(18781965). Jewish religious thinker; national universalist. B. Vienna; spent most of first 14 yrs. in Poland with grandfather, Salomon Buber, outstanding Haskalah* student; educ. secondary school in Lvov and univs. of Vienna and Berlin. Prof. U. of Frankfurt 192333, Hebrew U. of Jerusalem 193851. Early in life participated in Zionist movement and regarded founding of political state as phase of Jewish Renaissance; influenced by H. Cohen*, G. Landauer*, G. Simmel*, W. Dilthey*, Nietzsche*, Kierkegaard*, Dostoevski*, Oriental philosophers.
Withdrew from writing and lecturing 1904 to devote 5 yrs. to study of Hasidism.* Thereafter strongly influenced by Kierkegaard, whose existentialism he modified in direction of Hasidism. Rejected mysticism as delusion; replaced earlier emphasis on unity by stress on diversity.
His mature philos, is in I and Thou (1923), which emphasizes relationship as central meaning of existence. There are 2 primary attitudes: I-It attitude (subject-object) objectifies experience and is never spoken with whole being; I-Thou attitude (subject-subject) is best seen in dialogue between 2 persons but also takes place with nature. God, the eternal Thou, is supreme partner of dialogue and underlying power in all other I-Thou encounters. Man relates to God with basic drives (hunger, sex, will) and institutions (politics, economics) that comprise material of his existence.
Buber often spoke of his own involvement with character of Jesus of Nazareth, whom he called my great brother; endeavored to understand the impulses of His Jewish being; strove to recover Him for Judaism; regarded Him as the incomparably purest figure in the hist. of Jewish messianismbut not as the Messiah.
Works include I and Thou; Between Man and Man; Two Types of Faith; Origin and Meaning of Hasidism; Hasidism and Modern Man; Israel and Palestine; Israel and the World; Paths in Utopia; The Prophetic Faith; Moses. EL
See also I-It and I-Thou.
M. Friedman, Martin Buber: the Life of Dialogue (New York, 1960); M. L. Diamond, Martin Buber: Jewish Existentialist (New York, 1960); M. Buber, Werke, 3 vols. (Munich, 196263); H. v. Balthasar, Martin Buber and Christianity, tr. A. Dru (New York, 1961).
(Butzer; Kuhhorn; 14911551). Ger. Prot. reformer. B. Sélestat; d. Cambridge. Dominican; studied theol., Gk., and Heb. at Heidelberg. Erasmus inclined him towards Protestantism; views influenced by Luther at Heidelberg disputation 1518. lntrod. Reformation at Strasbourg 1523. To avoid theol. divisions, he advocated compromises and used dubious expressions. In disputes bet. Luther and Zwingli he adopted a middle course, trying to reconcile both; but his views of the Lord's Supper, approaching those of Zwingli, exposed him to Luther's criticism. At Augsburg 1530 he gen. agreed with Luth. views but declined to subscribe to the AC; later helped draw up Tetrapolitan Confession (Strasbourg, Konstanz, Memmingen, Lindau). At Diet of Regensburg he tried to unite Prots. and RCs Refusing to sign the Interim, he accepted an invitation of Abp. Cranmer to teach theol. at Cambridge and to help in furthering the Reformation in Eng. See also Lutheran Confessions, B 1; Reformed Confessions, D 1; Regensburg Book; Regensburg Conference; Sickingen, Franz von.
J. W. Baum, Capito und Butzer, Strassburgs Reformatoren, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der reformirten Kirche, III (Elberfeld, 1860).
