Human beings believed by some opponents of the Scriptural account of creation to have been contemporaries of Adam and Eve, though of different origin; the theory is related to the suppositions of evolutionism. See also Preadamites.
(December 30, 1817December 21, 1879). Presb. miss. B. Bergen, New York; d. Wooster, Ohio; educ. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts, and Union Theol. Sem., NYC; sent to Persia by ABCFM 1849; worked in villages of Persia and Kurdistan.
(February 1, 1801December 1, 1882). B. Killingworth, Connecticut; d. Hilo, Hawaii; educ. Auburn (New York) Theol. Sem.; sent to Patagonia 1833 by ABCFM; returned 1834; arrived Honolulu June 6, 1835; worked at Hilo and Puna, Hawaii; the religious awakening that began 1837 is attributed to his preaching. Works include Adventures in Patagonia; Life in Hawaii.
(Coccejus; Koch; 160369). Dutch Ref. theol.; b. Bremen; d. Leiden; taught sacred philol. Bremen 1630, Franeker 1636; prof. theol. Franeker 1643, Leiden 1650. Allegorizing and mysterizing exegete; brought covenant theol. (see Federal Theology) to its apex. His view that Christian Ch. hist. is foreshadowed in the OT is called Cocceianism. Works include Summa doctrinae de foedere et testamento Dei; Lexicon et commentarius sermonis hebraici et chaldaici.
(February 5, 1817November 2, 1871). B. New York state; d. Persia; educ. Amherst (Massachusetts) Coll. and Union Theol. Sem., NYC; Presb. miss. of ABCFM to Nestorians in Persia; taught at Seir sem. 185157; principal 185765. Author and tr. in Syriac. Works include schoolbooks; books on Bible geog. and hist., pastoral theol., and homiletics.
(18661953). Studied medicine at Glasgow; sent by LMS as medical miss. to Mongolia; founded Peking Union Medical Coll. 1904; its first head 190615; after return to Eng. he founded the periodical World Dominion 1923 and the Movement for World Evangelism 1930. Collaborated with Roland Allen* on Missionary Survey; other works include The Task of the Christian Church. See also World Dominion Movement.
(18761943). RC neo-Thomist; prof. Maynooth, Ireland, 190243. Held that there can be only 1 true philos., namely that which harmonizes natural and revealed truth; regarded Aquinas as starting point for all philos. Works include The Science of Logic; Ontology; Epistemology. See also Neo-Thomism.
(18771954). Am. cleric. Educ. Yale, Edinburgh, Marburg, and Union Theol. Sem., NYC; held pastorates in NYC; pres. Union Theol. Sem. 192645; moderator Presb. Ch. in the U. S. (A.) (see Presbyterian Churches, 4a) 194344; liberal. Works include The Creed of Jesus; God Confronts Man in History.
This Ministry: The Contribution of Henry Sloane Coffin, ed. Reinhold Niebuhr (New York, 1945); M. P. Noyes, Henry Sloane Coffin: The Man and His Ministry (New York, 1964).
Intellectual process whereby knowledge is derived from nonpropositional apprehension (e.g., perception, memory) or ideas (propositions or judgments). Scholasticism* held that all knowing is affection of senses by objects through mediums that supply material foundations for forms within the mind. Abstractive cognition is cognition through other things (e.g., God through creation, Ro 1:20). Quidditative cognition is knowledge of the essence of an object.
(18421918). Ger. philos.; prof. Marburg. His neo-Kantianism was thoroughly rationalistic; held that philos. has 3 parts: logic (mathematics), ethics (socialism), and aesthetics (pure feeling). Works include System der Philosophie; Religion der Vernunft aus den Quellen des Judentums; Ethik des reinen Willens; Der Begriff der Religion im System der Philosophie.
(18341904). Miss. of the Paris* Ev. Miss. Soc. Worked 20 yrs. in Basutoland before heading up an indigenous miss. organized 1877 by Basuto for work among the Barotse in the Rhodesias. See also Africa, B 6, 11.
(17471814). Welsh cleric. B. Brecon (Brecknock), Wales; Angl. pastor 177076 Somersetshire; joined Wesley movement 1777; itinerant minister in and about London; 1st pres. Irish conf. 1782; drafted Meth. miss. program; to Am. with J. Wesley's instructions for organization of Am. Meth. ch. and as supt. 1784; ordained F. Asbury* as supt. of Am. chs. 1784; made 9 trips to Am. 17841803; tried to unite Angl. and Meth. chs. in Eng. and Episc. and Meth. chs. in Am.; headed 1st Meth. miss. committee; its pres. 180414: successful in for. miss. efforts. See also Methodist Churches, 4.
Crespo, Entre Rios, Argentina. See Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, Districts of The, B 2.
Obera, Misiones, Argentina. See Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, Districts of The, B 2.
(181483). Angl.; b. Cornwall; educ. Cambridge; 1st bp. Natal 1853; condoned polygamy among converts; denied eternal punishment and traditional authorship and hist. accuracy of Pentateuch and Jos. Deposed 1863 by metropolitan R. Gray* of Cape Town, but upheld by Judicial Committees of Privy Council. Works include The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua Critically Examined; commentary on the Epistle to the Romans.
(17721834). Eng. poet, critic, philos., and dramatist. Fond of unusual romantic themes. Deeply impressed by Luther's writings. Borrowed without leave a copy of H. Bell's* version of Luther's Table Talk from Charles Lamb and made notes in its margins; this copy, in the Brit. Museum, is regarded by some as the most precious of all vols. of Luther in English. Viewed Luther as the only fit commentator for St. Paul not by any means such a gentleman as the apostle, but almost as great a genius. Works include Aids to Reflection, a defense of Trinitarian Christianity.
G. Rupp, The Righteousness of God (New York, 1953), pp. 4950.
(d. after 1577). Luth. theol.; b. Plauen, Ger.; prof. Gk. at Jena 1560; dismissed 1562 for Flacianism (see Flacius, Illyricus, Matthias); pastor in Upper Bav.; dismissed 1563; prof. theol. Lauingen 1564, Jena 1568; took part in Altenburg* Colloquy; left Jena 1572 because of his Flacianism; to Austria; pastor in Efferding and Stein 1574; opposed by P. Leyser.*
(ca. 151972). Fr. admiral; saved Paris by holding Saint-Quentin 17 days against forces of Philip II of Sp.; captured; converted to Protestantism while imprisoned; released 1559; leader of Huguenots with Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Tried to est. Huguenot colonies in Rio de Janeiro, in Florida, and at what is now Port Royal, SC; first victim in Bartholomew's* Day Massacre.
(14921559). Friend of M. Luther.* B. Döbeln, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; taught at Döbeln and Rochlitz; ordained priest 1518; opposed, then accepted teachings of Luther; ev. preacher Pensau 1523; persecuted; fled 1525; court preacher of Count Albrecht of Mansfeld 1525; with Luther in the latter's last illness. Wrote, with J. Jonas,* Vom christlichen A bschied des ehrwürdigen Herrn D. Martini Luthers.
Terse, comprehensive prayer. Name derived from Lat. collectus, gathered, bound together, indicates that needs of the ch. are collected and assembled in this prayer of assembled worshipers. The great classic collects gen. contain only 1 petition and are usually addressed to God the Father. The 5 parts of a collect: Invocation (address to God); relative clause (ground on which prayer is offered); petition; purpose (benefit hoped for as result); Trinitarian ending (mediation and ascription). Not all 5 parts need always be present.
1. RC term for the apostles under the supposed primacy of Peter. 2. RC institutions immediately subject to Rome and under its direction and protection, e.g., the College of Propaganda and certain national colleges, including the Eng.
(Collegial System). Ch.-state relations based on natural rights (see Natural Law, 5) and voluntarism,* rather than presuppositions of divine institutions. Collegialism holds that the state is a corporate unity formed by a pact of union (pacturn unionis) in which free men have agreed to be subjects by a pact of subjection (pactum subjectionis); the state is an object in itself, existing for the common welfare of its subjects. The ch. is a voluntary, indep. assoc. existing for the spiritual welfare of its mems.; its right of self-govt. (Jura sacrorum collegialia) can be voluntarily relinquished and right of govt. transferred by tacit or express agreement (pacto vel tacito vel expresso) to the ruler of the state; this right of govt., then, is not an inherent right of the ruler of the state, who has inherent right only of supervision of the ch. (iura sacrorum maiestatica). Basic concepts of collegialism are traced to S. von Pufendorf,* C. Thomasius,* and, to a lesser degree, H. Grotius.* Its logical conclusions and applications were formulated by C. M. Pfaff.* Other names associated with collegialism are Justus Henning Böhmer (16741749) and his son Georg Ludwig Böhmer (171597), J. L. v. Mosheim,* and F. D. E. Schleiermacher.* CSM
(ca. 17461831). Swed. Luth. pastor; arrived in Am. May 12, 1770; pastor Raccoon (Swedesboro) and Penn's Neck (Pennsneck), New Jersey, and Wicaco (Gloria Dei), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Prominent in the annals of the Swedes on the Delaware.
(18891943). Brit. archaeol., hist., and philos.; representative of historicism; prof. Oxford. Held that a hist. event has an inside and an outside; the purpose of hist. is exploration of the human spirit; the presuppositions of religion are hist. conditioned, yet are to be approached with unquestioning acceptance. Works include Religion and Philosophy; Speculum Mentis; Essay on Philosophical Method; Essay on Metaphysics; the New Levianthan; The Idea of Nature; The Idea of History.
(16761729). Deist, freethinker*; b. Heston, near Hounslow, Middlesex, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; friend of J. Locke*; denied OT prophecy, canonicity of NT, immortality of the soul. Works include Essay on the Use of Reason; A Discourse of Free-Thinking; A Philosophical Inquiry Concerning Haman Liberty; Discourse of the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion; The Scheme of Literal Prophecy Considered. See also Deism, III 5.
(18231912). Cleric and author; b. Keighly, Eng.; to US 1850; blacksmith and ME lay preacher; Unitarian 1859; pastor Chicago 1859 to 1879, NYC 18791903. Works include Clear Grit; Some Memories; Thoughts for Daily Living.
(17821854). B. Blackheath, Eng.; educ. Homerton Coll.; began ministry 1800 at Cong. ch., Peckham, London (the ch. was later enl., then rebuilt and called Hanover Chapel); ordained 1801; also served Salters' Hall Chapel since ca. 1813; preached ev. sermons in contrast to contemporary formalism and Arian doctrine. Compiled a hymnbook containing 57 of his hymns and a wedding book containing 89 of his hymns; hymns include Morning Breaks upon the Tomb and Return, O Wanderer, Return; other works include lectures on Scripture facts, prophecy, miracles, parables, doctrines, and duties.
White symbolizes innocence and holiness, majesty and glory, festivity and joy; red, color of fire and blood, symbolizes the Holy Ghost, martyrdom, fervor, and love; green symbolizes hope, peace, and life; violet is the color of penitence and mourning; black symbolizes humiliation, sadness, deep mourning, and death. RC usage also includes rose on Gaudetc (3d Sunday in Adv.) and Laetare (4th Sunday in Lent), and allows gold instead of white, red, and green, and silver instead of white.
Basic directives for use of liturgical colors: violet from and with Vespers on the Eve of Advent up to, but not including, Vespers on Christmas Eve; white from and with Vespers on Christmas Eve through the Epiphany Octave, including Vespers on January 13; green from and with Matins on January 14 up to, but not including, Vespers on the Saturday before Septuagesima; violet from and with Vespers on the Saturday before Septuagesima up to, but not including, Vespers on the Saturday before Easter; white from and with Vespers on the Saturday before Easter up to, but not including, Vespers on the Saturday before Pent.; red from and with Vespers on the Saturday before Pent. up to, but not including, Vespers on the Saturday before Trin. Sunday; white from and with Vespers on the Saturday before Trin. Sunday through the Trin. Octave, including Vespers on the 1st Sunday after Trin.; green from and with Matins on Monday after the 1st Sunday after Trin. up to, but not including, Vespers on the Eve on Adv. If special days are observed, the color for the day should be used.
White is proper for Circumcision and the Name of Jesus, John the Apostle and Evangelist, Transfiguration, Conversion of Paul, Presentation, Annunciation, Ascension, Nativity of John the Baptist, Visitation, Mary Magdalene, Michael and All Angels, All Saints' Day, Dedication of a ch. and its anniversary, days of gen. or special thanksgiving; may be used on Maundy Thu. if Communion is celebrated. Red is proper for Reformation and its Octave and on commemorating the death of martyrs: Thomas, Stephen, Holy Innocents, Matthias, Mark, Philip and James, Peter and Paul, James the Elder, Bartholomew, Luke, Simon and Jude, Andrew. Violet is proper for the Day of Humiliation and Prayer. Black is proper for Good Friday.
Some use green from Septuagesima through Shrove Tuesday (see Shrovetide); in that case it is proper to use white from Matins on January 14 up to, but not including, Vespers on the Saturday before Septuagesima. Violet may be used from Matins on the Monday after Rogation Sunday up to, but not including, Vespers on the Wednesday before Ascension Day, and on Holy Innocents' Day when it falls during the week.
If a day is observed by a service on the preceding evening (e.g., a Thanksgiving Eve service) it is proper to use the color of the day that is being observed. If there is a conflict (e.g., when St. Andrew's Day falls on the 1st Sunday in Adv.), consult a liturgical calendar; where none is available, let good judgment apply. New Year's Eve, New Year's Day as such, Mother's Day, Mission Festival, weddings, funerals, confirmation services, Communion, and similar occasions are not part of the liturgical yr. and as such have no colors assigned to them; the colors that are normally in season may be used. LP
Sale (usually at low rates) or free distribution of Bibles and other religious publications by colporteurs (peddlers of miss. materials).
Meeting at Columbus, Ohio, January 20, 1941, attended by representatives of the NLC, of 8 of its constituent bodies, and of the Mo. Syn. It coordinated support of orphaned missions and spiritual care of draftees by the Mo. Syn. and the NLC
L. Meyer, Meeting on War Relief, Lutheran Witness (February 4, 1941), 43; G. V. Schick, The Columbus Conference and Its Repercussions, Lutheran Witness (May 13, 1941), 168169.
(18391904). Founded cong. of Waldenses* in Venice 1867; prof. ch. hist. Waldensian faculty, Florence, 1872; founded and ed. La Rivista cristiana. Tried to trace true ch. through various forms and movements from apostolic days.
(Jan Amos Komenský; 1592 to 1670). Chief representative of the 17th c. Czech Reformation cultural development; last sr. bp. of the Czech branch of the Unitas fratrum (see Bohemian Brethren); forced into exile by the victory of the Counter* Reformation in Czech lands (see Czechoslovakia). Comenius' universalism, based on the eschatological hope of Christ's second coming, led him to view the theol., scientific, and pol. development of the time from the perspective of the oneness of the created world. It was from this new vantage point that he saw the task of educ. He rightly saw his ambitious plan for the reform of human soc. relations, De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica, 7 vols., as his most distinctive achievement; but it was never pub. To his contemporaries he was famous as an educ.; his theory of language educ. was esp. renowned. His pedagogical works are collected in his 1657 Opera didactica omnia. The books he wrote for the spiritual comfort of his fellow believers show him as a talented writer and poet. The christocentric piety of the writings is in some ways a foretaste of pietism. One of them, the allegorical Labyrinth of the World, is an outstanding jewel of Czech prose. He exerted great effort on the ecumenical reconciliation and unification of Prot. chs. and countries. He was convinced that the different Reformation movements were to be followed by an integral reformation of the whole ch. He was led to his endeavors also by the circumstances of his life, which put him in contact with the most varied forms of Eur. Protestantism. After leaving his country 1628, he lived in Leszno, Poland. From there he went to Eng., where he spent the winter of 164142. This was followed by his stay in Elbing, W Prussia, where he labored on the Swed. educ. system till 1648, when he went to Poland. In 165054 he was active in Sárospatak, Hung. Postwar chaos, which took away his hope of returning to his homeland, and the great fire in Laszno in 1656 drove him to Amsterdam, where he died. His suggestions for a future organization of all mankind culminated in an ecumenical council of chs. (consistorium oecumenicum), an internat. academy of scholars and teachers, and an internat. peace court; he reinterpreted theol. motifs from the Unitas fratrum and applied them universally. Bequest of the Unitas fratrum, written 1650, reflects his conviction that his ch. was about to die, only to sprout again like a seed and lead to greater unity of mankind.
J. V. Novák and J. Hendrich, Jan Amos Komenský (Prague, 1932); K. Schaller, Die Pädagogik des Johann Amos Comenius und die Anfänge des pädagogischen Realismus im 17. Jahrhundert (Heidelberg, 1962); M. Spinka, John Amos Comenius (Chicago, 1943); A. Molnár, Esquisse de la théologie de Comenius, Revue d'Histoire et de Philosophie Religieuses, XXVIII and XXIX, 2 (194849), 107131. AM (tr. MSF)
Certain moral and ecclesiastical precepts imposed by the RC Ch. on its mems. (e.g., Communion in Easter season; annual confession; hearing mass on Sunday and certain feast days; days of fasting and abstinence). Also in a broad sense certain other laws or precepts issued by the RC Ch.
(Lat. commendatio animae, commendation of the soul). Name often given to the prayer spoken at the bedside of a dying person. Luth. agendas contain prayers that usually ask God to forgive the sins of the departing one and receive him into heaven.
