
7. Sporadic attempts were made in the next yrs. to rouse the original spirit of the Crusades, but defeat and ignominy resulted. The 5th Crusade (121821) was the last begun under Innocent III. Frederick* II of Ger. led the 6th Crusade 122829. His diplomacy achieved unexpected success. Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of Jerusalem, as well as the pilgrim route from Acre to Jerusalem, were given to the Christians for a treaty period of 10 yrs. On expiration of the treaty, Thibaut IV (120153), count of Champagne and king of Navarre, led an expedition to Acre 1239 in an attempt to retain Jerusalem. He was joined 124041 by forces of Richard of Cornwall (1209 to 1272), king of the Romans. But the Christians were defeated and lost Jerusalem 1244.
8. The last efforts of Christian monarchs to gain control of the Holy Land were the 7th and 8th Crusades, undertaken by Louis* IX of Fr. On the 7th Crusade (124854) he reached Egypt 1249 via Cyprus; was defeated, captured, and released on ransom; went thence to Acre 1250; tried to strengthen Christian holdings in the Holy Land; returned to Fr. 1254 on the death of his mother. On the 8th Crusade (1270) Louis IX went with his brother, Charles of Anjou, to Tunis; Louis died there of the plague; Charles ended the Crusade by successful negotiation. But with the fall of Caesarea and Arsuf 1265, Antioch and Joppa 1268, Tripoli 1289, and Acre 1291, Christians lost all ground they had gained in the Crusades.
9. Two results of the Crusades were increase of papal power because of the leading role played by popes in inaugurating these expeditions, and growth of the spirit of religious intolerance. This latter spirit found expression in the Inquisition.* Other crusades were against Poland, the Utraquists,* Taborites, Cathari* (e.g., Albigenses,* Bogomiles*). Stedingers,* and others (see also Hussites; Bohemian Brethren). The force of the crusader spirit in connection with inquisitorial measures abated only gradually.
T. A. Archer and C. L. Kingsford, The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (New York, 1894); The Cambridge Medieval History, planned by J. B. Bury, ed. J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previtè-Orton, and Z. N. Brooke, V (New York, 1926; reprinted with corrections 1929), 265333; D. C. Munro, The Kingdom of the Crusaders (New York, 1935); S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, 3 vols. (Cambridge, Eng., 195154); A History of the Crusades, ed.-in-chief K. M. Setton, 2 vols., I ed. M. W. Baldwin, II ed. R. L. Wolff and H. W. Hazard (Philadelphia 1955, 1962); R. Pernoud, The Crusaders, tr. E. Grant (Philadelphia, 1964). HTM
(171575). Ger. theol. and philos.; b. Leuna; d. Leipzig; prof. Leipzig; theol. position similar to that of J. A. Bengel*; opposed C. Wolff* and G. W. Leibniz*; tried to prove that positive revelation harmonizes with reason; highly regarded by I. Kant.* Works include Entwurf der nothwendigen Vernunftwahrheiten; Hypomnemata ad theologiam propheticam, 3 vols.; Weg zur Gewissheit und Zuverlässigkeit der menschlichen Erkenntnis.
(Kraus; 15261607). B. Grebern; d. Tübingen; prof. Lat. and Gk. at Tübingen 1559; promoted study of modern Gk. in Germany; with Jakob Andreä* and L. Osiander* the Elder he sought through imperial ambassador David Ungnad von Weissenwolf (d. 1600), Joachim von Sintzendorff. and S. Gerlach* to lead Jeremiah II, patriarch of Constantinople, to accept the Luth. faith. Works include Annales Suevici; Turcograecia; Germanograecia. See also Eastern Orthodox Churches, 5; Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, A 2, 5.
