(ca. 1220ca. 1294). Called Doctor mirabilis. Eng. philos. and scientist; Franciscan monk. Educ. Oxford and Paris. Settled at Paris. Opposed Scholasticism.* Insisted on supreme authority of Bible in theol., the right of the laity to the Bible, and the importance of its study in original languages; castigated corruption of priests and monks. Knowledge of physics, chemistry, and astronomy, gained by researches and experiments, put him far ahead of his times. See also Encyclopedias and Dictionaries, 1.
E. P. Cheyney, The Dawn of a New Era, 1250 to 1453 (New York, 1936); T. Crowley, Roger Bacon, The Problem of the Soul in His Philosophical Commentaries (Dublin, 1950); S. C. Easton, Roger Bacon and His Search for a Universal Science (New York, 1952); H. O. Taylor, The Mediaeval Mind: A History of the Development of Thought and Emotion in the Middle Ages, 4th ed., 7th print., II (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1959); E. Westacott, Roger Bacon in Life and Legend (New York, 1954).
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