Two major schools of interpretation, Antiochene (see Antioch, School of) and Alexandrian (see Alexandria, School of), thrived in the early cents. The Antiochenes, including notably 2 pupils of Diodorus,* Theodore* of Mopsuestia and John Chrysostom,* may be said to be the precursors of modern historicocritical method with their accent on the literal and hist. sense. But the Alexandrians, including Pantaenus,* Clement* of Alexandria, Dionysius* of Alexandria, Cyril* of Alexandria, and Origen,* set the pattern for more than 1,000 yrs. with their allegorical exegesis inherited from interpreters of Homer (Plato,* Philo* Judaeus, and the Stoics*; see also Exegesis, 3, 4; Schools, Early Christian, 1, 4). The Victorines,* esp. Hugh* of St. Victor, briefly recovered the Antiochene spirit. Much patristic exegesis, both astounding and depressing, is preserved in medieval catenae (see Catena), notably by Theophylact* and Euthymius* Zigabenus. Definite originality appears first in the work of M. Luther,* whose 1535 commentary on Gl is a classic. Luther's comments are often homiletically conditioned; J. Calvin* offers more objective comment on the original sense of a passage in his masterful expositions of almost every book of the Bible. The peculiar theol. accents for which Calvin is known are, of course, evident.
Among more significant commentaries prior to the 19th c.: M. Poole's* Synopsis Criticorum, 5th ed., 6 vols. (170912), a learned but uncritical collection of opinions; J. J. Wettstein,* Novum Testamenturn graecum, 2 vols. (175152) enjoys great prestige for its unparalleled collection of rabbinic and classical quotations; M. Henry,* An Exposition of the Old and New Testament, 5 vols. (170810), a popular work completed (Ro to Rv) by his nonconformist colleagues.
W. M. L. De* Wette's commentaries pub. early in the 19th c. reflect the considered refinement of the Antiochene school and its purge of allegorical and subjective approaches. The writings of E. W. Hengstenberg* mark a reaction to the exegetical method of De Wette and is characterized as retrogressive by F. W. Farrar.* F. Delitzsch,* working jointly with J. Keil,* earned great respect for his series on the OT The mediating influence of F. D. E. Schleiermacher* is apparent in F. A. Tholuck's* works. Among Eng. works of this period, those of C. J. Ellicott,* J. B. Lightfoot,* and B. F. Westcott* deserve mention.
The vast number of publications in the 20th c. fall into 3 groups:
1. One-vol. commentaries. The usefulness of 1-vol. commentaries is limited, but Peake's Commentary on the Bible, ed. Matthew Black and Harold H. Rowley (1962), offers a broad survey of the critical spectrum; The New Bible Commentary, ed. Francis Davidson, 2d ed. (1954), accents Ref. viewpoints.
2. Commentary series. The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments (1895 ) is authoritative, though some vols. have been superseded by fresh investigations. The Interpreter's Bible (195257) contains much superfluous material, but is excellent for such books as Dt, Ps, and Is. Fresh translations mark The Anchor Bible (1964 ), which is uneven in its exposition of the text but includes new philol. data, esp. on Ps. and Jb. The New International Commentary (NT 1951, OT 1965 ) presents fundamentalist viewpoints. The Prot. theol. faculty of the U. of Strasbourg is ed. Commentaire de l'ancien testament (1963 ) and Commentaire du nouveau testament (1949 ). For the NT only, The Expositor's Greek Testament, 5 vols. (18971910), supersedes H. Alford,* The Greek Testament, 4 vols. (184960), and is a useful reference set if used with such later works as The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (1956 ) and the Cambridge Greek Testament Commentary (1957 ). Bible students not trained in Heb. and Gk. find the following useful: Westminster Commentaries (1899 ); The Moffatt New Testament Commentary, 17 vols. (192650); the Torch Bible Commentaries (1948 ); Harper's New Testament Commentaries (1958 ); The Layman's Bible Commentary (1959 ); Cambridge Bible Commentary: New English Bible (1963 ). Of the Ger. series, Biblischer Kommentar: Altes Testament, ed. Martin Noth et al. (1955 ), is one of the most ambitious ever undertaken and will rank in painstaking scholarship with the Göttinger Handkommentar zum Alten Testament (1892 ), which includes H. Gunkel* on Gn and the Ps. Kommentar zum Alten Testament, ed. Ernst Sellin et al. (191339), took a fresh start with Wilhelm Rudolph's commentary on Ru, SS, and Lm (1962). The Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament, begun 1829 by H. A. W. Meyer,* is the outstanding work in any language; recent eds. include such notable contributions as those of Rudolf Bultmann on Jn and Ernst Lohmeyer on Ph, Cl, and Phmn Theologischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament (new series 1957 ), Herders Theologischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament (1953 ), and Handbuch zum Neuen Testament (1960 ), a counterpart to Handbuch zum Alten Testament, ed. O. Eissfeldt (1934 ), are worthy rivals. Bible students not trained in Heb and Gk find a wealth of pondered thought in Das Alte Testament Deutsch (1949; tr. of some vols. are in The Old Testament Library : includes such fresh treatments as that of John Gray on 1 and 2 K) and Das Neue Testament Deutsch (1932; in continuous revision). Among notable Fr. series is Études Bibliques, begun 1903 by Marie-Joseph Lagrange; includes Ceslaus Spicq on Heb.
3. Commentaries not in series. Many excellent commentaries do not appear in series. Notable are George Adam Smith, Jeremiah, 4th ed., rev. and enl. (1929), and The Book of the Twelve Prophets (1929; rev. ed. 1960); A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Amos, ed. Richard S. Cripps, 2d ed. (1955); Vincent Taylor, The Gospel According to St. Mark, 2d ed. (1966), superseding Henry Barclay Swete, The Gospel According to St. Mark, 3d ed. (1909); John Martin Creed, The Gospel According to St. Luke (1930); William F. Arndt, The Gospel According to St. Luke (1956); B. F. Westcott,* The Gospel According to St. John, appeared in the Speaker's Commentary 1880, separately 1883, and ed. with a tr. by A. Westcott, 2 vols. (1908); The Beginnings of Christianity, Part 1: The Acts of the Apostles, eds. Frederick John Foakes-Jackson and Kirsopp Lake, 5 vols. (192033); Joseph Armitage Robinson, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, 2d ed. (1909); The Epistle of St. James, ed. Joseph Bickersteth Mayor, rev. 3d ed. (1913); The First Epistle of St. Peter, ed. Edward Gordon Selwyn, 2d ed. (1947); The Epistle of St. Jude and the Second Epistle of St. Peter, ed. Joseph Bickersteth Mayor (1907).
Much gen. inaccessible information is collected in Frederick Danker, Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study, 2d, rev. ed. (St. Louis, 1966); includes a select list of commentaries on each book of the Bible (pp. 239272) and a bibliography (p. 240, n. 1). On older commentaries see Friedrich Bleek, An Introduction to the Old Testament, eds. Johannes Bleek and Adolf Kamphausen, tr. from the 2d ed. by G. H. Venables, ed. E. Venables, 2 vols. (London, 1875 to 1882); James Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament, 3d ed. (New York ). For more recent literature see Robert H. Pfeiffer, The Books of the Old Testament, (New York ) and Peake's Commentary on the Bible, eds. Matthew Black and Harold H. Rowley (London, 1962). FWD
Est. 1902 by Leo XIII because of liberal tendencies in Biblical studies of RC scholars; composed of cardinals and consultants; chief functions are to foster Bible study and defend the truth of Scripture; in 1907 Pius X gave the same authority to its decisions as is ascribed to doctrinal decisions of Roman congs.
Bodies appointed for special functions or duties in the ch. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners (since 1948 Ch. Commissioners for Eng.) of the Angl. Ch. manage its estates and revenues. Two parliamentary commissions on Eng. Ch. courts were est. 1830 and 1881. The Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Discipline, est. 1904, investigated alleged breaches in the conduct of the Angl. Divine Service. In RC Ch., commissions consist of ecclesiastics appointed by pope (papal) or bp. (diocesan). Papal commissions either consist chiefly of cardinals (e.g., Biblical Commission*) or are presided over by a cardinal, ln Luth. and other Prot. chs., commissions are usually permanent or of longer duration and greater importance than committees.
The placing of a small portion of the host into the chalice during the celebration of the mass. The practice originated in the medieval W ch. and is perpetuated esp. by RCs and some Anglo-Caths. Not to be confused with intinction.*
1. After the Mo. Syn. adopted the 1938 resolutions regarding fellowship with the ALC, attempts were made to unite the contents of the Brief* Statement and the Declaration. The resulting document, Doctrinal Affirmation, was adopted by neither of the bodies. The 1947 Mo. Syn. (LCMS beginning 1947) conv. instructed its Committee on Doctrinal Unity to make every effort to arrive ultimately at one document which is Scriptural, clear, concise, and unequivocal. (Proceedings, p. 510)
2. After meeting with the union committees of the syns. of the Synodical* Conf., the Committee on Doctrinal Unity met with the Fellowship Commission of the ALC May 17, 1948. Subsequently both groups selected subcommittees to draw up doctrinal theses. After lengthy study and criticism of preliminary drafts, a plenary meeting of the committees of the 2 chs. was held December 56, 1949, at the end of which the theses were unanimously approved. This Common Confession, Part I, was accepted 1950 by the LCMS and the ALC
3. The 12 topics of the Common Confession, Part I, treat the doctrines of God, man, redemption, election, means of grace, justification, conversion, sanctification, the ch., the ministry, the Luth. confessions, the last things.
5. The purpose of Part II was to supplement and clarify Part I. Under the gen. heading The Church in the World it treats i. The Church's Mission; ii. The Church's Resources; iii. The Ch. and lts Ministrations; iv. The Ch. and the Home; v. The Ch. and Vocation; vi. The Ch. and Educ.; vii. The Ch. and Govt.; viii. The Ch. and Ch. Fellowship; ix. The Ch. and Anti-Christian Organizations; x. The Ch. and the World to Come.
6. The Common Confession, Part II, was approved and the confession in its entirety was adopted by the ALC 1954. The 1956 LCMS conv. resolved that the Common Confession (Parts I and II) be not regarded or employed as a functioning basic document toward the establishment of altar and pulpit fellowship with other church bodies and that the Common Confession, one document composed of Parts I and II, be recognized as a statement in harmony with the Sacred Scriptures and the Lutheran Confessions. (Proceedings, p. 505)
See also American Lutheran Church, V 1.
Proceedings, LCMS, 1950, pp. 566587; 1953, pp. 10, 11, 1415, 485490, 494544; 1956, pp. 491 to 517; Official Reports Convention of the American Lutheran Church, 1950, pp. 281, 286; 1954, pp. 331344, 351; Doctrinal Declarations (St. Louis, 1957), pp. 7191; Church in Fellowship, ed. V. Vajta (Minneapolis, 1963), pp. 6365; Moving Frontiers, ed. C. S. Meyer (St. Louis, 1964), pp. 418 to 420; R. C. Wolf, Documents of Lutheran Unity in America (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 323, 381, 408 to 444, 449, 608609. EL
(gratia communis). According to Ref. doctrine (Calvinistic), the elect are converted and preserved in the state of faith and salvation by special or irresistible grace; to all others the sovereign God grants only common grace, which is resistible. See also Calvinism; Grace.
Choir chant accompanying the distribution of the elements in a Communion service. See also Ambrosian Music.
(Lat. communion of holy people [things]). Phrase added to the Apostles' Creed probably ca. the 4th c., perhaps in Gaul. Its original meaning is debated. Traditional interpretation holds that sanctorum is masculine and that the phrase means communion of holy people. The words have been variously understood: communion with departed saints and martyrs; communion with all believers (living and departed); fellowship of holy people (descriptive of the church*); communion of holy people in holy things. Since the end of the 19th c. the view that regards sanctorum as a neuter referring to the sacraments and other holy things of the ch. has become prominent. Evidence from the ancient and medieval ch. can be used in support of various meanings.
Luther tr. the phrase die Gemeine der Heiligen (communion of saints), taking sanctorum as masculine and referring the phrase to the fellowship that exists in Christendom. Communion in holy things and communion of saints are not necessarily divergent. Communio is dynamic rather than static, a participation with other Christians in holy things that make them one.
T. v. Zahn, The Apostles' Creed, tr. C. S. Burn and A. E. Burn, based on 2d ed. (London, 1899): W. Elert, Abendmahl und Kirchengemeinschaft in der alten Kirche hauptsächlich des Ostens (Berlin, 1954), tr. N. Nagel, Eucharist and Church Fellowship in the First Four Centuries (St. Louis, 1966); F. J. Badcock, The History of the Creeds, 2d ed. (London, 1938), pp. 243272; J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 2d ed. (London, 1960), pp. 388397. EL
1. Religious groups that sought to organize their life and property according to collective ideals were in existence in Palestine (Essenes*), Egypt (Therapeutae*), and other lands at the time of Christ. The collectivism practiced in the early ch. at Jerusalem was not an absolute, total, or compulsory community of goods. The individuality of each mem. was guarded (Acts 5:4). Love was the only law by which each was bound.
2. Beginning in the 3d c., Manichaeans (see Manichaeism) practiced a type of communism assoc. with asceticism.* Benedictines* observed communistic practices, and strong communistic tendencies marked the (Cathari,* Albigenses,* Waldenses,* Beghards* and Beguines, Lollards,* Taborites,* and Bohemian* Brethren. In the days of the Reformation, Anabaptists often formed communistic societies (e.g., at Münster).
3. Few religious communistic groups have existed in modern Eur. F. N. Babeuf* advocated communistic theories (Babouvism) during the Fr. Revolution; R. Owen* was active in Eng. in the 1st part of the 19th c. Am. has seen many such experiments, some primarily religious, others only soc. and economic. Most of the largest successful ones were of Ger. origin. A few existed over a c.; many dissolved sooner for various reasons (failure to solve the problem of family life, the injunction of celibacy, secession of the young, lack of personal liberty, killing individual initiative and endeavor, etc.)
4. The first communistic organization in Am. was formed by Labadists (followers of J. Labadie*) who settled 1679 on the Hudson in New York and ca. 1683 at Bohemia Manor, near the present site of Elkton, Maryland, but soon sacrificed their religious convictions to the profit motive. Johann Kelpius (1673 to 1708) led the followers of Johann Jakob Zimmermann (164493) from Rotterdam to Germantown (Philadelphia). They called themselves the colony of the Contented of the God-loving Soul; others called them the Soc. of the Woman in the Wilderness because they aspired to become the beloved of the woman in Rv 12.
5. The more important Am. socs.: Amana* Soc.; House* of David; Oneida* Community; Rappists*; Shakers.* The Ephrata Community, near Reading, Pennsylvania founded ca. 1732 by J. C. Beissel,* dissolved 1814; the remaining mems. inc. as (Ger.) Seventh Day Baptists (see Baptist Churches, 17; Brethren, 1). Icaria was founded 1848 by Fr. settlers under E. Cabet* in Texas, later moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, then to Iowa, where a division in 1879 gave rise to New Icaria; Icaria soon dissolved, New Icaria in 1895. In Württemberg, Ger., those who separated from the State Ch. under leadership of the mystic Barbara Grubermann founded the Separatists; after her death the group, under Joseph Michael Bimeler (Bäumeler; Baumeler; 17781853) emigrated to Am. and founded Zoar, Ohio, 1817; dissolved 1898. The Bethel. Missouri, and Aurora, Oregon, communities were founded 1844 and 1855 resp. by Wilhelm Keil of Nordhausen, Prussia; dissolved 1880 and 1881 resp. Many communistic socs. resulted from, or were influenced by, plans promoted by François Marie Charles Fourier (17721837; Fr. socialist); best known: Brook Farm (184147; at West Roxbury, Mass.; known for its prominent mems., and visitors, including R. W. Emerson,* N. Hawthorne,* and H. Greeley*) and the North American Phalanx (184356; near Red Bank, New Jersey). The Adonai Shomo (Heb. the Lord is there) community (Adv.) was formed 1861 by Frederick I. Howland, settled first at Athol, then at Petersham, Massachusetts, chartered 1876, dissolved 1896. Swedes emigrated to Am. 1846 under Eric Janson (see also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 5) and founded the Bishop Hill Colony, Illinois; Janson, who claimed to be Christ reincarnate, was assassinated 1850; the colony was dissolved 1862. Perhaps the oldest communistic socs. are the Bruderhof communities founded by J. Huter*; Huterites migrated from S Russia to S Dak. and settled at Wold Creek and Bon Homme 1874 and Elm Spring 1877. Koreshanity was founded 1886 at Chicago by Cyrus (Heb. Koresh, whence the name) R. Teed; moved 1903 to Estero, Fla.; principal divisions: Ch. Triumphant, Coll. of Life, and Society Arch-Triumphant.
As a rule a community ch. is an indep., undenominational, or interdenominational cong. representing the union of several small or weak denominational chs.; it ordinarily has no creedal platform; its program of ch. work is chiefly this-worldly and varies to meet the soc. and cultural interests of the resp. constituency. The Internat. Council of Community Chs. was formed 1950 by union of the black Biennial Council of Community Chs. and the white Nat. Council of Community Chs. See also American Evangelical Christian Churches; Independent Churches, 2.