(March 23, 1872August 1, 1953). B. Detroit; d. St. Louis, Grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1893; prof. Conc. Coll., Conover, North Carolina, 189396; pastor Memphis, Tennessee, 18961902; Saint Louis 190237; dean theol. Immanuel Coll., Greensboro, North Carolina, 193739; assoc. pastor Detroit 193946; retired and returned to St. Louis. Vice-pres. Eng. Dist. of Mo. Syn. 191821. Works include Faith and Duty; From Advent to Advent; Things New and Old; Sermons on Romanism; The Christian Warfare; The First Gospel and Other Sermons; Wholesome Words; Comfortable Words; Gracious Words; Emblems in the Gospels; ed. Great Leaders and Great Events. ARS
(Oxford Group Movement; First Century Christian Fellowship; Moral Re-Armament). Founded by Frank N. D. Buchman (18781961), grad. Mount Airy Luth. Theol. Sem. (ULC), Philadelphia. After a few years in the Luth. ministry Buchman was led at Keswick, Eng., to a new career of service, emphasizing absolute honesty, purity, unselfishness, and love. According to Buchmanism, the barrier of sin is removed by sharing (complete confession of all sins and witnessing this confession before others), surrender, restitution, and receiving and following immediate guidance from God. Thus Buchmanism tries to revitalize Christianity and supply men with moral rearmament.
G. C. Gast, Oxford Group Movement (Columbus, n. d.); W. G. Schwehn, What Is Buchmanism? (St. Louis, 1940); C. I. Benson, The Eight Points of the Oxford Group (New York, 1936); A. W. Eister, Drawing Room Conversion (Durham, North Carolina, 1950); P. Howard, Frank Buchman's Secret (New York, 1962).
(Buchholtz; 160771). Luth. theol.; educ. Wittenberg and Rostock; rector Lemgo 1637; instructor 1639, prof. poetry 1641 and theol. 1645 Rinteln; preacher 1647 and supt. 1664 Braunschweig. Works include hymns and the romances Herkules and Herkuliskus.
(180389). Ger. Luth. positive theol. Educ. Prenzlau and Berlin. Pastor Schönfeld 182841; pastor and supt. Brüssow 1841 to 1846; pastor Berlin 184653; gen. supt. Neumark and Niederlausitz 185384; influential in Prussian Union, with Luth. leanings. Works include Erinnerungen aus dem Leben eines Landgeistlichen, 5 vols.
(18391909). B. Hartford, Connecticut Studied in Leipzig, Dresden, and Paris; organist Hartford, Chicago, Boston, Brooklyn, and New York. Works include organ compositions, cantatas, and ch. music for both liturgical and choir use.
(February 28, 1906April 20, 1960). Grad. U. of Kansas Law School 1928; sr. partner law firm Morrison, Hecker, Buck, and Cozad. Mem. Ex. Bd. Lutheran Laymen's League 193739, 194143, 1947 to 1948; pres. Internat. Walther League 193947; mem. Bd. of Dir. Wheat Ridge Foundation 193960; mem. Bd. of Dir. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod 195160; secy. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod Foundation 195960; mem. Implementation Committee of the Synodical Survey Commission 195960; guest lecturer U. of Kansas Law School and U. of Missouri at Kansas City.
(16671729). Ger. Luth. theol. and scholar. Prof. Wittenberg, Jena, Coburg, and Halle; mediated bet. orthodox Lutheranism and Pietism; several times rector Jena U. Works include Institutiones theologiae dogmaticae; Isagoge historicotheologica ad theologiam universam.
1. Religious system founded by Gautama* Buddha, 6th c. BC, in N India; revolt against Brahmanism.* Denies authority of the Vats, rejects Brahmanic caste system, ritual, and philos. speculations, and offers a new way to salvation. The 2 canonical languages of Buddhism: Pall, of S or Hinayana (Theravada) Buddhism, and Skt., of N or Mahayana Buddhism.