Divides into two stages: 155274 and 158692. In his vacillating position on the Lord's Supper, P. Melanchthon* was the father of Crypto-Calvinists (name derived from Gk. krypto, hide). His followers tried to suppress Luther's views and replace them with Calvin's views while professing loyalty to Lutheranism. G. Major,* P. Eber,* P. Crell,* and K. Peucer* were leading Crypto-Calvinists. J. Westphal* (151074) sounded warning 1552 in Farrago confusanearum et inter se dissidentium opinionum de coena Domini, ex sacramentariorum libris congesta (Medley of Confused and Mutually Dissenting Opinions on the Lord's Supper, Gathered from the Books of the Sacramentarians). He was aided by Johann(es) Timan(n) of Bremen, E. Schnepf,* N. Gallus,* M. Flacius,* J. Brenz,* Jakob Andreä,* M. Chemnitz,* P. von Eitzen,* and others. August,* Elector of Saxony, was influenced by his advisers to fill all positions with Philippists.* In 1567 he recognized the Corpus doctrinae Christianae, or Philippicum (so called after Philipp Melanchthon; also called Misnicum, after the Lat. name for the territory of Meissen); it included the 3 ecumenical creeds and such writings of Melanchthon as the altered AC, the altered Ap, and the altered Loci communes theologici. Those who refused to subscribe were deposed, jailed, or banished. In 1573 Duke John William, patron and protector of faithful Luths., died; August became guardian of his sons and immediately deposed and banished J. Wigand,* T. Hesshus,* and others, in all ca. 100 true Luth. preachers and teachers. In 1574 the Philippists pub. the anonymous Exegesis perspicua et ferme integra controversiae de sacra coena with its Sacramentarian errors. When the Elector saw that he, too, was to be drawn into the Calvinistic camp, he drove the Philippists from power and jailed and banished their leaders. True Lutheranism was restored 1574 by the Torgau Confession (Confessio paucis articulis complectens summam doctrinae de vera praesentia corporis et sanguinis Christi in coena dominica). Unmasking of the Philippists led also to adoption of the Maulbronn Formula, parts of which were embodied in the FC (see Lutheran Confessions, C 2), which deals with Sacramentarianism in VII and VIII.
Christian* I made N. Crell* chancellor 1589. Crell put Calvinists into places of power. Luth. books were suppressed; a new catechism was Calvinistic; exorcism was abolished. Many Luth. leaders, including N. Selnecker* and P. Leyser,* were deposed, jailed, and banished. On the death of Christian I (1591) the administrator, Duke Frederick William, suppressed Calvinism and reest. true Lutheranism by the Saxon Visitation* Articles.
(161927). B. Mentzer* the Elder, of Giessen, writing against the Reformed, said that omnipresence was not simple presence (adessentia simplex), but always operative presence (omnipraesentia operativa) and that omnipresence was not to be predicated of the human nature of Christ in the state of humiliation. M. Hafenreffer,* of Tübingen, appealed to by Mentzer, disapproved of his position. Soon Tübingen and Giessen were engaged in pub. controversy. The question was on the use made by Christ in the state of humiliation, according to His human nature, of the divine majesty communicated to His human nature in the personal union (see Idiomata). The theologians of Giessen (Mentzer and J. Feuerborn*) denied the presence of Christ with creatures according to His human nature, or at least refused to call it omnipresence; they were inclined also to exclude Christ according to His human nature from the work of preserving and governing the universe (see also Decisio Saxonica). They were called kenoticists from a Gk. word meaning to empty, because they took the word in Ph 2:7 to mean that Christ emptied Himself according to His human nature of a measure of divine majesty. Their position is untenable (Jn 5:17), though they admitted some use of divine majesty and did not hold, as modern kenoticists do, that Christ according to His divine nature emptied Himself of His divine attributes, or absolutely renounced use of divine majesty. The Tübingen theologians (L. Osiander* the Younger, M. Nicolai,* T. Thumm*) ascribed to the human nature of Christ, in the state of humiliation, the sitting at the right hand of the Father, Christ having thus made full use, in this respect, of the divine majesty, though in a hidden way. This view was called crypto-kenoticism, from Gk. krypto, hide. The position is untenable in the light of Scripture passages that ascribe the sitting at the right hand of God to Christ, also according to His human nature, in the state of exaltation. Those who held it admitted that Christ, in His sacerdotal office, in His suffering and dying, renounced the full use of the divine majesty communicated to His human nature. Modern theories of kenoticism are traced to W. F. Gess,* C. Gore,* and G. Thomasius.*
W. Sanday, Christologies Ancient and Modern (New York, 1910), pp. 7178; O. Bensow, Die Lehre von der Kenose (Leipzig, 1903); F. Loofs, Kenosis, Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, eds. J. J. Herzog and A. Hauck, 3d ed., X (Leipzig, 1901), 246263; F. Pieper, Christliche Dogmatik, II (St. Louis, 1917), 337358, tr. T. Engelder, Christian Dogmatics, II (St. Louis, 1951), 296301; J. T. Mueller, Christian Dogmatics (St. Louis, 1934), pp. 290291.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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