The Comoro Islands (Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mohéli, and Mayotte; in N Mozambique Channel, bet. NW Madagascar and SE Afr.) were under Muslim control until they came under Fr. control 184386. Indep. was declared 1975, but in 1976 Mayotte resolved to stay Fr. Area of the rep.: 838 sq. mi.; Ethnic groups: Arabs, Africans, East Indians. Official language: Fr.; others: Arabic, Comoran. Official religion: Islam.
(17981857). Fr. philos. and math.; founded positivism*; in Cours de philosophie positive he sought to est. 3 stages of mental evolution: theol., metaphysical, and scientific; sought to remove the supernatural from religion and make religion a force for secular and soc. reforms. Other works include Catechisme positiviste; Systime de politique positive. See also Altruism.
Drive or urge that aims at self-preservation in a thing.
Celebration of the Eucharist by a chief celebrant and one or more other clergymen. The term is used also in connection with Angl.-Luth. interim* Eucharistic sharing, which raises questions (1) as to whether each denomination recognizes the validity of the orders of the other and (2) as to whether or not the pratice is truly Luth. See also Galesburg Rule.
Theory in philos. first expounded by P. Abelard* as a mediating position bet. nominalism* and realism,* postulating that concepts in the mind are predicates that me be affirmed of reality or subjects of discourse.
Place where the cardinals* assemble to elect a pope*; also, the assembly itself. The conclave begins 15 to 18 days after a pope's death or reisgnation. A large part of the Vatican is walled off and divided into rooms of cells. All entrances except one are closed, not to be opened till an election is made. Each cardinal may take with him a secy. and a servant (conclavist) sworn to secrecy.
RC doctrine that both body and blood of Christ exist in each element of the Lord's Supper, so that both are received by communicating in one kind (bread or wine) only.
Books containing words of the Bible in alphabetic order, with their context usually given, and references by chap. and verse. The 1st concordances were of the Vulgate; tradition ascribes the 1st, Concordantiae morales, to Anthony* of Padua; Hugh* of St. Cher prepared an authentic concordance reputedly with the aid of 500 monks; other concordances to the Vulgate include F. P. Dutripon, Concordantiae bibliorum sacrorum (Paris, 1838; rev. G. Tonini 1861; 7th ed. 1880). The 1st Heb. concordance, Meor Natib (Light of the Way), was completed by Isaac (or Mordecai) Nathan ca. the middle of the 15th c. (pub. Venice, 1524); other Heb. concordances include S. Mandelkern, Veteris Testamenti concordantiae Hebraicae atque Chaldaicae, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 18961900), 3d ed. corrected and supplemented by Moshe Henry Goshen-Gottstein, 1 vol. (Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv, 1955); G. Lisowsky and L. Rost, Konkordanz zum hebräischen Alten Testament (Stuttgart, 1958). The 1st Gk. concordance to the NT was that of the Luth. Sixt Birck (Xystus Betuleius; 150054) (Basel, 1546); the 2d was that of R. Estienne* I and Henri Estienne II, Concordantiae Graeco-Latinae Testamenti Novi (Paris, 1594; 2d ed. 1624); Erasmus Schmidt* (Schmied), Tamieion (Treasury) (Wittenberg, 1638), was the basis of subsequent similar works; other concordances to the Gk. NT include W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, A Concordance to the Greek Testament (Edinburgh, 1897; 4th ed. 1963 includes corrections by John F. Recks); O. Schmoller, Handkonkordanz zum griechischen Neuen Testament (Stuttgart, 1868; A. Schmoller ed. 12th ed. 1960); J. B. Smith, Greek-English Concordance to the New Testament (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, 1955). Konrad Kircher pub. a concordance to the LXX (Frankfurt, 1607) with the Heb. words in alphabetic order; Abraham van der Trommen pub. a concordance to the LXX (Utrecht, 1718) with the Gk. words in alphabetic order and with additional helps; E. Hatch* and H. A. Redpath* issued A Concordance to the Septuagint and the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (Including the Apocryphal Books), 3 vols. (Oxford, 18921906). The 1st large Ger. concordance was by Conrad Bawr (Lat. Agricola) (Nürnberg, 1609); other Ger. concordances include that of G. Büchner* (Jena, 1750; many later eds.). The 1st concordance to the NT in English was pub. London ca. 1535 by Thomas Gybson; the 1st Eng. concordance to the whole Bible was that of John Marbeck* (London, 1550); Alexander Cruden's concordance to the whole Eng. Bible, completed 1737 (pub. London, 1738), was remarkably accurate and has been improved in its many eds. chiefly by addition of new features (e.g., Gk. and Heb.); other Eng. concordances include J. B. R. Walker, The Comprehensive Concordance to the Holy Scriptures (Boston, 1894; reissued repeatedly); J. Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (copyrighted 1890, but 1st ed. New York, 1894; 25th print. 1963); R. Young, Analytical Concordance to the Bible (Edinburgh, 1879; many later eds.); Nelson's Complete Concordance of the Revised Standard Version Bible (New York, 1957); Concordance to the New English Bible: New Testament, comp. E.G. Elder (London, 1964; Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1965).
Readers who lack knowledge of Gk. and Heb. but desire to know the meaning of the original underlying a given Eng. word will find a list of concordances designed for that purpose with guidance in their use in F. Danker, Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1966). For a detailed list of older concordances see Concordance, J. M'Clintock and J. Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, II (New York, 1894), 454456. EL, FWD
1. Agreement bet. civil and ecclesiastical authorities, particularly bet. the pope and civil govts., to regulate ecclesiastical matters. Concordats are pub. as civil law on ratification by the state and as canon law on ratification by the ch. The 3 theories regarding the nature of concordats: (1) the legal theory, that the state as superior grants the ch. certain privileges revocable at will; (2) the compact theory, that state and ch. as equals make an agreement abrogated only by mutual consent; (3) the privilege theory, that the ch. grants concessions and indults to the state, which acknowledges duties toward the ch.
2. The 1122 Concordat of Worms, usually cited as the 1st concordat, consisted of 2 declarations. Calixtus II (Guido of Vienne; Guido of Burgundy; d. 1124; pope 111924) addressed emp. Henry V without mentioning his successors, but the effect of the concordat was felt for centuries. Henry's declaration was made to the pope and the Holy Roman Ch. The declarations regulated the conferring of regalia and the consecration of bps. and abbots. See also Investiture Controversy.
3. In the 1448 Concordat of Vienna bet. Nicholas V (Tommaso Parentucelli; Tommaso da Sarzana; ca. 13971455; pope 144755) and emp. Frederick III free canonical election of abps., bps., and some abbots was permitted; some papal reservations were allowed for lesser benefices, and the payment of annates was regulated.
4. The 1516 Concordat of Bologna bet. Leo X (see Popes, 20) and Francis I of Fr. influenced affairs of the RC Ch. in Fr. for centuries. It revoked the Pragmatic* Sanction of Bourges (see France, 3; Gallicanism). The king, in gen., received the right to nominate candidates for all important ecclesiastical positions.
5. The 1801 concordat bet. Pius VII (see Popes, 27) and Napoleon* I, First Consul since 1799, recognized the restoration of the RC Ch. in Fr. after the revolution. It acknowledged that the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion is the religion of the vast majority of French citizens. Diocesan reorganization was conceded; all bps. were required to resign. Ch. property remained in the hands of the state, but ample provision was made for maintenance of bps. and priests. The 1802 Organic Articles by Napoleon unilaterally modified the concordat, which, however, remained in force till 1905. See also Consalvi, Ercole; France, 5, 6; Roman Catholic Church, The, D 8.
7. The 1929 Lateran Treaty bet. Pius XI (see Popes, 32) and It. restored the pope's temporal power by creating the state of Vatican* City and recognizing the pope as a sovereign prince, thus settling the Roman Question (see Popes, 28). The 1929 concordat, attached to the Lateran Treaty, dealt with relations bet. the Vatican and the kingdom of It.; it guaranteed the clergy free exercise of religion, but prohibited them from engaging in political activity in opposition to the state.
8. The 1933 concordat bet. Pius XI and the Nazi govt. of Ger. allowed the RC Ch. authority in religion, but excluded it from politics. Freedom of communication within the ch., its educ. interests, and the assocs. of Catholic* Action were guaranteed. But encroachments of the Ger. govt. led to the 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge.
9. Pius XI also completed concordats with Latvia 1922, Bavaria 1924, Poland 1925, Romania 1927, Lithuania 1927, Prussia 1929, Baden 1932, and Austria 1933. The 1940 concordat bet. Pius XII and Port. recognized RC ethics and morals as basic to state activity; at the same time it recognized separation of ch. and state in principle. The 1953 concordat bet. Pius XII and Sp. names RCm as the state religion but grants some freedom of worship and religion to non-Caths.; ecclesiastical courts were allowed competence in some causes. CSM
(Colegio Concordia), Crespo, Argentina. See Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, Districts of The, B 2.
(Colegio Concordia), Obera, Misiones, Argentina. See Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, Districts of The, B 2.
Conover, North Carolina Est. in the late 1870s as a high school by mems. of the Tennessee Syn. Chartered 1881 as Conc. Coll. First pres. P. C. Henkel (see Henkels, The, 3) 188186. Taken over 1893 by the Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri* and Other States. Closed 1935.
(Instituto Concordia), Sao Paulo, Brazil. See Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, Districts of The, B 1.
(Seminario Concordia), Porto Alegre, Brazil. See Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, Districts of The, B 1.
(Seminario Concordia), Villa Ballester (José León Suárez since 1970), Buenos Aires, Argentina. See Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, Districts of The, B 2.
Ft. Wayne, Indiana Consecrated 1957, dedicated 1958; bridge bet. jr. colleges and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri (see Ministry, Education of, X D). Phased out 197677. See also Concordia College, Ft. Wayne, Indiana; Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, VII 12.
Organized at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 7, 1882, by 14 pastors, 6 lay delegates, and 1 teacher; these had withdrawn from the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States after it left the Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conf. of N. Am. 1881 in the controversy on election and conversion. P. Brand* of Pittsburgh was made pres. and The Lutheran Witness and Der Lutheraner the organs. The syn. became a mem. of the Syn. Conf. October 1882; in 1886 it resolved to disband and unite with the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The).
Organized 1862 by Frederick William Wier, Leberecht Friedrich Ehregott Krause, D. J. Warns, and C. F. Jungk. Applied for membership in the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States. Application rejected 1865 because the Ohio Syn. saw no need for such a branch syn. The Conc. Syn. of the W. dissolved soon thereafter; its mems. were absorbed by other Luth. syns.
Organized 1868 at Coyner's Ch., Augusta Co., Virginia. Pastors present: George Schmucker (elected pres.), James E. Seneker, and Henry Wetzel; 6 laymen from 5 congs. present; The Lutheran and Missionary was recommended as reading matter to the mems. of the congs. Joined The Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conference of North America 1876. Became the Conc. Dist. of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 1877; brought with it 17 congs. and 9 miss. stations; merged with the E Dist. of the Ohio Syn. 1920.
(CUS). The CUS was established in 1992 as an inter-campus partnership of the ten colleges and universities of the LCMS Its mission includes three objectives: Creation of a cooperative, non-competitive atmosphere; providing of financial stability and maintaining closer contact with synodical leaders in a collaborative atmosphere. Each partner school remains autonomous with its own faculty and board of regents. At the same time, each school participates fully in system-wide features designed to serve students and faculty. Students enrolled at one member school are enrolled system-wide, thus being eligible to take courses at any of the member schools via distance learning (CUENet) and being able to take courses for up to a year at another member school without transferring or losing credits.
The current names of member schools are: Concordia College, Ann Arbor, MI; Concordia University, Austin, TX; Concordia College, Bronxville, New York; Concordia University, Irvine, CA; Concordia University, Mequon, WI; Concordia University, Portland, OR; Concordia University, River Forest, IL; Concordia University, St. Paul, MN; Concordia College, Selma, AL; Concordia University, Seward, NE
Programs for church vocations include: Lutheran Teacher, Director of Christian Education, Director of Christian Outreach, Deaconess, Lay Minister, Director of Parish Music, Parish Nurse and Lutheran Social Worker. Pre-seminary education is also available.
See also Christian Education; Ministry, Education of, Parish Education, Teachers. Rousseau,* and J. Locke.* Rejected innate faculties and ideas and held that all human knowledge is transformed sensations. Though he held in his psychology that personality is aggregate of sensations, he nevertheless affirmed reality of soul and rejected atheism.
Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, began 1881 as a preparatory school; inc. as Conc. Coll. by 1886; came under Mo. Syn. control 1887; by 1891 became a 6-yr. school like the Ger. Gymnasium (secondary school preparing for the univ.); divided into 4-yr. high school and 2-yr. coll. 1920; last high-school class grad. 1973; 4-yr. coll. authorized 1978, accredited 1980; moved to Mequon, Wisconsin, and changed name to Conc. Coll. Wisconsin 1983; became Conc. U. Wisconsin 1989. See also Concordia University System; Lutheran Lay Training Institute.
The word concupiscentia is used in the Lat. text of AC II in the definition of original sin.* Ger. text: voll böser Lust und Neigung. Following Augustine* of Hippo, Bonaventura,* Hugh* of St. Victor, and others, Ap II says that concupiscence seeks and loves carnal things (not only sinful lusts of the body but also carnal wisdom and righteousness), ignores and despises God, lacks fear and trust in Him, hates His judgment and flees it, is angry at Him, despairs of His mercy, and trusts in temporal things (Ro 7:7, 23; 1 Co 2:14); it rejects the claim that concupiscence is a penalty and not a sin.
Falling of festivals on consecutive days. thus causing 2d vespers of one to coincide with 1st vespers of the other. Ordinarily the more important festival, or the festival beginning, takes precedence.
(Lat., concurrence of God). Term used in dogmatics to describe God's cooperation in all that occurs; described as moral (in actions of rational beings) and physical (in all creation).
With respect to good acts a distinction must be made bet. civil good works (iustitia civilis) done by unregenerate in God's kingdom of power and rewarded with temporal blessings, and works God does in His kingdom of grace in the regenerate by the gracious operation of the Holy Ghost (iustitia spiritualis). See also King, Christ as, 4, 5.
God concurs in evil works only insofar as they are acts (quoad materiale), not insofar as they are evil (quoad formale); thus evil acts are not done without God nor is God made the cause of evil.
(17891855). B. London; ed. and author; pub. numerous prose and poetical works; contributed 3 hymns to W. B. Collyer's* collection 1812; ed. the Congregational Hymn-Book; poems and hymns pub. 1856 under the title Hymns of Praise.
Belief that immortality is conditioned on behavior of the soul during earthly life. See also Annihilationism.
Morality based on a hypothetical imperative; the necessity of moral actions depends on the desired goals of the agent.
Condition without which a cause does not produce an effect.
(Lat. confero, bring together. Used by some classical authors of pub. conferences and discussions. Early used in connection with religious discussions. Cf. Gl 2:6). Beginning in the 11th c., meetings (often called calendae because held on the 1st of the month) of priests were held to discuss religious topics, perhaps because the diocese as such had become too large for frequent meetings of all mems. Such meetings of priests declined in the 13th c. and have never been fully revived in the RC Ch., though officially endorsed.
In the Prot. Ch. no fixed meaning attaches to the word conference (see Methodist Churches, 3, 4a; in Congregationalism it designates the voluntary organization of chs. in a dist.). The term has been variously used in Am. Lutheranism. In the earliest days it was applied to the meetings of syns. as well as to less formal gatherings. Pastoral conferences have often been held in Prot. chs. of Eur. and Am.
(Bekennende Kirche; Bekenntniskirche). Organized 1933 as the Pfarrernotbund (Pastors' Emergency League) under leadership of Martin Niemöller to oppose Ger. Christians controlled by Nazis. After WW II the movement continued. It adheres to the ancient creeds and Barmen* Theses. The Confessing Church professes adherence to the AC and other Reformation symbols. It is governed by a Bruderrat (Council of Brethren), consisting of representatives from various territories. See also Albertz, Martin; Kirchenkampf.
D. Schmidt, Pastor Niemöller, tr. L. Wilson (New York, 1959): C. S. Davidson, God's Man: The Story of Pastor Niemoeller (New York, 1959); W. Niemöller, Kampf und Zeugnis der Bekennenden Kirche (Bielefeld, 1948). EL
1. Profession or open acknowledgment of one's faith in anyone or anything, esp. in Christ and His Gospel (Mt 10:32; Lk 12:8; 1 Jn 2:23; 4:15). The meaning that became prevalent in the early ch., i. e., the act of a confessor* or martyr,* is found already in the NT (1 Ti 6:13).
2. That which is confessed: creed, confession, symbol (see Creeds and Confessions).
3. Acknowledgment, admission, or disclosure of one's own sins. In the OT confession of sin is both formal (Lv 5:5; Nm 5:68) and personal, private, or spontaneous (Ps 32; 51). In the NT, confession of sins is prominent in the ministry of John the Baptist (Mt 3:6) as well as in the early ch. (Acts 19:18; Ja 5:16; 1 Jn 1:9). The Didache (4, 14; 14, 1) stresses the importance of confession in the ch., that worship may be pure. The mode of confession or the person to receive it is not indicated in the NT or sub-apostolic writings. Tertullian and Cyprian already assoc. acts of reparation with the act of confessing mortal sins, notably murder, idolatry or apostasy, and gross sexual offenses. Subsequently in the W, Celtic influence on the Continent was decisive in bringing about the substitution of private confession of sins before a priest for pub. discipline of gross offenders.