2. The texts on which our knowledge of early Buddhism is based are sacred books found in Ceylon, written in Pall and called Tipitaka (Skt. Tripitaka), that is Three Baskets (Pitaka), namely the Baskets of Vinaya, Sutta, and Abhidhamma (monastic rules and disciplines, teachings of the Buddha, and Buddhist higher philos., resp.). Other books come from Nepal, written in Skt., and from China and Tibet, written in the languages of those countries. In a way, Gautama's doctrine is not religion but practical atheism. Of the 5 requisites of religion, i. e., the belief in a divine power, the acknowledgment of sin, the habit of prayer, the desire to offer sacrifice, and the hope of a future life (F. M. Müller*), not one is found in Gautama's system. Though he did not deny existence of traditional gods, yet he held that prayer and sacrifice to them were of no avail, as they, like men, were subject to death and rebirth and in rebirth might sink to the level of inferior beings, while men in rebirth might rise to the level of gods. In anatta (absence of soul) he likewise denied the existence of the soul (see Transmigration of Souls). But, in common with Brahmanism, he held the pessimistic view that life was not worth living; that in his five aggregates of being (corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness), man was subject to a continuous round of rebirths; that a man's karma, i. e., his acts in one existence, determined his lot in future existences; that salvation consisted not in escape from sin and hell (neither of which are recognized by Indian philosophies), but in obtaining freedom from rebirths; and that ignorance (avidya) is the cause of all evil. But as he rejected the Vedas and taught a new way of destroying ignorance and obtaining freedom from rebirth, his doctrine, like Jainism,* was considered a heresy by the Brahmans. He was also against the caste system.
3. Buddha's entire doctrine is based on the socalled four noble truths, which speak 1. of the universality of suffering, 2. of the causes of suffering, 3. of the cessation of suffering, and 4. of the path that leads to the cessation of suffering. Birth, decay, disease, death, separation from what we love, contact with what we hate, and failure to attain what we desire n. d. all is suffering. This suffering is caused by thirst, i. e., craving for life and its pleasures, and this attachment causes rebirth and continued misery. Freedom from rebirth and consequently from suffering can be obtained if this craving is completely destroyed. The path that leads to this end is the noble eightfold path, namely, right belief, right aspirations, right speech, right conduct, right means of subsistence, right effort, right mindfulness, right meditation. This path is called the middle path, as it is removed from the extremes of a sensuous life and of asceticism. He who follows this path to its end becomes an arhat, or saint. He has destroyed his ignorance, become perfect by knowledge, and broken the fetters that bind him to the wheel of life. The supreme and final goal of this spiritual discipline is nirvana (Pali nibbana), literally a blowing out, namely of the desires and passions that lead to rebirth. As the old karma is exhausted and no new karma is added, the round of rebirths ceases and ends in an unconscious state. Whether this is equivalent to the annihilation of personality was not stated by Gautama, but many Buddhist texts interpret it in this sense. Nirvana may in a certain sense be obtained in this life by the arhat, but it is entered upon completely only at death.
4. The followers of Gautama soon were organized into a mendicant order open to all men over 20, physically and legally fit, without caste distinction. The monks (Pali bhikkus; Skt. bhikshus, i. e., beggars) obligated themselves to keep 10 commandments forbidding 1. taking of life, 2. theft, 3. sexual impurity, 4. lying, 5. use of intoxicating liquors, 6. eating at forbidden times, i. e., bet. noon and the following morning, 7. taking part in dancing, singing, music, theater, 8. using ornaments and perfume, 9. sleeping on beds raised from the floor, 10. receiving gold or silver. Every monk had to take the vow of absolute celibacy and poverty. Great stress was laid on the virtues of benevolence (even to animals), patience, and humility. Twice a month he had to confess his faults before the assembled brethren. He had to dress only in rags, beg food with an alms dish in his hand, live much of the time in forests, and spend many hours in contemplation. Thus an elaborate system of rules governed his entire life. Subordinated to the monks were the nuns, whom Gautama, according to tradition, admitted to the order only with great reluctance. Beside this monastic order also a lay membership was organized. But the rules for the lay members were far less strict. They were obligated to observe only the first 5 of the 10 commandments mentioned above and to practice benevolence and charity at all times. As Buddhism is atheistic in principle, it makes no provision for a cult or priesthood. Wherever these are found in modern forms of Buddhism, they are a later development.