4. In modern RCm, confession may refer to any self-examination and contrition; usually it refers to the formal act (confessio) which, with absolution, is cen. in the sacrament of repentance (penance*). The power of the priest to forgive sins in the sacrament of penance is deduced from Jn 20:2223; Mt 16:19; 18:1518. The material of penance is contrition,* confession, and satisfaction. Confession is necessary when a believer has fallen from baptismal grace (thereby losing sanctifying grace) by committing mortal sin (see also Sins, Venial and Mortal). Forgiveness of mortal sins may be secured without confession and priestly absolution by an act of perfect contrition (which includes the desire for formal confession). Venial sins need not be confessed. The form of penance is absolution,* a judicial act. The sacrament is properly administered by a priest who has both the authority of his priestly order and the authority of jurisdiction in the given case. Since 1215 at least an annual confession has been required of each communicant. See also General Confession.
5. The Luth. symbols rejected the necessity and possibility of enumerating all sins in confession (AC XI, Ap XI, SA III iii), but insisted on the retention of private confession, though they granted that it was a human institution. The absolution that followed confession they regarded as the living voice of the Gospel. (Ap XI; SC V)
6. Early in the Luth. Reformation, individual confession before Communion became predominantly an exploration to determine if the individual had adequate knowledge for worthy reception of Holy Communion. In the era of Pietism, individual confession fell into disuse and was replaced by general* confession.
8. In Am., the Definite Platform (1855) held that no one should be admitted into the General Syn. who believes in private confession and absolution. But C. F. W. Walther, like many supporters of the Confessional Revival in Eur., felt that both should be retained. In the 20th c. periodic attempts have been made to restore individual confession in the Luth. Ch. in the spirit of the symbols. But the most common form of confession remains the gen. pub. confession and absolution in the course of the Eucharistic service or immediately before it.
Sources of Christian Theology, ed. P. F. Palmer, II: Sacraments and Forgiveness (Westminster, Maryland, 1959); K. Aland, Die Privatbeichte im Luthertum von ihren Anfängen bis zu ihrer Auflösung, Kirchengeschichtliche Entwürfe (Gütersloh, 1960), pp. 452 to 519; L. Klein, Evangelisch-lutherische Beichte: Lehre und Praxis (Paderborn, 1961); P. H. D. Lang, Private Confession in the Lutheran Church, Una Sancta, XXII, 1 (Resurrection, 1965), 1840; F. L. Precht, Changing Theologies of Private and Public Confession and Absolution (unpub. ThD dissertation, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1965).
1. One who avows faith. 2. Martyr in the early ch. 3. One who is known for a holy life, esp. under persecution. 4. One (e.g., priest or pastor) who hears confession* and pronounces absolution.* See also Keys, Office of the, 8 b; Saints, Veneration of, 3.
1. In the early ch., confirmation was part of the rite of Baptism. After the candidates were baptized Easter Eve, they were confirmed with chrism,* prayers, the sign of the cross, and the laying on of hands; Easter morning they were allowed to make their 1st communion (see Catechetics, 13). A remnant of this early practice survived in Luther's Taufbüchlein; it is found in the current post baptismal prayer in which God is implored to strengthen, i. e., confirm, the child with His grace unto life everlasting.
2. With the growth of the ch., and esp. with the increased number of infant baptisms, bps. began to delegate authority to priests, permitting them to baptize anytime. In the E, priests were permitted also to confirm, provided they used chrism blessed by the bp. But in the W, Rome forbade confirmation except by a bp. Where the RC liturgy came into use, Baptism and confirmation became distinct and separate rites. Because of this separation the idea gradually emerged in medieval times that confirmation was a complement to Baptism. At first the rite was greatly to be desired because it gave a Christian the added gift of the Holy Spirit; later it was deemed necessary for salvation. Already in the 1st half of the 12th c. Hugh* of St. Victor referred to confirmation as the 2d sacrament. Confirmation was made part of the RC sacramental system by the Council of Florence* 1439; it was said to bestow grace and a certain spiritual and indelible sign necessary for salvation, equal in power to all other sacraments. In March 1547 the Council of Trent* fixed the RC doctrine and anathematized the Prot. substitution for confirmation.
3. The question whether confirmation should precede 1st Communion has been a knotty one in the RC Ch. At different times and places, esp. in Lat. Am. chs., 1st Communion has preceded confirmation on the premise that the Eucharist is supernatural food, whereas confirmation is supernatural growth. In gen., the hierarchy has favored the precedence of confirmation, esp. since instruction has become part of preparation for the rite.
4. The Gk. Cath. chs. regard confirmation as a sacrament and administer it at the same time as Baptism or as soon as possible after it, even in the case of infants. In the Angl. (Prot. Episc.) Ch. confirmation is a formal rite administered by the bp.; the High Ch. regards it as a sacramental rite conveying the gift of the Holy Ghost, the low Ch. as essentially a personal renewal of the promises made by others for the subject in Baptism. The High Ch. urges the age of 56, the Low Ch. prefers the age of 1416 for confirmation.
5. Contrary to popular opinion, the Luth. Ch. lacks a universally accepted definition of confirmation and a consistent approach to it. It unanimously rejected the RC view (see 2) but was not in agreement as to whether the rite should be reest., ref., or abolished.
6. Luther did little to encourage an ev. type of confirmation, though he approved the 1540 Brandenburg Ch. Order and subscribed to the 1545 Wittenberg Reformation. His emphasis on instruction, esp. in preparation for the Lord's Supper, proved to be a major contribution to a new type of confirmation assoc. not only with Baptism but also with the Lord's Supper. Only in the few cases where confirmation was introd. as a substitute for the RC sacrament was the assoc. with the Lord's Supper not made.
7. The development of confirmation in the Luth. Ch. followed no uniform pattern. Most Luths. in the 16th c. wanted nothing to do with confirmation and regarded the very word as a Romanizing offense. But even in those parts of Ger. and Scand. where the rite as such was rejected, need for instruction connected with Baptism and the Lord's Supper led to a Luth. rite. Efforts were made in a few chs. to reest. confirmation (Hesse) or ref. it (Pomerania). Local circumstances varied; at some places confirmation could be quickly est., elsewhere it was delayed; it was not pub. observed in Hamburg till 1832. See also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 6.
8. In the development of confirmation in the Luth. Ch. there were at least 6 gen. types: catechetical, traditional, hierarchical, sacramental, pietistic, and rationalistic. The first 4 appeared in the 16th c., the last 2 in the 17th and 18th c. In practice it is difficult to find any of these in pure form (except occasionally in an initial stage), because more than 1 influence was often at work. In the latter part of the 19th c. and esp. in the 20th c. it is not unusual to see the impact that all 6 types have made, esp. in the New World and in the younger chs.
9. Where confirmation is assoc. with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, as is usually the case, 3 essential elements of confirmation are: (1) a course of instruction preceding the rite; (2) profession of faith, usually made through an examination and summarized in formal questions in the rite; (3) intercessory prayers by the cong., normally with imposition of hands.
10. In Am., Luth. children are confirmed when they are 1214; such confirmation usually takes place on Palm Sunday or Pent. Adults are often privately catechized in a less formal manner, and pub. confirmed. When children's 1st Communion is separated from confirmation, the latter usually occurs later, with confirmation regarded as a partial fulfillment of the obligation imposed at the time of Baptism to rear children in the Christian faith. Preparation for 1st Communion is then also preceded by instruction; such instruction, though less extensive, shows that the children (usually bet. 8 and 10) can examine themselves (1 Co 11:28) and are able to exercise the right to partake of the Lord's Supper.
11. Baptism, not confirmation, normally marks the beginning of one's membership in the ch. If a person has come to faith by the Gospel prior to Baptism, the sacrament becomes for him a confirmation. Hence a person is not baptized and confirmed in the same ceremony. In such cases confirmation is superfluous and detracts from Baptism.
12. The practice of confirmation has received considerable attention in the Luth. Ch. since WW II. The LWF made confirmation a matter of particular study in order to divest it of for. elements and reconstruct it for present-day circumstances. Similar studies are being carried on by other groups. ACR
RC: M. Bohen, The Mystery of Confirmation (New York, 1963); B. Neunheuser, Baptism and Confirmation, tr. J. J. Hughes (New York, 1964). Angl.: G. W. H. Lampe, The Seal of the Spirit (New York, 1951); Confirmation: History, Doctrine, and Practice, ed. K. B. Cully (Greenwich, Connecticut, 1962). Luth.: Commission on Education, Lutheran World Federation, Confirmation: A Study Document, tr. W. G. Tillmanns (Minneapolis ); A. C. Repp, Confirmation in the Lutheran Church (St. Louis, 1964); Zur Geschichte und Ordnung der Konfirmation in den lutherischen Kirchen, ed. K. Frör (Munich, 1962).
(Lat. I confess). Confession of sins used in the RC Ch. in sacrament of penance,* at beginning of mass,* and on other occasions. The form of the RC Confiteor adopted 1314 by the Council of Ravenna was authorized 1570 in the missal of Pius V (see Popes, 21). In it confession is made to God and the saints. Though not in the Book of Common Prayer, it has been widely adopted in the Angl. Ch. In the Luth. Ch., the part of the service commonly called the Confession of Sins, extending inclusively from the Exhortation to the Declaration of Grace, is often called Confiteor.
In the wider sense, RC assoc. having as its object some particular religious work (e.g., personal sanctification; care of poor, sick, orphans; performance of last rites). Hincmar* prescribed rules for them. Fl. 13th c.
RC canon* law restricted use of name confraternity to unions that have increase of pub. worship as at least part of their purpose and calls such other assocs. as described above sodalities or pious unions.
2. Writings of Confucianism include 5 sacred books called Ching: Book of History, Book of Songs, Book of Changes, Spring and Autumn Annals, Book of Rites; a 6th, Book of Music, is said to have been lost in the Han dynasty. Of these 6, Confucius probably wrote only the Spring and Autumn Annals; the Book of Rites and parts of the Book of Changes may have been written as late as the 3d c. BC Neo-Confucianists of the Sung dynasty (9601279) added 4 books called Shu: Analects of Confucius, Golden Mean, Great Study, and Works of Mencius.*
3. Confucius enunciated many ethical precepts and sayings of China's past without organizing them into a coherent system. As Aristotle* later, so Confucius stressed the golden mean bet. extremes. Inevitably Confucianism blended with China's ancient universalism and its antitheses of yin and yang, world souls or forces representing the female (negative) principle and the male (positive) principle in the universe, and assoc. also, e.g., with cold and heat, darkness and light. Yang divides itself into innumerable shen (good spirits) abiding, e.g., in sun, moon, stars, rivers, mountains. The shen of one's ancestors are regarded as included among the gods. Yin is divisible into innumerable kwei, evil spirits or demons that harass men and must be driven away. Heading up all the spirits is T'ien, heaven, also called Ti, emp., or Shang-ti, supreme emp. In its animist, ancestor worship, polytheism, and polydemonism Confucianism has affinities with some schools of Hinduism.
4. From 200 BC to AD 900 Taoism* and Buddhism* greatly influenced Confucianism; the neo-Confucianism resulting during the Sung dynasty had epistemological and metaphysical foundations for its ethics. The religious leadership of the people rested with the emp., called Son of Heaven, until the fall of the empire 1912.
The welfare of the nation was regarded as depending on the proper observance by the emp. of the religious rites, esp. the worship of heaven and earth at the winter and summer solstices resp., at the great altars S and N of Peking. On these occasions the emp., also sacrificed at the tablets of his ancestors and to the sun, moon, stars, winds, rain, clouds, and thunder. Other gods in the pantheon of the state religion were the corn spirits, various mountains and streams in China, the principal seas, famous men and women of antiquity (e.g., Confucius and his disciples), the emp. who taught the people agriculture, the first breeder of silkworms, and the planet Jupiter. Still other gods were worshiped by the mandarins and authorities in the provinces, e.g., physicians of ancient times, a star that is regarded as patron of classical studies, the gods and goddesses of walls and moats, cannons, water, rain, architecture, kilns, and storehouses. Three annual sacrifices were brought for the repose and refreshment of the souls of the departed in gen. There are numerous temples throughout the empire; though there is no priesthood, religious observances are thoroughly ritualistic and attended by great pomp. Sacrifices include swine, cattle, goats, and silks.
5. In his concern for the welfare of the state Confucius preserved what he thought was best in traditional teachings. He made his ethics revolve around jen (human-heartedness, or love; one of his 3 universal virtues, wisdom, love, and courage, and one of his 5 constant virtues, love, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and sincerity). His 5 cardinal relations included those of prince and minister (or ruler and subject), husband and wife, father and son, older brother and younger brother, and friend and friend. His Golden Rule took a negative form: Do not to others what you do not want done to yourself. He produced no philos, or theol. system. His teachings were entirely ethical; he did not speak of God, immortality, or sin and its remedy; punishment for wrongdoing is confined to this world; salvation comes by effort. His teachings met little success in his lifetime, but Confucian writings were hidden and escaped the Burning of the Books under Shih Huang Ti ca. 212 BC and thereafter gained in influence. State worship of Confucius began 195 BC under Liu Pang, founder of the Han dynasty, and ended 1912; imperial worship ceremonies were resumed at the Temple of Heaven by the president at the winter solstice 1914.
Confucianism spread to other countries, including Annam and Korea*; it entered Japan* at ca. the same time as Buddhism (6th c. after Christ) and was considerably altered by Jap. influences; e.g., in China the emp.'s rule as Son of Heaven was contingent on the pleasure and support of the people; in Jap. the emp. ruled as Son of Heaven theoretically by right of descent from Amaterasu,* practically by conquest and power; this lends significance to the denial of Hirohito, Jap. emp., in a January 1, 1946, rescript, that he is divine.
(K'ung Fu-tzu; Kung Fu-tse; K'ung Ch'iu; ca. 551ca. 479 BC). Chinese philos. B. Lu (now Shantung). Prime minister of Lu. Resigned ca. 495 in protest against ruler's evil ways. See also Chinese Philosophy; Confucianism.
(Fréres de la charitè). RC religious order founded ca. 1807 at Ghent, Belgium, by PierreJoseph Triest (17601836; canon of St. Bavon of Ghent) to sanctify its mems. by the exercise of works of charity that embrace every phase of physical and moral suffering. The rule and constitutions were approved and confirmed by Leo XIII 1899.
(CORE). An organization that seeks to gain rights for African Americans chiefly through passive resistance. Organized 1942 Chicago by lames Leonard Farmer, former program dir. of NAACP; he was influenced by War Without Violence, written by Krishnalal Shridharani, pupil of Gandhi. The passive resistance movement was aided by Martin L. King* Jr. (see also Southern Christian Leadership Conference). In 1961 CORE conducted the first Freedom Rides into Alabama and Mississippi Farmer resigned from CORE effective 1966 to head the Center for Community-Action Education, Inc.
W. H. Burns, The Voices of Negro Protest in America (New York, 1963).
(January 3, 1816April 10, 1898). B. Pine Grove, Pennsylvania; educ. Gettysburg Sem. 183740; pastor Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, 184144; St. John's, Hagerstown, Maryland, 184450; prof. Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio, 185055; pastor First Luth. Ch., Dayton, Ohio, 185562; Trinity Luth. Ch., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 186264; Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 1864. Part owner and ed. Lutheran Observer, Baltimore, Maryland, 1863; chief ed. 186698; ed. Luther's Catechism; joint author Lutheran Manual and Guide. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 7.
In gen. usage the term applies to the moral feeling, the urge to do the right thing and avoid the wrong. Figuratively the word is used loosely to denote man's intuition of right and wrong; or the sensitiveness of individuals or groups to moral right or wrong. In gen. literature the term has a usage far from standard or uniform.
The NT uses a standard word for conscience, syneidesis; despite variations in NT authorship, a unified pattern of meaning emerges. Twice (1 Ptr 2:19; Ro 13:5) the term seems to imply in gen. man's moral conscience toward God, the realization that God is concerned for the goodness of man's actions. But in most cases the word is given a more specialized meaning. Peter, the writer to the Hebrews, and particularly Paul often refer to the good conscience. By this they imply the awareness, satisfying in feeling, of the rectitude of one's conduct and intimate that conscience involves or presupposes recognition of a standard. Conversely the writer to the Hebrews and Paul speak of a bad conscience, i. e., one aware of a moral lapse and offense against an acknowledged standard. This process of recognizing a standard and comparing action with it is explicit and central in Paul's use of the term in the epistles to the Corinthians (1 Co 10:2529; 2 Co 1:12; 5:11). There Paul describes the results of this process of judgment as imperfect and unhappy where the standard of judgment is faulty. He speaks of a weak conscience (1 Co 8:10, 12) as one that is not feeble or sluggish in its activity, but hampered by a faulty norm. Interesting is the word seared (1 Ti 4:2), which some have imagined to mean calloused or insensitive; more consistently it implies branded in the sense of permanently harmed. Paul speaks of conscience serving as a witness (Ro 2:15: 9:1), i. e., to the recognition of moral responsibility.
In Luth. literature much has been made of the terrors of conscience (contrition*), induced by the indictment of the law of God, as the indispensable prerequisite and preparation for the Gospel. The Biblical concept appears to be more limited to the intellectual and emotional reflex accompanying particularly such actions as are consciously contrary to standard. The NT emphasizes man as living with a sense of responsibility toward God, who sets the standard. In the cure of souls, the Christian is interested in removing the tensions of an evil conscience with the guarantee of a good conscience, i. e., forgiveness in Christ Jesus, and in equipping the individual with that vitality for living which fosters the good conscience, i. e., the life of the Spirit through Jesus Christ. RRC
E. W. A. Koehler, Conscience, CTM, XIII (May 1942), 337364; C. A. Pierce, Conscience in the New Testament (London, ); C. Scaer, A Treatise on Conscience (Boston, 1927); J. Stelzenberger, Syneidesis im Neuen Testament (Paderborn, 1961) and Syneidesis, Conscientia, Gewissen (Paderborn, 1963): A. Gräbner, Die Lehre vom Gewissen, 1894 Proceedings of the Nebraska District, LCMS, pp. 9 to 77.
(unanimity of the races; unanimity of all). Terms often used in apologetics,* esp. in connection with the doctrine of God and immortality. Thus the gen. belief in a supreme being is held to support the argument for the existence of God.
(Consensus ministerii Bremensis ecclesiae). Calvinistic doctrinal statement prepared by C. Pezel* and others; signed 1595; made confession of Bremen by its council 1644.
Term describes hist. theory of G. Calixtus,* who held that till 500 the ch. was marked by unity and doctrinal purity. He argued that the only proper basis for ch. union in his day was the unanimous belief of the first 5 cents. Term was popular among some Latitudinarians* and is used occasionally to describe one possible basis of future reunion of the ch. See also Vincent of Lèrins.
G. Calixtus, De veritate unicae religionis Christianae et autoritate antiquitatis ecclesiasticae dissertationes (Helmstedt, 1658); O. Ritschl, Dogmengeschichte des Protestantismus, IV (Göttingen, 1927), 400423; H. Sasse, 'The Future Reunited Church' and 'The Ancient Undivided Church,' The Springfielder, XXVII, 2 (Summer 1963), 821. HTM
1. In RCm, assembly of cardinals* convoked by and meeting in the presence of the pope. 2. In Ch. of Eng., the bp.'s court for administration of ch. law in his diocese (but Commissary Court in the diocese of Canterbury). 3. The lowest court in many Presb. chs., consisting of the minister and elders of a local ch. (Kirk-session in Scot.). 4. In some Luth. and Ref. chs., an administrative bd. consisting entirely, or chiefly, of clergy; often attached to the bp. of a diocese. See also Reformed Churches, 1.
Cathari* rite of laying on of hands by which spiritual baptism was administered and apostolic succession conferred; usually performed shortly before death, making the candidate one of the perfect.
1. Alleviation of sorrow. 2. Evening meal of monks.
(141418). The 2d of three 15th-c. councils intended to bring about a reformation of the ch. (see Councils and Synods, 7); held under John* XXIII and Sigismund.* The most influential members of the session were P. d'Ailly* and J. de Gerson.* The papal schism 13781417 (see Schism, 8) was settled; John XXIII (see John XXIII, 1) and Benedict XIII (see Benedict XIII, 1) were deposed; Gregory* XII abdicated; Martin* V was elected. J. Hus* and Jerome* of Prague were burned. Reforms were urged by lower clergy, monks, doctors, and professors, led by d'Ailly and Gerson and supported by the emp. But the would-be reformers disagreed among themselves and their agitation practically came to naught, largely because the abuses they attacked concerned such matters as papal procedure, administration and income of vacant benefices, simony, indulgences, and dispensations, from which the pope, cardinals, and other Roman ch. officials received much of their income. See also Wycliffe, John.
H. Finke, Forschungen und Quellen zur Geschichte des Konstanzer Konzils (Paderborn, 1889); Acta concilii Constanciensis, eds. H. Finke, J. Hollnsteiner, and H. Heimpel, 4 vols. (Münster in West-falen, 18961928).
(ca. 280337). The Great. Roman emp. 306337; son of Constantius I (Flavius Valerius; Chlorus, the Pale; ca. 250306; Roman emp. 305306) and Helena. Sent to the court of Diocletian* 292; Constantius succeeded Diocletian 305 as W emp. and proclaimed Constantine his successor (caesar). The army acclaimed Constantine as Augustus on the death of Constantius at York, Brit., 306; but he was not est. as sole emp. of the W till 312, when he defeated rival Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge near Rome. On this occasion, according to tradition, he saw the sign of the cross in the sky with words often given in Gk. as en touto nika (conquer by this) and in Lat. as in hoc signo vinces (by this sign thou shalt conquer). On his standard, called labarum,* Constantine replaced the pagan emblems with the Chi-Rho (initial letters of Christ in Gk.). In 313 he and E emp. Licinius* agreed in granting equal toleration to all religions. Licinius later renewed persecutions of Christians, but was decisively defeated 324 by Constantine, who became sole Roman emp. 325. Constantine convened the Council of Nicaea* (see also Arianism; Councils and Synods, 4). Beginning in 326 he moved the seat of govt. from Rome to Byzantium, which he rebuilt and 330 renamed Constantinople. One tradition says he was bap. by Sylvester I (see Popes, 1) at the Lateran*; another account has him bap. at or near Nicomedia by Eusebius* of Nicomedia; M. Chemnitz,* Examen, Part IV, Locus II, Section IV, Chap. I, near the end, speaks of the story of Constantine's baptism as a fable. After his death the empire was divided bet. 3 sons (Gaul, Sp., and Brit. to Constantine* II; Asia and Egypt to Constantius* II; It., Afr., and territory along the Denube to Constans*) and 2 nephews (most of the Balkans to Delmatius; Armenia, Pontus, and Cappadocia to Hannibalianus). In the E Ch. he is venerated as a saint and regarded as equal with the apostles, or as the 13th apostle.
The most diverse opinions have been held on Constantine's personal relations to Christianity and the motives that governed his imperial policy. The extreme view of the E Ch. referred to above was held by Eusebius* of Caesarea in Life of Constantine. The other extreme (first put forward by Ammianus Marcellinus [ca. 330ca. 400], a pagan writer) sees in Constantine nothing but a shrewd, calculating politician, who allied himself with the new religion in order to realize his imperial ambitions. Though Constantine's conduct in gen. was determined by policy rather than by principle, his preference for Christianity was not only prudential but also personal. His life is stained with crimes, but the softening and humanizing effects of Christianity are evident in his legislation. His concern for the unity of the ch., threatened with division by Arianism, was probably subordinate to higher concern for the unity of the empire. He was drawn to Christians by his interest in purity of life, his genuine humanity, and shrewd statesmanship. He ascribed his victory over Maxentius to the vision of the cross mentioned above, exempted the clergy from military and municipal duties, abolished some practices offensive to pub. morality, est. asylums for foundlings, mitigated slave laws, and placed restrictions on concubinage and divorce. Patron of science and art.
Constantine's importance for the hist. of the ch. lies in 3 areas. He was the 1st emp. to grant Christianity legal standing and imperial support. He set a pattern of imperial interest in ecclesiastical concerns that easily became policy of imperial control for his successors. He moved the seat of govt. to the E, forcing the Roman bp. to become the pol. and administrative as well as spiritual leader in the W
M. A. Huttmann, The Establishment of Christianity and the Proscription of Paganism (New York, 1914); N. H. Baynes, Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (London ); C. N. Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture (Oxford, England, 1940); L. B. Holsapple, Constantine the Great (New York. 1942): A. Alföldi, The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome, tr. H. Mattingly (Oxford, England, 1948); A. H. M. Jones, Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (London ); H. Dörries, Das Selbstzeugnis Kaiser Konstantins (Göttingen, 1954); H. Dörries, Constantine and Religious Liberty, tr. R. H. Bainton (New Haven, Connecticut, 1960); MPL, 8, 9672. HTM
(ca. 718775). Called Copronymous (from the Gk. for dung) by his enemies for polluting the baptismal font in infancy; son of Leo* III; b. Constantinople; E Roman emp. 741775; convoked the iconoclastic* council; tried to abolish convents.
Following councils often considered ecumenical met at Constantinople:
1. The 2d ecumenical council, 381, called by Theodosius* I. Meletius* of Antioch, Gregory* of Nazianzus, and Nectarius* of Constantinople successively presided. Gregory was made bp. of Constantinople; when he resigned, he was replaced by Nectarius. Ca. 150 orthodox bps. attended the council. They produced a doctrinal statement, now lost, on the consubstantiality of the 3 persons of the Trin. and accepted a creed that was more developed than that of Nicaea (Nicaeno-Constantinopolitanum; creed. or faith, of the 150 fathers; see also Ecumenical Creeds, B 1 b). 4 canons were adopted; 3 additional ones accepted in the E are probably spurious. The 1st canon condemns Arianism,* Apollinarianism (see Apollinaris of Laodicea), and Macedonianism*; the 2d imposed observance of diocesan and patriarchal limits on bps.; the 3d declared that because Constantinople was the new capital its bp. should have preeminence after the bp. of Rome; the 4th invalidated the consecration of Maximus as bp. of Constantinople. See also Schism, 4.
2. The 5th ecumenical council was called 553 by Justinian* I to condemn the so-called Three Chapters. The proceedings were dominated by the emp. See also Three Chapters, Controversy of; Origenistic Controversy; Scythian Monks.
See bibliography for Councils and Synods; J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 2d ed. (New York, 1960); E. Honigmann, Trois mémoires posthumes d'histoire et de géographie de l'Orient chretien, ed. P. Devos (Brussels, 1961); A. M. Ritter, Das Konzil von Konstantinopel und sein Symbol: Studien zur Geschichte und Theologie des II. Ökumenischen Konzils (Göttingen, 1965). EL
Term derived from Roman law, where it designated enactments of the emp. in decree, letter, or ordinance having force of statute. Hence, in canon law, ordinances of the ch. Gen. used of ecclesiastical constitutions issued by gen. councils and by the Roman see. Episc. constitutions are issued by bps. individually or assembled in syn.
View, falsely charged to Lutheranism, that bread and body form 1 substance (a 3d substance) in Communion (similarly wine and blood) or that body and blood are present, like bread and wine, in a natural manner. See also Grace, Means of, IV 3.
(Stephan Konsul; b. 1521). B. Pinguente, Istria; priest; expelled from Carniola for ev. sympathies 1549; guest in home of P. Truber* 155253; teacher in Upper Palatinate 1553; Truber brought Consul into contact with J. Ungnad* von Weissenwolf, with whom Consul est. an institute at Urach for tr. and printing; works include tr. of AC 1562 and NT 1562 to 1563 into Serbo-Croatian with A. Dalmatin* and P. Truber.
(14831542). Educ. Padua; Venetian ambassador at court of Charles* V; present at Diet of Worms*; cardinal 1535; mem. of commission to prepare for Council of Trent*; sought to reconcile RCs and Luths. at Regensburg 1541 (see Regensburg Conference); works include Confutatio articulorum seu quaestionum Lutheri; Consilium de emendanda ecclesia; Epistola de justificatione.
(Lat. continentia). Gk. equivalent is usually tr. temperance and denotes the virtue of one able to govern self, i. e., master and control his desires and passions (Acts 24:25; 1 Co 9:25; Tts 1:8; 2 Ptr 1:6). Such temperance is enjoined and spoken of as a gift of the Spirit (Gl 5:23). The Eng. word continence refers to control of animal appetites as spoken of 1 Co 7:5, 9; 1 Ptr 2:11. The sex urge is not in itself evil, but a gift of God for holy matrimony (Pr 18:22; 1 Ti 3:12; 5:14; Heb 13:4); esp. the incontinent are enjoined to marry (1 Co 7). The Bible opposes all legalistic human ordinances (Cl 2:1623; 1 Ti 4:13), upholds Christian liberty (1 Co 6:12; 10:23), and considers the practice of continence a voluntary act in harmony with circumstances (1 Co 7:15, 26), individual gifts (1 Co 7:69), and Christian vocation (1 Co 9:16). See also Asceticism; Celibacy.
Movement of heart prior to conversion, namely, that the heart perceive sin, [and] dread God's wrath (FC SD II 70). Before the time of Luther, teachings pertaining to contrition and repentance were admittedly confused (Ap XII 47). In rabbinic Judaism, repentance (Heb. teshubah, return) was often man's self-redemption from the thralldom of sin. The RC Ch. teaches that perfect contrition justifies the sinner even without the Sacrament of Penance (E. J. Hanna, Attrition, The Catholic Cyclopedia, II [New York, 1907], 66; see also Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, sess. XIV, Sacrament of Penance, ch. 4). By perfect contrition RCs mean detestation of sin that arises from love of God. That which arises from any other motive (e.g., fear of losing salvation) is considered attrition.* In rationalism contrition is the first step toward self-improvement, which it regards the essence of salvation. In many Prot. circles the view prevails either that contrition procures forgiveness of sins or, in milder form, that contrition has an influence on God, moving Him to forgive.
Two truths are taught in Scripture regarding contrition: 1. The nonexistence of conversion where contrition has not preceded (FC SD II 70). Contrition is the indispensable preparation for conversion. Fear of God's wrath and damnation always precedes faith (Jl 2:12; Mk 1:15; Lk 15:18; 18:13; 24:47; Acts 2:37; 16:29; FC SD II 54, 70). One who does not experience such anguish of conscience (terrores conscientiae, result of awareness of God's law), despises God's grace (Lk 5:3139; Ap XII 51; XIII 21; AC XII). Luther emphasized that true contrition is not active (activa contritio), i. e., fabricated remorse, but passive (passiva contritio), i. e., true sorrow of the heart, suffering, and pain of death (SA III iii 2). But from this it is not to be concluded that contrition is a cause of forgiveness (Ro 3:28). 2. Contrition in no way brings about, implements, or occasions justification through faith (WA 6, 545; 52, 271; 48, 335; FC SD III 3031). Good works do not justify (Eph 2:8); the contrition of the unconverted person is not even a good work, since it is joined with hatred toward God (God justifies the ungodly, Ro 4:5). As soon as one longs for divine grace, faith exists in the heart (Is 42:3; Mk 9:24; cf. FC SD II 14). Faith is engendered by the Holy Spirit through the Word (see Conversion, II 23). EL
T. Engelder, Zur Lehre von der Reue, CTM, V (1934), 218227, 369382, 445455, 497509, 584 to 596, 657668; W. Elert, Angst, Morphologie des Luthertums, I (Munich, 1931; improved print., 1952), 3944, tr. W. Hansen, Fear, The Structure of Lutheranism, I (St. Louis, 1962), 4349.
Bldg(s). in which a body of religious dwell, or the community itself; tends to be restricted to female communities.
In the early ch., a house of prayer or religious meeting. Later a cabal of monks to secure election of a favorite as superior. In England applied to J. Wycliffe's followers and, contemptuously, to meetings of Dissenters.*
Branch of Franciscans* that favored accumulation of property and followed a less strict rule.
The doctrine of conversion is of paramount importance in the total body of Scriptural teaching and Christian belief, since it shows how the salvation won for us by Christ is brought into the possession of the individual sinner for his soul's eternal salvation.
I. Necessity of Conversion. It is God's good and gracious will that every human being should be saved (Jn 3:16; 1 Ti 2:4; Tts 2:11); Jesus fulfilled the Law in our stead and provided a sufficient ransom from sin, death, and the devil (Jn 1:29). But it is not in the power of anyone to take for himself the fruits of Christ's redemption. Faith in Christ, deliverance from the power of darkness, and translation into the kingdom of the Son cannot be achieved by any human being for himself (Eph 2:1). The 1st disobedience brought dire consequences to the entire human race. Man lost his perfect knowledge of God (1 Co 2:79; 13:910). After the Fall man is still a rational being, with understanding and a will, able to acquire intellectual knowledge of the truths of the Gospel; but he cannot of himself acquire the spiritual grasp that accepts, believes, and trusts in what has been heard and learned (1 Co 1:23; 2:14). Man's will is free in worldly affairs (Ap XVII 4, 7, 9), but there is nothing in the mind and heart of natural, unconverted man that could incline his will toward God (Gn 8:21; Jn 6:44; Ro 8:5). This corruption of the mind and will is not merely a relative loss of righteousness, but natural man no longer has a remnant of the divine image or of his original powers (Mk 16:16: Jn 1:5; 8:34, 37; 15:5; Ro 3:12; 8:7; 1 Co 2:14; 2 Co 3:5; Eph 2:12, 12; Ph 2:13; 2 Ti 2:26; FC SD II 7, 1214, 2021). See also Free Will; Image of God.
II. Nature of Conversion.
1. The word conversion (Gk. epistrophe) is taken from Scripture (Ps 51:13; Is 60:5; Acts 3:19; Ja 5:1920); tr. turn (Acts 9:35; 11:21; 14:15; 26:18; 2 Co 3:16), return (1 Ptr 2:25). Luther commonly tr. it with Bekehrung. Various synonyms are used in Scripture (e.g., regeneration, new birth, second birth, awakening, illumination, call, repentance), all denoting the act of divine grace by which the sinner is delivered from the power of darkness and tr. into the kingdom of Christ. (Cl 1:13)
2. The word conversion is used in Scripture in a wider and a narrower sense. In the wider sense it designates the entire process whereby man is transferred from his carnal state into a spiritual state of faith* and grace* and then enters, and under the continued influence of the Holy Spirit continues in, a state of faith and spiritual life.