5. Shortly after Gautama's death the first great council, attended by 500 arhats, met at Rajagaha (Rajagriha, modern Rajgir) to decide and take measures to preserve the authoritative teachings of the Buddha; here the canonical Tipitaka (Tripitaka) was formulated. A hundred yrs. after the death of the Buddha, after certain schismatic monks had been defeated, the 2d great council met at Vesali, under King Kalasoka's patronage. Zealous Buddhist Emperor Asoka convened the 3d great council at Pataliputra (modern Patna). Heretics were expunged and missionary plans were laid. Asoka sought the extension of Buddhism throughout his empire and the entire world. Other great councils were held ca. 25 BC, AD 1871, and 195456. A council called by King Kaniska (Kanishka) in the first c. AD is not recognized by the Theravada (see 6) but apparently left its mark on Buddhism in Tibet and China.
6. The later hist. of Indian Buddhism is marked by the great conflict bet. the schools called Hinayana (Little Vehicle) and Mahayana (Great Vehicle). This led to a permanent division into 2 sects. The Hinayana (Theravada) is the conservative system. It is based on the Pali canon, holds to the original teachings of Buddhism, regards Gautama as a mere man, and teaches that salvation can be obtained by only few mortals. It maintained itself in the S part of the Buddhist sphere (Ceylon, Burma, Siam). Mahayana Buddhism, on the other hand, called so because it claimed to be the better vessel to take man across the stream of existence to nirvana, follows the Skt. scriptures. It transformed Gautama into a god or an incarnation of the Absolute. It is the N form of Buddhism (Tibet, China, Korea, Japan). The peculiar hierarchical form into which it developed in Tibet is called Lamaism.* The last phase of decadent Indian Buddhism is that called Tantrayana, which developed from the Mahayana Buddhism of Tibet and introduced esoteric worship and magic and even sensual practices that weakened Buddhism and made revival almost impossible after the Muslim invaders destroyed the Mahayana temples and monasteries. Buddhism apparently lost out in India to Hinduism (which converted Buddhist temples into Hindu temples) and to Islam (which opposed Buddhism with violence); internal decay also contributed to the temporary disappearance of Buddhism from India. But it continued in Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, China, Indo-China (Vietnam), the East Indies (Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Borneo), Korea, and Japan, and reached into the W world. After WW II it made some converts in India among the scheduled castes or untouchables; also some intellectuals showed interest.
7. The 6th conf. of the World Fellowship of Buddhists (WFB) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, November 1961, increased world interest in Buddhism. The WFB, est. 1950, has tried to secure unity among the branches of Buddhism in teachings and in cultural, educational, and missionary activities. A 1958 conference in Thailand dropped the distinction between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, but differences bet. them were strongly in evidence at the 1961 conference. Political problems of the nations represented (e.g., disarmament and differing regimes) disturbed the delegates, but joint work continued on the Encyclopaedia of Buddhism as planned in 1955.
K. W. Morgan, The Path of the Buddha: Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists (New York, 1956).
Est. 1899; organized 1914 as Buddhist Mission of N. Am.; present name adopted 1942. Represents the Jodo Shinshu Sect of Buddhism*; believes in salvation by faith in the Wisdom and Compassion of Amida Buddha.
(April 29, 1860September 9, 1943). B. Chicago; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1882; miss. NW Wisconsin 188284; pastor Tinley Park and Orland Park, Illinois, 188491; St. Paul, Minnesota 189193; taught at Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota, 18931943; temporary dir. there 1893, dir. 1896, pres. 190527.
Discussion bet. C. F. W. Walther,* W. Sihler,* H. C. Schwan,* J. C. D. Römer of St. Louis, Missouri, J. Keil of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and J. C. Theiss of Altenburg, Missouri, of the Mo. Syn., and H. K. G. v. Rohr,* C. F. (W.) Hochstetter,* P. Brand,* C. Krull of Neubergholz, New York, E. Schorr of Buffalo, New York (alternate for F. Groth of Cedarburg, Wisconsin), and H. A. Christiansen of Detroit, Michigan, of the Buffalo* Syn.; held Buffalo, New York, November 20December 5, 1866. Items discussed: ch., ministry, excommunication, adiaphora, ordination. See also Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, V 15.