3. Conversion in the narrower sense is essentially the bestowal of faith (donatio fidei) in God's promise of salvation for Christ's sake. It takes place in the heart and consists in this, that a heart, broken and contrite because of sin, comes to faith in Christ and trusts in Christ for grace and forgiveness (Acts 11:21). It takes place when the Holy Spirit engenders faith in the hearts of penitents through the Word of God (Law and Gospel) and the Sacraments. (Is 55:1011; Jn 1:4550; 6:63; Acts 8:3438; 16:1334; Ro 1:16; 10:17)
4. Though conversion is a divine miracle that cannot be understood through psychological observation and introspection, Scripture speaks of distinct inner motions of the heart, namely contrition* and faith; when these are present, conversion has taken place; these inner motions are described by dogmaticians by the words motus interni, quibus conversio absolvitur (Is 42:3; Mk 9:24). Contrition does not form a beginning of, or half of, conversion, nor does it produce a better spiritual condition in the sinner, since of itself it can only lead to despair (2 Co 7:10); but it is the indispensable preparation for conversion. The converted person may be sure of his conversion. (2 Co 13:5; 1 Jn 3:14)
5. Conversion is sometimes spoken of as being gradual; but in that case the term is used in a wide sense to include certain outward acts that commonly precede conversion and only prepare for conversion. Conversion proper is the matter of an instant, the moment when the Holy Spirit through means of grace* engenders faith in a contrite heart.
6. Since God's mighty power (2 Co 4:6; Eph 1:19) works through means in conversion, it can be resisted. (Mt 23:37; Acts 7:51)
7. Concerning the fact that some passages of Scripture speak of God's converting man, others of man's converting himself (Jer 24:7; 31:18; Acts 3:19), J. W. Baier* says: The word 'conversion' is taken in a double sense in the Scriptures, inasmuch as at one time God is said to convert man and, at another, that man is said to convert himself, though as to the thing [itself] the action is one and the same. (Compendium, III, 191)
8. Men may fall from grace after conversion (David, Peter, Hymenaeus, Alexander). Unless the sin against the Holy Ghost be committed, they may again be converted (reiterated conversion; David, Peter; Eze 18:2332). See also Sin, The Unpardonable.
III. Effects of Conversion. Through conversion and faith the believer is made a child of God (Gl 3:26); enters the kingdom of God; is, for Christ's sake, declared just and absolved from all guilt and punishment (Ro 3:28; 8:33); has peace, boldness, confidence, comfort (Ro 5:35), and hope of eternal life (Ro 5:21; 8:30). The Holy Spirit, who creates justifying faith in the heart of the sinner, also, from the moment that this faith has been wrought, sets in motion the divine work of sanctification* (Ro 6:16; 8:14; 13:10) until in the ch. triumphant the divine image of perfect righteousness will be completely restored (Heb 12:23). WHW
F. W. Stellhorn, Conversion, The Lutheran Cyclopedia, ed. H. E. Jacobs and J. A. W. Haas (New York, 1899), pp. 136141; Conversion, The Concordia Cyclopedia, eds. L. Fuerbringer, T. Engelder, and P. E. Kretzmann (St. Louis, 1927), pp. 181182; C. Kleiner, Conversion, The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, ed. J. Bodensieck (Minneapolis, 1965), I, 618619. In Proceedings of LCMS District Conventions: C. F. W. Walther, Thesen über die Bekehrung des Menschen zu Gott, Northern 1873, pp. 1958; J. Frosch, Thesen tiber den rechten Gebrauch der Gnadenmittel im Werke der Bekehrung, Canada 1882, pp. 1237; H. Hanser, Thesen über die Lehre von der Bekehrung, Eastern 1882, pp. 2450; R. H. Biedermann, Thesen über die Lehre von der Bekehrung, Nebraska 1882, pp. 7 to 48; F. Pieper, Thesen über die Lehre von dem gänzlichen Unvermögen des natürlichen Menschen in geistlichen Dingen in ihrer Wichtigkeit für das christliche Leben, Southern 1882, pp. 661; C. F. W. Walther and R. H. Biedermann, Thesen über die Rechtfertigung des sündigen Menschen vor Gott nach dem Evangelium, Nebraska 1883, pp. 1072; A. Gräbner, Von der Wiedergeburt oder Bekehrung, Southern 1894, pp. 1079; H. A. C. Paul, Die schriftgemässe Lehre von der Bekehrung, Oregon and Washington 1901, pp. 1254; C. M. Zorn, Vom freien Willen und von der Bekehrung, Central 1906, pp. 1153; W. H. Bewie, Der zweite Artikel der Konkordienformel: Vom freien Willen oder menschlichen Kräften, Texas 1919, pp. 56130. F. W. Stellhorn, Worum handelt es sich eigentlich in dem gegenwärtigen Lehrstreit über die Gnadenwahl? tr. G. H. Schodde, What Is the Real Question in the Present Controversy on Predestination? (Columbus, Ohio, 1881); C. F. W. Walther, Beleuchtung des Stellhorn'schen Tractats über den Gnadenwahlslehrstreit (St. Louis, 1881); F. W. Stellhorn, Prüfung der Beleuchtung; Hrn. Dr. Walther's (Columbus, Ohio, 1881); The Error of Modern Missouri: Its Inception, Development, and Refutation, tr. from the Ger., ed. G. H. Schodde (Columbus, Ohio, 1897); C. M. Zorn, Bekehrung und Gnadenwahl (St. Louis, 1902); F. Pieper, Eine deutschländische Disputation über die Lehre von der Bekehrung, L. u. W., XLVIII (1902), 289298, 327333, Die Grunddifferenz in der Lehre von der Bekehrung und Gnadenwahl (St. Louis, 1903), Zur Einigung der amerikanisch-lutherischen Kirche in der Lehre von der Bekehrung und Gnadenwahl (St. Louis, 1913), tr. Conversion and Election: A Plea for a United Lutheranism in America (St. Louis, 1913), and Christian Dogmatics, II (St. Louis, 1951), 452503; J. T. Mueller, Christian Dogmatics (St. Louis, 1934), pp. 336366; G. J. Fritschel, Zur Einigung der amerikanisch-lutherischen Kirche in der Lehre von der Bekehrung und Gnadenwahl (Chicago, 1914); L. S. Keyser, Election and Conversion (Burlington, Iowa, 1914); O. Hallesby, Infant Baptism and Adult Conversion (Minneapolis, 1924); T. Engelder, Let Us Get Together on the Doctrines of Conversion and Election, CTM, VI (July 1935), 539543; H. E. Brunner, Wahrheit als Begegnung, tr. A. W. Loos, The Divine-Human Encounter (Philadelphia, 1943); W. H. Wente, Conversion, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 168187; C. G. Carlfelt, The Work of the Holy Spirit, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 219246; E. S. Jones, Conversion (Nashville, 1959); J. Baillie, Baptism and Conversion (New York, 1963); W. Barclay, Turning to God: A Study of Conversion in the Book of Acts and Today (Philadelphia, 1964).
(18561924). Fellow of University Coll., Oxford; Armenian scholar; specialized in early ch. hist. and textual criticism of the LXX and NT Works include Myth, Magic, and Morals: A Study of Christian Origins; The Historical Christ.
(181557). Eng. clergyman and author; educ. Westminster and Trin. Coll., Cambridge; Whitehall preacher 1841; 1st principal Liverpool Collegiate Institution [Liverpool Coll.] 1842; vicar Axminster, Devonshire; resigned because of illness 1854. Wrote The Life and Epistles of St. Paul with J. S. Howson*: other works include Essays Ecclesiastical and Social.
(18731949). Eng. orientalist; taught Heb. and comparative religion at Cambridge. Coed. Cambridge Ancient History and Encyclopaedia Britannica; wrote on Code of Hammurabi and on Palestinian religions; other works include An Introduction to the Bible.
S Pacific islands inhabited by Polynesians; dependency of New Zealand. Area: 84 sq. mi. Discovered by James Cook 1773 to 1777; annexed to New Zealand 1901. J. Williams* was pioneer miss. in Rarotonga. Missions throughout the islands by the LMS Many converts have been zealous as evangelists, even as far as the Loyalty Islands. The RC Ch. also has missions. See also Polynesia.
(Kaspar Koolhaas; Koolhaes; ca. 15341615). Neth. theol.; mem. nat. syn. of Dordrecht* 1574; differed from strict Ref. position on the doctrine of predestination; emphasized piety and tolerance; believed in salvation of unbaptized children.
(Koppernigk; 14731543). B. Thorn [Torun], Prussian Poland. Father of modern astronomy. Educ. Cracow and Bologna; studied medicine, philos., and math; lectured on math and astronomy at Rome. Returned to Prussia 1505; at Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warminski) and Frauenburg formulated the theories later pub. in Commentariolus and De revolutionibus orbium caelestium [coelestium]; in his preface to the latter, A. Osiander* the Elder states that the conclusions are to be regarded as hypothetical; it was put on the Index* of Prohibited Books 1616 and was not removed for many yrs. Copernicus regarded the sun rather than the earth as the center of solar system; prepared the way for J. Kepler,* Galilei,* I. Newton,* and F. G. Bruno.*
(derived from Gk. Aigyptos, Egypt). 1. Mark, Barnabas, and Peter are associated in various traditions with the founding of the ch. in Egypt. Tradition also names Anianus (Annianus; d. ca. 84; bp. Alexandria ca. 61ca. 84) as the first bp. of Alexandria. The break with Rome carne at the Council of Chalcedon 451. The Copts denied the 2 natures of Christ, the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Substance (see Chalcedon, Council of), and maintained Monophysitism.* Dioscorus* (d. 454) was deposed at Chalcedon. He retained many followers, but the others of his people elected Proterius patriarch. The latter was murdered because of his harshness and replaced 457 by Timothy, also called Ailuros (Gk. the Cat; d. 477). In 567 two lines of patriarchs were est.: the orthodox Cath., whose following consisted of a for. minority, and the Egyptian Monophysites, or the Coptic Ch. The seat of the patriarch was moved to Cairo by Christodulos, patriarch 104777.
2. The Coptic Ch. as such never reunited with Rome. It was reduced by internal troubles, persecution, and the Persian invasion (ca. 618627). It saw relief from Byzantine persecution in the Arab conquests ca. 640. In the Muslim massacre of 832 many Copts were slain. For several cents. thereafter, Egypt was ruled alternately by Arabs, Turks, and Syrians. Saladin, a Kurd of Armenia, became sultan of Egypt 1174; he moderated opposition to Christians, but during the Crusades the Copts were persecuted by Muslim.* The Turks regained power over Egypt 1517 and remained until overcome by Napoleon I. After the Eng. defeated the Fr. in Egypt 1801, Mehemet (or Mohammed) Ali (17691849; viceroy of Egypt 180548) became ruler; under his reign the Copts attained peace. In 1741 the Coptic bp. of Jerusalem joined the RC Ch., giving rise to the Uniate Coptic Ch. See also Africa, A 2, E 7; Ethiopic Church: Uniates. ECZ
(ca. 14761546). Educ. Vienna and Ferrara: to Ofen 1510; deposed and repeatedly imprisoned for ev. preaching in Hung. Spent some time in Wittenberg; teacher Liegnitz 1527; preacher Zwickau 1529: pastor Niemegk 1532, Eisleben 1537; supt. Stendal 1540. Gathered Luther's table talks; opposed Melanchthonians in Synergistic* Controversy.
(Fr. cordelle, small cord or rope). 1. Franciscan monks est. 1217 in Fr. by Philip II (Philip Augustus; 11651223; king 11801223); Louis IX (St. Louis; 121470; king 122670) gave them custody of the Holy Land. 2. Friars Minor (Observants) who followed the rule of Paulet of Foligno (d. 1390). The name is still used in Fr.speaking regions of Switz. 3. Fr. name for Cordigeri, founded 1585 by Sixtus V (Felice Peretti; 152190: pope 158590); so-called from girdle worn as sign of penance (see Lk 12:35). 4. Order of noble ladies (Cordelières) est. ca. 1498 by Queen Anne de Bretagne (14771514). 5. Pol. club founded 1790; active in 1st Fr. Revolution; met in old Franciscan convent in Paris.
(181392). B. near Lüneburg; educ. Dresden Luth. Miss. Sem. and at Erlangen; miss. to India 1840; involved in securing the former Dan.-Halle Miss. remnants and property for the Leipzig Miss.; connected with work of miss. bd. at Leipzig 1872; retired 1887. See also Schwarz, Johann Michael Nikolaus.
(17831867). Ger. painter; studied in Rome; assoc. with J. F. Overbeck* and F. W. v. Schadow*-Godenhaus; works include portrayals of Creation, Redemption, Sanctification, and the Last Judgment in the Ludwigskirche, Munich; sketched plans for frescoes, depicting sin and grace, for a projected royal mausoleum in Berlin. See also Nazarenes. 3.
(Cornelis Cornelissen van den Steen; 15671637). Flemish exegete; became Jesuit 1592; prof. Louvain 1596, Rome 1616. Wrote commentaries on all Biblical books except Jb and Ps; works noted for erudition, spirituality, clarity, allegory, and mysticism.
Stone lying at the foundation of a principal angle or placed in the most prominent corner of a bldg.; usually hollowed to receive documents, coins, and other items of historic interest.
(Corner; Christoph Körner; Korner; 151894). Called Oculus Universitatis. B. Franconia; prof. Frankfort on the Oder; gen. supt. Brandenburg; worked on FC at Torgau 1576, Bergen 1577. Works include commentaries on Ps, Acts, Ro, Gl, on selected hymns of OT and NT, on the ecumenical creeds, and on the orations of Cicero; study on the syllogism of Aristotle. See also Lutheran Confessions, C 2.
(from Lat. corpus, body, i. e., of the Eucharist). Linen cloth, ca. as wide as the depth of the mensa* from its front edge to the retable* and originally ca. twice as long; the sacred vessels of the Eucharist were set on part of it, the other part being brought forward to cover them and the offerings of the faithful. Later 2 cloths were used; the vessels were set on one; from the other developed the pall.* The symbolism of the corporal is drawn from Mk 15:46. Beginnings of the corporal can be traced to the 4th c. The chalice veil, and the Communion veil of sheer linen or silk used to cover all the sacred vessels, are of comparatively recent origin. See also Paraments.
Term describing the instinctive unification of the soc. group and the individual in ancient cultures (law of participation), differing from the modern W antithesis bet. the collective and the individual.
H. W. Robinson* tried to demonstrate corporate personality in the OT Just as the individual implicated the entire group in his reprobation or blessing among primitives, so also, argued Robinson, such an oscillation of unification bet. the individual and the group (family, tribe, nation) is to be found in the OT Achan implicated his entire family when he plundered Jericho; his family suffered with him for his crime (Jos 7). Descendants of Saul were executed to expiate the Gibeonite blood Saul had shed. (2 Sm 21)
Robinson held that hist. individual Israelites who figuratively represented the nation demonstrated corporate personality by their representative functions. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, the king, the prophet, the priest, or even a layman (Neh. 1:6) are such representatives. Some scholars suggest that the concept of corporate personality provides the key to understanding the I of the Psalms as an individual-collective fluidity differing from the modern antithesis bet. the collective and the individual. Ps 44 may provide an example of such fluidity. Others contend that the Servant Songs of Is (42:19; 49:19a; 50:411; 52:1353:12) are best understood as examples of fluid corporate personality. For many yrs. debate has raged as to the nature of the Servant in these Songs; corporate personality enables the Servant to be both individual and nat. in character.
Only if the group is considered primary may the phenomenon of corporate personality occur. Israel's fluid interdependence of the individual and the group arose not from a blood relationship in the group, but primarily because the covenant with Yahweh was the people's covenant. In view of the unifying covenant, Amos (3:1) addressed his contemporaries as those whom Yahweh brought out of the land of Egypt. The covenant group, with maximum fluidity bet. the individual and the collective, was bound by no time barriers; corporate personality erased the strictures of time. On the other hand, the individual was not lost within the covenant-people. The Decalog* was directed to individuals.
Bible scholars have tried to use the concept within the NT T. W. Manson* understands some of the Son of Man sayings of Jesus in this light. According to some, the Adam-Christ parallel of Ro 5 and Paul's understanding of the ch. as the body of Christ are more readily apprehended in the light of corporate personality. Others hold that the body of 2 Co 5 is to be understood in this way.
O. Eissfeldt, The Ebed-Jahwe in Isaiah xl.lv. in the Light of the Israelite Conceptions of the Community and the Individual, the Ideal and the Real, The Expository Times, XLIV (193233), 261268; A. R. Johnson, The One and the Many in the Israelite Conception of God, 2d ed. (Cardiff, 1961), pp. 122; E. Jacob, Theology of the Old Testament, tr. A. W. Heathcote and P. J. Allcock (London, 1958), pp. 153156; T. W. Manson, The Servant-Messiah (Cambridge, 1953); J. A. T. Robinson, The Body: A Study in Pauline Theology (London, 1952), pp. 5567; H. W. Robinson, Corporate Personality in Ancient Israel, ed. J. Reumann (Philadelphia, 1964); L. Lévy-Bruhl, How Natives Think, tr. L. A. Clare (New York, 1926). JEG
Act of the Eng. parliament under Charles II (163085; king 166085) excluding Dissenters* from municipal corporations. Fell into desuetude after 1718, when the Occasional Conformity and Schism acts were repealed (Occasional Conformity Act: passed 1711 to prevent Dissenters* from receiving Communion in the Angl. Ch. in order to qualify for govt. posts; Schism Act: passed 1714 to prevent Dissenters from keeping schools or engaging in tuition). Repealed 1828. See also Test Act.
1. Organization of RC states of the Holy Roman Empire that furthered RC interests; formed ca. 1524; countered by the Corpus* Evangelicorum; ended 1806 at the dissolution of the empire. 2. Published series comprising works of prominent RC writers of the Reformation period (e.g., J. Eck,* H. Emser,* and J. Cochlaeus*). The soc. for pub. was organized 1917 at Münster by J. Greying and transferred later that yr. to Bonn. The soc. also pub. Reformationsgeschichtliche Studien und Texte.
RC festival in honor of the local presence of Christ in the host*; celebrated on Sunday; Ca. 1230 the Augustinian nun Juliana of Liège (11931258) in a vision saw the ch. as a full moon with one dark spot, the lack of such a festival. Urban IV (pope 126164) est. the festival 1264. The procession, dating from ca. 1275, was originally not connected with the feast. Since the 14th c. the host is carried in the procession in a monstrance.* Miracle plays and mystery plays (see Religious Drama, 2) came to be assoc. with the occasion. M. Luther* considered it the most harmful of medieval festivals (WA 17 II, 438); the Council of Trent* gloried in it as a triumph over falsehood and heresy (13th Sess., The Holy Eucharist, ch. V). It was one of the first festivals rejected by Luther and was also removed from the Angl. calendar at the time of the Reformation.
Systematized body (Lat. corpus), or collection of writings, on Christian doctrine. The term is not always used in exactly the same sense; but it gen. stands for doctrinal standards accepted by special denominations or by the whole ch. The ecumenical* creeds (see also Creeds and Confessions) are a corpus doctrinae for the whole ch. The Book of Concord is a corpus doctrinae for the Luth. Ch., since it contains the specific confessions universally recognized as Luth. A popular, though not orthodox, corpus doctrinae was the Corpus Philippicum (1560), which contained the 3 ecumenical creeds, the altered AC, the Ap, P. Melanchthon's* Loci, and his other chief doctrinal writings. See also Lutheran Confessions, C 1.
(Corpus Sociorum Augustanae Confessionis). Organization formed gradually by delegates from ev. states in the Holy Roman Empire to imperial diets; its purpose was to defend and promote ev. interests. From the outset evangelicals made common cause in religious matters at the diets and occasionally made pacts (e.g., at Regensburg 1524, Torgau 1526). The Corpus Evangelicorum was formally organized July 22, 1653; its presidency became permanently attached to Saxony; it ended 1806 at the dissolution of the empire. See also Corpus Catholicorum.
Main collection of RC canon* law antedating the Codex Iuris Canonici; included the Decretum of Gratian, decretals of Gregory IX, the Sext, the Clementines, the Extravagantes of John XXII, and the Extravagantes Communes.
(1489 [some say 1494]1534). It. Renaissance painter; master of delicacy, lights, and shadows; Ecce Homo, dome frescoes at Parma, and Holy Night are characteristic.
(Rabe; 150153). B. Warburg; d. Hanover. Expelled from cloister because of his Lutheranism 1523; preacher in Goslar 1528, Witzenhausen 1529; advanced Reformation in Northeim, Hildesheim, and Calenberg-Göttingen; opposed Augsburg Interim*; imprisoned 154952; works include sermons on the Gospels and Epistles.
(Gk. kosmos, world; gonos, a begetting). Part of the science of astronomy; deals with the origin of the universe; esp. the study of various theories (and the theories themselves) regarding the beginning of the world. The Scripture account is also called cosmogony.
The idea of creation* out of nothing was practically unknown in early heathen cosmogonies. Most early cosmogonies consider matter eternal and attribute the form to the activity of a deity. Others, including those who identify deity and matter, regard both matter and form eternal. The Scriptures attribute both matter and form to the Creator.
See also Absolute.
(Gk. order). Name given to universe by Gks. because they first regarded it as ordered by fate, later (Plato*; Aristotle*) by intelligence. Religion regards the universe as ordered by deity. Science usually assumes an order of universe with or without religious implications.
(ca. 15841652). The Patriarch of New England. Puritan*; b. Derby, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; dean Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge, 160612; ordained deacon and priest in Ch. of Eng. 1610; vicar St. Botolph's Ch., Boston, Lincolnshire, Eng., 161233; summoned to appear before Court of High Commission for changing liturgy of Ch. of Eng. to simpler Puritan form 1632; to Am. with T. Hooker* and S. Stone* 1633; teacher Puritan Ch., Boston, 163352; leader of Congregationalism in New Eng.; participated in banishment of A. Hutchinson* and R. Williams*; favored strong govt. by the few; held that magistrates should have authority over spiritual and secular affairs of citizens. Works include The Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven; The Way of the Churches of Christ in New England; Milk for Babes.
L. Ziff, The Career of John Cotton: Puritanism and the American Experience (Princeton, New Jersey, 1962).
Organized 1914 as Ch. Peace Union at instigation of Andrew Carnegie; name changed 1961; includes non-Christian religious pacifists; headquarters New York City.
1. Ecclesiastical assemblies convened for discussion and settlement of questions affecting the faith and discipline of the ch. Ecumenical conventions are called councils; assemblies representing smaller areas are called either councils or syns. Councils have been distinguished as follows: ecumenical (representing the entire Christian world; the RC Ch. applies this term to councils representing all areas of the RC Ch.), East or West (representing only one of these areas), patriarchal (representing a patriarchate), national (representing a nation; often called syn.), plenary (representing a nation or several provinces; presided over by papal legate), primatial (representing the territory of a primate), neighboring provinces (representing neighboring provinces, but not all the provinces subject to the primate), provincial (representing a province; under a metropolitan), diocesan (representing a diocese; under a bp.; usually called syn.), mixed (composed of civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries gathered to settle secular as well as ecclesiastical matters), councils at Constantinople (consisted of bps. from any part of the world who happened to be in the city at the time of the council), Synod of Bishops (Apostolic Synod; announced by Paul VI [see Popes, 35] in the motu proprio Apostolica Sollicitudo September 15, 1965; consists of representative bps. chosen to advise and assist the pope, by whom it is convoked, to whom it is directly and immediately subject, and who assigns its agenda and gives its members deliberative and advisory power). In Protestantism the word synod has various technical meanings.
2. Attempts to trace later councils directly to the 1st council of Christians (Acts 15) have proved futile. Early syns. apparently developed out of enlarged cong. meetings (in earliest times delegates were sent from one cong. to another; 1 Clement, 63; Ignatius, To the Philadelphians, 10, To the Smyrnaeans, 11, To Polycarp, 7) or were called, to meet a difficult and widespread problem. According to an account quoted by Eusebius (HE, V, xvi, 10), the faithful in Asia met often in many places throughout Asia to consider Montanism.* His own account (HE, V, xxiii, 2) speaks of synods and assemblies of bishops held near the end of the 2d c. in connection with the Easter* controversy, but they may not have been gatherings of bps. exclusively.
3. Provincial Synods. As the teaching of apostolic* succession became prominent, bps. acted as successors of the apostles rather than as representatives of the chs. In the 3d c. bps., presbyters, deacons, and laymen attended syns.; responsibility for decisions gravitated to the bps. Provincial syns. became fixed institutions in the 3d c., when annual meetings came to be held. The 325 Council of Nicaea* (canon 5) called for 2 meetings a yr. The metropolitan called and presided over the provincial syn.
4. Ecumenical Councils. Ecumenical councils did not develop out of provincial syns. but were created by Constantine* I. In connection with the Donatist* controversy he called a meeting of bps. at Rome 313 and a larger meeting of bps. at Arles* 314. In the case of these assemblies, as well as that of Nicaea, Constantine determined place and time, summoned the bps., paid expenses, and gave the decisions binding force (Eusebius, HE, X, v, 20). Thus real power in early ecumenical councils did not stem from bps. as apostolic successors, but from a secular ruler. Following are often regarded as ecumenical councils (Prots. usually do not consider those after Chalcedon ecumenical): Nicaea* I (325), Constantinople* I (381), Ephesus* (431), Chalcedon* (451), Constantinople* II (553), Constantinople* III (680681), and Nicaea* II (787). The RC Ch. adds Constantinople* IV (869870), Lateran* I (1123), II (1139), III (1179), IV (1215), Lyons* I (1245), II (1274), Vienne* (131112), Constance* (141418), Basel*-Ferrara-Florence* (143143), Lateran V (151217), Trent* (154563), Vatican I (186970), II (196265). (See also Vatican Councils)
5. National Councils. Often called syns. In the early Middle Ages the ch. of the Germanic nations functioned on a nat. basis. Provincial syns. met rarely. The nat. ruler held a prominent position in ch. affairs. Kings usually called or sanctioned the syns. and reserved the right to alter or set aside decisions. After the middle of the 7th c., kings or their delegates attended syns. and influential men of the state were mems. This development was esp. seen in the Frankish kingdom. In Sp., under Arian influence, provincial syns. were most frequent. In the nat. ch. framework, bishoprics changed from city-centered to territorial units with diocesan meetings.
6. Roman Catholic Synods. At an early date bps. at Rome, holding that they had primacy in the ch., tried to extend jurisdiction of their provincial syns. to the entire ch. Julius I invited E bps. to a syn. at Rome 341; Gallic bps. attended the syn. called by Damasus 369. Roman pontiffs held that decisions of their syns. were binding because the popes were Peter's successors. Prestige of papal syns. was lessened by recognition given to syns. held by the Carolingian emps. N of the Alps.
With the ascendancy of papal power under Leo IX, papal syns. increased in prestige and were considered ecumenical by the hierarchy (see 4). But they were essentially different from the early ecumenical councils which were controlled by secular power. The popes tried to bring the councils completely under their domination and held that papal authority confirmed the decisions of councils.
Reform councils and the Reformation caused the papacy to view councils with distrust. Only pressing need of a counterreformation led to the Council of Trent.* The papacy reest. the essence of councils along lines developed before the reform councils, with higher clergy as mems. and with control securely in papal hands. At Vatican I (December 8, 1869October 20, 1870) the papacy obtained absolute primacy in the decree of infallibility. Vatican II (October 11, 1962December 8, 1965) was called by John XXIII (see Popes, 34) for renewal of the ch., to return to the liturgical, Biblical, and Christian sources of faith. (See also Roman Catholic Confessions; Vatican Councils)
In Am. the RC Ch. has held provincial councils (1829, 1833, 1837, 1840, 1843, 1846, and 1849) and plenary (1852, 1866, and 1884) councils at Baltimore, Maryland The abp. of Baltimore presided at all these councils. The plenary councils were attended by prelates from the entire US; their decisions, sanctioned by the pope, were binding for Am. RCm See also Roman Catholic Church, The E 8.
7. Reform Councils. John* of Paris promoted the conciliar* movement. Marsilius* of Padua held that councils should be summoned by the emp., represent all Christendom, be of highest authority in ecclesiastical matters, and be composed of clergy and laity. W. of Ockham* also held that the gen. council and not the pope was the highest authority in ecclesiastical matters. A solution to the papal schism of 1378 was sought in the views of John, Marsilius, and W. of Ockham. Konrad* von Gelnhausen, Henry* of Langenstein, P. d'Ailly,* and J. de Gerson* led the movement for reform councils. The Council of Pisa* failed to end the schism. The Council of Constance* ended the schism and tried to est. universal councils as the highest authority in the ch. and to have such councils meet regularly. Though endorsed at Basel, this Constance plan failed because of the opposition of the papacy. (See also Basel, Council of)
8. Luther on Councils. M. Luther* subordinated councils to the Word of God, which is self-sufficient (WA 50, 614615, 631). The truth of the Gospel cannot be est. by councils (WA-T 3, 149). The Holy Spirit is not bound by conciliar decisions (WA 15, 584; 39 I, 186). Since articles of faith, doctrine, and works existed before councils, the latter cannot est. or decree doctrine, but, as all men, must show that what they say is in harmony with God's Word (WA 21, 471; WA-T 4, 457458); if their pronouncements show such harmony, they are accepted for the Word's sake (WA 8, 5758; 10 lb. 337; 17 II, 29; 39 I, 187; 50, 551552, 604, 618). As individual mem, so also councils erred. (WA 2, 405406; WA-Br 1, 470471; WA-Br 3, 374)
Luther pointed out that the Holy Spirit dwells in the hearts of believers, and if council mems. are selected from the people of God, there is a true council ruled by the Spirit (WA 50, 643644). Luther favored a free (WA 54, 206207) Christian (WA 54, 212213) council (WA 47, 127; 50, 288 to 289; 52, 760; 54, 208). Such a true council is a gathering of pious people for the preservation among them of the pure Word (WA 51, 529). The duty of judging doctrine is a matter for all Christians (WA 45, 380), and hence councils of such Christians also judge doctrine and works and arrange externals (WA-T 3, 694695). Thus Luther opposed the pope-in-council (head and mems.) idea of Romanists (WA 52, 760; 54, 206209). Luther regarded Nicaea I, Constantinople I, Ephesus, and Chalcedon as ecumenical councils (WA 54, 221; WA-T 4, 269). He held that councils up to Gregory I (see Popes, 4) were still somewhat pure; from Gregory I to Charlemagne* the pope was a spiritual lord and introduced superstitions; thereafter the pope usurped the 2 swords. (WA-T 4, 255)
9. In Luth. and Ref. chs., the theol. basis for councils and syns. is found Acts 15. In syns., congs. converse with each other and express unity in doctrine, order, and life. The authority of councils and syns. derives from the activity of the Spirit.
10. In the early yrs. of the Reformation Luther emphasized the priesthood of believers and a ch. structure evolved from the cong. After the Peasants' Revolt and the activity of the enthusiasts, Luther counseled that the clergy take the lead and proceed with deliberate caution in giving direction to matters of ch. order. (WA-Br 4, 158)
12. P. Melanchthon,* with his emphasis on the visible ch., regarded syns., or conventus docentium, as instruments for preserving unity in pure doctrine. Not only clergymen but also pious and learned laymen and secular rulers and their representatives should attend syns. Synods should consider not only Scripture but also the fathers.
13. During his life, Luther and the faculty at Wittenberg decided important issues. Synods therefore were primarily meetings of pastors to discuss teaching and discipline. The actual govt. of the ch. was in the hands of secular rulers and structured through consistories.
14. During the controversies following Luther's death, syns. were structured in various ways (e.g., they often consisted of rulers and their representatives and theologians) to solve theol, problems. Melanchthon opposed solving such questions by majority vote.
16. In the 19th c. Luth. syns. began to develop in Ger. and Switzerland. F. D. E. Schleiermacher* proposed a syn. structure evolved from congs. The 1835 Church Order for the Rhineland and Westphalia took on directive importance. Syns. became of increasing importance after WW I. Participation of pastors and laymen in syns. during the Kirchenkampf increased the prestige of syns.
17. Fr. Prots., influenced by J. Calvin,* early developed a syn. structure consisting of a local consistory, semiannual provincial syn., and gen. syn. Regional syns. (colloques) were added 1572. This structure influenced Ref. Ch. polity in Scot., Neth., Ger., Eng., and Am.
18. By the middle of the 20th c. most Ger. territories and the EKD VELKD, and EKU had regional and nat. syns. Such syns. consist of pastors, laymen, and representatives of theol, faculties and of organizations for ch. work. In practically all syns. laymen form the majority (also in the Finnish Ch. Assembly). They are usually legislative, supervisory, and/or advisory.
19. In Am. Lutheranism syn. convs. were important from the 18th c. on. While some (e.g., the Pennsylvania Ministerium and the New York Ministerium) consisted of pastors, laymen gen. had a prominent role. Functions of such convs, varied. C. F. W. Walther* regarded syns. as advisory to congs. C. Porterfield Krauth* held that congs. act in syn. through their representatives. Though syn. convs, still perform some administrative functions, they are gen. regarded as legislative, supervisory, and advisory. EL
W. Bright, Notes on the Canons of the First Four General Councils (Oxford, 1882); The Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Catholicism, ed. H. Daniel-Rops, LXXXII: F. Dvornik, The Ecumenical Councils (New York, 1961); C. J. von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, 7 vols., vols. 89 by J. Hergenröther (Freiburg, 185590), tr. and ed. W. R. Clark et al., A History of the Councils of the Church [2d ed. of vol. 1 entitled A History of the Christian Councils] (Edinburgh, 188396); E. F. Jacob, Essays in the Conciliar Epoch, 3d ed. (Notre Dame, Indiana, 1963); H. Jedin, Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church, tr. E. Graf (New York, 1960); E. H. Landon, A Manual of Councils of the Holy Catholic Church, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1909); H. Liermann, Amt und Kirchenverfassung, Gedenkschrift für D. Werner Elert, ed. F. H. Hübner, W. Maurer, and E. Kinder (Berlin, 1955), pp. 359372; M. Luther, Von den Konziliis und Kitchen (WA 50, 509 to 563; Eng. tr. On the Councils and the Churches, Works of Martin Luther, V [Philadelphia, 1931], 131300), Convocatio concilii liberi Christiani, Ausschreibung eines heiligen freien christlichen Concilii (WA 38, 284289), Von den Concilien (Walch ed., St. Louis, 1887, XXII [Tischreden], 134970), and Disputatio de potestate concilii, Vom vermögen unnd gewalt eins gemeynen Concilij (WA 39 1, 184197); Ap XII 167; Tractatus; P. Melanchthon, Corpus Reformatorum, ed. C. G. Bretschneider, III (Halle, 1836), 468472; C. Raab, The Twenty Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church (Westminster, Maryland, 1959); Theologische Existenz heute, new series, ed. K. G. Steck and G. Eichholz, No. 37: H. Storck, Das allgemeine Priestertum bei Luther (Munich, 1953); R. Stupperich, Kirche und Synode bei Melanchthon, Gedenkschrift für D. Werner Elert, ed. F. Hübner, W. Maurer, and E. Kinder (Berlin, 1955), pp. 199 to 210; Councils & Synods, with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, ed. F. M. Powicke and C. R. Cheney, II, in 2 parts (Oxford, 1964).