Das Buffaloer Colloquium, abgehalten vom 20. November bis 5. December 1866, das ist, die schlieszlichen Erklärungen der die Synode von Buffalo und die von Missouri, Ohio u. a. Staaten vertretenden Colloquenten über die bisher zwischen beiden Synoden streitigen und besprochenen Lehren, rev., signed, and pub. by the collocutors (St. Louis, 1866), known also as Protokoll über die Verhandlungen des Colloquiums gehalten in Buffalo from beading on first page; R. A. Suelflow, Buffalo-Missouri Colloquy, in The Relations of the Missouri Synod with the Buffalo Synod up to 1866, CHIQ, XXVII (195455), 127132.
1. Till 1886 its official name was The Synod of the Lutheran Church Emigrated from Prussia. Its original mems. had left Ger. 1839 under J. A. A. Grabau* of Erfurt in protest against the Prussian Union.* Small groups settled in New York City and Albany, the majority in the Buffalo area, and another group near Milwaukee. Only a few immigrants came later, because royal pressure in behalf of the Prussian Union faded after 1840. The syn. was organized June 25, 1845, at Milwaukee by 4 pastors and 18 lay dels.
2. At first there were high hopes of combining Grabau's adherents with the Saxon immigrants of 1839 and the Luths. affiliated with Loehe's* enterprises; in opposition to the other Luth. syns. of that day these groups were all unequivocally committed to the Luth. Confs. But such hopes were frustrated by disagreements that developed, esp. on the doctrine of the ministry.
3. Grabau held that ordination is a divine inst. performed by previously ordained men, through which God confers the authority of the ministry on men whom the proper officials of the ch. have found qualified for office. For the sake of good order pastors could demand cong. obedience in all matters not contrary to the Word of God. Grabau was convinced that his view was Biblical and confessional and that it could help check the growing spirit of sectarian congregationalism. When his 1840 Hirtenbrief came to the Saxons, who had a much more congregational view of the ministry and ordination, controversy ensued. Bitter strife continued for many yrs., esp. because the Missouri Synod* felt bound to give pastoral care to individuals and groups that were unwilling to submit to Grabau's views. All efforts at reconciliation were in vain because the starting point of the groups and the basis of their appeal to each other were so different. Grabau regarded Mo.'s doctrine as sectarian; Missouri regarded Grabau's as hierarchical and romanizing. 1859 the Buffalo Syn., in what amounted to a decree of excommunication, renounced all fraternal relations with Missouri.
4. Resistance among Buffalo Syn. clergy to Grabau's views and methods led 1866 to a heresy trial of Grabau by his own syn., which rejected his distinctive views and asked him to renounce them. Schism followed on his refusal and suspension. 3 pastors remained loyal to Grabau. 12 joined the Mo. Syn. 6 formed an indep. anti-Grabau group that claimed to be the real Buffalo Syn.; it disbanded 1877, most pastors and congs. joining the Wisconsin Syn. See also Buffalo Colloquy.
5. After 1866, and even more after Grabau's death 1879, the Buffalo Syn. gradually modified its views on the ministry, pastoral authority over congs., the strict practice of private conf., and frequent use of the ban and excommunication. It always retained its deep loyalty to the Luth. Confs.
6. Grabau's Hirtenbriefe and the Kirchliches Informatorium were voices of the syn. before the schism. After 1866 the official ch. paper was Wachende Kirche. The syn.'s Martin Luther Coll. and Sem., est. 1840, at Buffalo, New York, furnished a steady small supply of pastors and teachers; closed 1930. The Buffalo Syn. had 44 pastors, 51 congst., 10,341 bap. mems. in New York, Can., Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Minnesota when it became part of the American* Lutheran Church in 1930.