1. Also called Cath. Reformation. A movement in the RC Ch. toward reform and renewal, having its rise in the late 15th c. but receiving its greatest impetus and acceleration from the Prot. Reformation.
2. In the Low Countries the devotio* moderna was carried forward esp. by the Brethren* of the Common Life. The Imitation* of Christ and the revival of Augustinianism* are products of this movement. Nicholas* of Cusa and D. Erasmus* were educ. by the Brethren; both protested against evils in the RC Ch. and furthered reform.
3. In Sp., F. Jiménez* de Cisneros promoted drastic reform measures in Castile, esp. among the Conventuals*; opened U. of Alcalá de Henares 1508; instrumental in comp. and pub. the Complutensian Polyglot. Cardinal Francisco de Quin�ones* ca. (14751540) compiled the Breviarum Sancti Crucis, which gave new emphasis to Scripture reading and influenced T. Cranmer* and the Book* of Common Prayer.
4. In It. the Oratory of Divine Love, founded ca. 1517, banded together ca. 60 clerics and laymen of an austere life, given to regular formal worship, charitable works, fasting, and pilgrimages, who were determined to renew the RC Ch. The group included Gian Matteo Giberti,* Cajetan* of Thiene (Gaetano da Tiene), Jacopo Sadoleto,* Giovanni Pietro Caraffa (later Paul* IV), and Luigi Lippomano (bp. Verona 1548). After the sack of Rome 1527, they went to Venice, where they were joined by G. Contarini,* R. Pole,* Giovanni Morone,* and others.
5. A commission was created by Paul* III which, under leadership of Contarini, prepared a scheme of reform, Consilium delectorum cardinalium et aliorum prelatorum, de emendanda ecclesia, 1537 to 1538. The commission included Contarini, Caraffa, Gregorio Cortese, Giberti, Sadoleto, Federigo Fregoso, Pole. G. Aleandro,* and Tommaso Badia; aged Bartolomeo Guidiccioni was also appointed and required to supply material for discussion, but permitted to stay home. The report of the commission stated that the ch. was almost in ruins; it condemned various evils, including abuses in the RC curia, absenteeism of bps., and corruption in religious orders.
6. The Camaldolese* were expanded and fl. in the 1st part of the 16th c. The Theatines* concerned themselves with reform of secular clergy. The Capuchins,* Barnabites,* Clerks* Regular of St. Paul, and Clerks Regular of Somascha* belong to the movement that revitalized Romanism. Orders for women (e.g., Ursulines*) were also prominent in the movement.
7. The Cong. of the Oratory, a cong. of secular priests authorized 1575, founded by F. de' Neri,* gave attention to forms of pub. worship and to scholarship; among its mems. were G. P. da Palestrina* and C. Baronius.*
8. The Society* of Jesus, founded by I. of Loyola* and approved 1540, included among its early mems. F. Xavier*, A. Salmerón,* C. Jajus,* D. Laynez,* and P. Favre*; dedicated to missions and educ., it was one of the most powerful forces in the renewal of Romanism. Xavier is noted for his missions in the Orient. Loyola est. the Collegium Romanum 1551, the Collegium Germanicum 1552; the latter supplied men for reconverting Prot. Germany. P. Canisius* comp. catechisms, founded schools, achieved much RC success in N Ger. Poland also was regained with the help of the Jesuits. C. Aquaviva* was one of the foremost generals of the order; R. Bellarmine* and F. Suarez* were among its outstanding theologians.
9. The Jesuits, observing strict obedience, became valuable allies of the reformed popes that followed the earlier Renaissance papacy. Paul* III, Julius* III, Paul* IV, Pius* IV, and Pius V (see Popes, 21) rehabilitated the papacy and made it a moral as well as a political force.
11. The 1st Index* of Prohibited Books was issued 1559 under Paul IV, another step in efforts to counter Protestantism.
12. The Council of Trent* was one of the most important factors in this movement. Summoned by Paul III, it met in 3 assemblies, 154547, 155152, 156263. In the 1st, Giammaria del Monte (later Julius III), Marcello Cervini (later Marcellus II, 1555), and R. Pole were papal legates; D. Laynez was perhaps most influential. Doctrine and reform were treated concurrently. The acceptance of the traditional Canon (including the Apocrypha), the authorization of the Vulgate, and the definition of Scripture and tradition as the sources of religious truth were determined. Rejection of imputed righteousness in the doctrine of justification gave direction to RC doctrine. In the 2d assembly, canons on the Eucharist, Penance, and Extreme Unction were est. The last assembly, guided till March 1563 by Cardinal Girolamo Seripando, repeated the reemphasis of the 6th session on residence in their dioceses as a divine obligation for bps.; the sacrifice of the mass, orders, and the est. of seminaries were among the matters in which decisions were reached by this assembly. Anathemas on Prot. doctrines and affirmations of RC teachings, with the success of reform decrees, mark the importance of the Council of Trent in the Counter Reformation.
B. J. Kidd, The Counter-Reformation, 1550 to 1600 (London, 1933); H. Jedin, Geschichte des Konzils von Trient, vols. III (Freiburg, 194957), tr. E. Graf, A History of the Council of Trent, vols. III (St. Louis, 195761) and Der Abschluss des Trienter Konzils, 156263 (Münster, 1963); Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, ed. and tr. H. J. Schroeder (St. Louis, 1941); H. Boehmer, The Jesuits, tr. from 4th rev. ed. P. Z. Strodach (Philadelphia, 1928); P. Janelle, The Catholic Reformation (Milwaukee, 1949); P. Dudon, St. Ignatius of Loyola, tr. W. J. Young (Milwaukee, 1949); L. Pastor, The History of the Popes, various translators and editors, vols. VIXXXV (St. Louis, 192349). CSM
(Church Courts; Ecclesiastical Courts). Since the RC Ch. claims the right of legislating for its subjects, it consistently claims also the judicial powers necessary to enforce its laws and to exact penalties from transgressors. These powers are exercised through spiritual courts. Recognition of the Christian Ch. by Constantine I led to the development of such courts and enabled them gradually to enlarge their jurisdiction. Eventually not only all matters with even a remote bearing on the ch. or religion were taken from the civil courts, but clerics of every degree were exempted from civil jurisdiction in the W Ch., and all cases to which a cleric was a party were tried in spiritual courts. Three courts of judgment are recognized: that of the bp. or his vicar-gen., that of the metropolitan (abp.), and that of the pope. Appeal may be made from lower to higher courts. But some cases are in the 1st instance reserved to the pope. Ecclesiastical courts have been limited in their powers, even in RC countries, and with their jurisdiction their importance has dwindled. See also Church and State; Clergy; Curia, 2 g.
(17921867). Fr. philos.; opposed sensationalism*; leader of eclectic school that combined elements of T. Reid's* philos. with Germanic thought and Cartesianism.* Works include Fragments philosophiques.
1. The most frequent OT Heb. word for covenant is b'rith: it may be derived from an Akkadian word meaning fetter. Its rarity in the earliest sections of the OT leads one to conclude that Israel's covenant with Yahweh was probably designated in terms other than b'rith. The Ten Words, oldest designation for the Decalogue, has covenant connotations (Ex 34:28); in the ancient Near East covenants were called and regarded as words of the suzerain. In the light of this fact it is possible that the phrase Word of God was originally bound up with the covenant. The LXX and NT Gk. word for b'rith is diatheke (usual meaning: last will and testament).
2. In antiquity covenants were gen. est. as a basis for human relationships that were not kinship ties: suzerainty covenant, in which a superior binds an inferior to obligations set down by the superior; parity covenant, in which both parties are bound by oath; patron covenant, in which the superior party binds himself to some obligation for the benefit of an inferior; promissory covenant, which does not est. a new relationship bet. 2 parties, but guarantees future performance of stipulated obligations. With all these covenants, 2 conditions were necessary: there had to be witnesses, and an oath was taken to insure keeping of the covenant.
3. The covenant concept is rooted in Israel's election by Yahweh. One might say that the covenant is the working extension and implementation of election, the formal and continual application of what is implicit in election, namely the concrete responsibilities assumed by the Elector and the obligation of the electee undertaken in response.
4. Various covenants are referred to in the OT: the covenant with Noah, in which God promises the patriarch and his family deliverance from the flood (Gn 6:1821); God's covenant with the earth, in which He binds Himself never again to destroy the world by a flood (Gn 9:1317); God's covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in which He swears to make the descendants of these men a mighty nation and to give them Palestine for their possession (Gn 15:1821); the Mosaic covenant, which formed the basis of Israel's laws and cultic life (Ex 24:78); God's covenant with David, in which the Lord promises the king an eternal dynasty (2 Sm 7); the new covenant outlined Jer 31:3134.
5. The heart of the covenant concept may be expressed in the words: I am your God, and you are My people (Ex 6:7; Jer 7:23; Eze 37:2627). In the covenant the God who of His own free will and grace brought Israel into existence, created her out of the nothingness of Egyptian slavery through the deliverance of the Exodus, and thus made her a people, this same Redeemer-God through the covenant now bound Himself to be Israel's Father, Husband, Shepherd, and Lord. In the covenant relationship Israel was bound to be this Redeemer-God's obedient son, faithful wife, submissive flock, and loyal servant. The nation's weal or woe depended on its faithful adherence to the covenant obligations. Thus the revelation of Yahweh in the covenant relationship was one that confronted Israel with obligations and responsibilities. From the beginning, Israel knew herself to be accountable. There was no theophany without obligation, no meeting God without meeting the urgency of a demand.
6. Together with her unshakable conviction that she was the chosen of Yahweh, the covenant gave Israel her consciousness of being the elect community of God. The election and covenant made and maintained Israel as a nation and gave it solidarity. God's covenant was with the people of Israel; individuals enjoyed the blessings of the covenant relationship only as long as they remained within the covenant community.
7. In the NT the word covenant appears in connection with the Lord's institution of the Holy Eucharist. Is it possible to connect the Lord's Supper with OT covenant traditions? The very brief account yields little, but conjecture points to numerous possibilities. The purpose of a covenant was to bind 2 parties together in a firm relationship; this becomes the whole of the NT covenant bet. Christ and the ch. The Lord's Supper was regarded as a formal act that est. a lasting relationship bet. the community and Christ, in analogy to the Mosaic covenant, but combining with it a number of motifs from OT sources, including the sacrificial animal, the Suffering Servant (Is 53:1112; Mt 26:28), and the new covenant of Jer 31:3134.
8. Since the individual relationship to Christ is basic to the content, form, and obligation of the covenant, all the detailed prescriptions of Jewish law are unnecessary and (for Paul) inimical to Christianity (Gl 4:2131; 2 Co 3:6). The Letter to the Hebrews uses the covenant tradition much more frequently but in almost exactly the same way as Paul. Every possible argument is drawn to show that the new covenant fulfills and abrogates the old.
9. The surprising infrequency of references to covenant in the NT is understandable. The covenant for Judaism meant the Mosaic law, and for the Roman Empire a covenant meant a secret soc. This 2-sided conflict made it nearly impossible for early Christianity to use the term meaningfully.
P. Heinisch, Theology of the Old Testament, tr. W. Heidt (Collegeville, Minnesota, 1950); G. E. Mendenhall, Covenant, The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, I (New York, 1962), 71.4723; G. E. Wright, in The Faith of Israel, The Interpreter's Bible, I (New York, 1952), 354357. HEH
Groups of evangelicals in Scot. bound themselves by covenant ca. 1556ca. 1562 to maintain the Reformation. The 1581 covenant, known as the King's Confession, was signed by people of all classes because of fear of revival of Romanism. Charles I's attempt to introduce the 1637 Scottish Prayer Book led to the 1638 National Covenant. which revived and expanded that of 1581. The 1643 Solemn League* and Covenant was an agreement bet. Scots and the Eng. Parliament against Charles I. Its objectives: maintenance of Presbyterianism in Scot.; reformation of the Ch. of Eng.; uniformity of chs. of Brit. Isles; eradication of popery and prelacy; maintenance of liberties, rights of Parliament, and rightful power of king. See also Presbyterian Churches, 4 f; Presbyterian Confessions, 1.
J. K. Hewison, The Covenanters: A History of the Church in Scotland from the Reformation to the Revolution, 2 vols., rev. and corrected ed. (Glasgow, 1913); P. Y. De Jong, The Covenant Idea in New England Theology, 16201847 (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1945).
(ca. 1488ca. 1568). Educ. Cambridge; his tr. of the Bible pub. 1535 and his 2d version of the NT in 1538; pastor of a Luth. cong. at Bergzabern, Ger., 1545; Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes, usually ascribed to him, contains a number of Luther's hymns. See also Anglican Confessions, 5; Bible Versions, L 35.
The word appears often in the Bible. The corresponding Heb. term is used in an expression tr. given to covetousness in Jer 6:13; 8:10 and used of those who rob and defraud others by extortion and oppression. The Gk. term pleonexia (covetousness, grasping selfishness) is used to describe the character and conduct of a greedy person. Hence covetousness is often the desire to gain at the expense of another.
Covetousness is often forbidden and condemned in the OT (Ex 20:17; Jos 7:21; Pr 21:26); to deprive a man of property was to deprive him of his God-given inheritance in the promised land.
Covetousness was recognized as a prominent vice by the Gks. in their ethical writings; it was counted one of the 3 most disgraceful vices.
Christ warned against covetousness Lk 12:15. He indicates that covetousness causes a man to center his life around possessions that become his god. Paul calls a covetous man an idolater and says that such a man has no inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God (Eph 5:15); he has no such inheritance because he is not a Christian. Paul also warns against assoc. with one called a brother if he is immoral or covetous (1 Co 5:11).
Some feel that the frequent assoc. of immorality with covetousness implies that covetousness overlaps with, or leads to, immorality. Some NT passages refer only to coveting material possessions; others include immorality, esp. in regard to another's spouse. The 9th and 10th Commandments reflect this dual meaning; the 9th forbids coveting a neighbor's possessions, the 10th esp. forbids coveting a neighbor's wife or any of his living possessions. There are many examples of covetousness leading to immorality, e.g., David and Bathsheba (2 Sm 11) and Herod and Herodias (Mt 14:34).
Luther describes the insidious ways of covetousness: Such is nature, that we all begrudge another's having as much as we have. Everyone acquires all he can and lets others look out for themselves. Yet we all pretend to be upright. We know how to put up a fine front to conceal our rascality. We think up artful dodges and sly tricks (better and better ones are being devised daily) under the guise of justice. We brazenly dare to boast of it, and insist that it should not be called rascality but shrewdness and business acumen. (LC I 297298)
See also Sins, Venial and Mortal.
A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature: A translation and adaptation of Walter Bauer's Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuer Testaments und der übrigen urchristlichen Literatur, 4th rev. and augmented ed., 1952, tr. and adapted by W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich (Chicago, 1957), p. 673; S. D. F. Salmond on Eph 5:3, in The Expositor's Greek Testament, ed. W. R. Nicoll (London, New York, Toronto, 18971910), III, 351352; E. R. Achtemeier, Covetousness and Desire, The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, various eds., I (New York, 1962), 724, 829830; A Theological Word Book of the Bible, ed. A. Richardson (London, 1950), p. 64. RC
Hood worn by mems. of religious orders and developed into great cloak with hood. Benedict* of Nursia ordered his monks to wear heavy cowl in winter and light one in summer. Benedict* of Aniane forbade his monks to wear a hood that extended below the knees. Servites* and Canons* Regular of St. Augustine wear hoods separated from cloaks.
(17311800). B. Hertfordshire, Eng.; pre-Romanticist poet; deeply religious; given to attacks of melancholy. Lived at Olney 176786; collaborated with J. Newton* on the Olney Hymns, contributing 67 of them, including There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood; God Moves in a Mysterious Way; God of My Life, to Thee I Call. Other works include The Task.
(181896). B. Mendham, New Jersey; prelate, author, poet; educ. U. of New York; Episc. rector St. John's, Hartford, Connecticut, 1842, Grace, Baltimore, Maryland, 1854, Calvary, NYC, 1863; bp. W diocese of New York 1865; provisional bp. Haiti 1872 to 1874. Ed. and rev. the first 9 vols. of the Am. print, of the Ante-Nicene Fathers; hymns include Savior, Sprinkle Many Nations.
(January 15, 1890February 13, 1962). B. Waynesboro, Virginia; d. St. Louis, Missouri Grad. Conc. Coll., Conover, North Carolina, 1910; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1913. Taught at Conc. Coll., Conover, 1913 to 1928; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 192860.Works include essays and devotional materials.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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