P. H. Buehring, The Spirit of the American Lutheran Church (Columbus, 1940); J. F. Köstering, Auswanderung der sächsischen Lutheraner im Jahre 1838, 2d printing (St. Louis, 1867), pp. 84112; R. A. Suelflow, The Relations of the Missouri Synod with the Buffalo Synod up to 1866, CHIQ, XXVII (April, July, October, 1954), 119; 5773; 97132; Protokoll über die Verhandlungen des Colloquiums gehalten in Buffalo, New York, vom 20. November bis 5. December 1866, alternate title Das Buffaloer Colloquium , rev., signed, and pub. by the collocutors of both sides (St. Louis, 1866); complete hist. of the Buffalo Syn. pub. intermittently in Wachende Kirche, LIV (June 15, 1920)LXIII (December 1929). FWM
(Pomeranus; Dr. Pommer; June 24, 1485April 20, 1558). B. Wolin, Pomerania; educ. U. of Greifswald; at 18 appointed rector of Latin school Treptow on the Rega; ordained priest 1509; appointed lecturer on Bible and church fathers 1517. Became follower of Luther 1520 after reading Babylonian Captivity (see Luther, Chief Writings of, 4). Married 1522. Pastor Wittenberg 152358; Luther's confessor. Lectured on Psalms at Wittenberg. Helped pub. Low Ger. ed. NT 1524. Officiated at Luther's wedding (see Luther, Family Life of). First Wittenberger to oppose Zwingli* 1525. Great organizer of Luth. Ch. In 1526 reformed Hamburg, Brunswick 1528, Lübeck and Lower Saxony 1530. His ch. order was introd. also in Minden, Osnabrück, Göttingen, Soest, Bremen, and many other places. Called to Pomerania 1534; succeeded in introd. Reformation against much opposition. Christian III* called him to Denmark (see Denmark, Lutheranism in, 3) 1537; reformed the ch. and U. of Copenhagen; crowned the king and queen; called back 1542 to reform Schleswig-Holstein; busy also in Brunswick and Hildesheim. After declining 3 bishoprics and all other calls he was made gen. supt. of Saxony 1539. Preached funeral sermon for Luther. After Imperials captured Wittenberg, Charles V treated him with surprising mildness. Bugenhagen, in turn, did not oppose the Augsburg Interim.* He helped draft Leipzig Interim. But 1550 he returned to strict Lutheranism with Commentary on Jonah, in which he protested against RC error. Shortly before his retirement 1557 he warned all pastors against compromises. One of greatest scholars of Reformation era. Praised by Luther for 1524 commentary on whole Psalter (WA, 15, 8). Helped Luther rev. Bible 1539; stood at his side in Antinomian Controversy* 153940. In controversies after Luther's death he suffered much Anfechtung (spiritual anxiety) besides grievous physical pain toward the end of life. Greatest contribution to Reformation was his indefatigable zeal and his ability to organize Luth. churches and schools; he is called the father of the Volksschule. Works include Pomerania; Von dem Christenloven und rechten guden Werken; letter to Christians in England. See also Christian Education, D 5; Lutheran Confessions, B 1; Pack, Otto von. WGT
Quellen und Darstallungen aus der Geschichte des Reformations jahrhunderts, ed. G. Berbig, VI Bugenhagiana. Quellen zur Lebensgeschichte des D. Joh. Bugenhagen, 1: Bibliotheca Bugenhagiana. Bibliographie der Druckschriften des D. Joh.; Bugenhagen, ed. G. Geisenhof (Leipzig, 1908); H. Hering, Doktor Pomeranus, Johannes Bugenhagen (Halle, 1888); W. M. Ruccius, John Bugenhagen Pomeranus (Philadelphia, 1924); W. Tillmanns, The World and Men Around Luther (Minneapolis, 1959), pp. 9093; K. A. T. Vogt, Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., IV, in vol. 2 (Elberfeld, 1867).
(18501932). Prof. OT Copenhagen 1882, Leipzig 1890; of Semitic languages Copenhagen 1898. Wrote on canon and text of OT and on geog. and sociology of Palestine. Collaborated on eds. of H. F. W. Gesenius,* Hebräisches und aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament. See also Lexicons, A.
(Beehler; August 8, 1837August 28, 1901). Pioneer Mo. Syn. pastor on US Pacific coast. B. Baltimore, Maryland; grad. Conc. Sem., Saint Louis, 1860; pastor San Francisco 1860. Because of his firm stand for confessional Lutheranism a split ensued, and St. Paulus was organized 1867, mother ch. on Pacific coast. Organized day school 1872, of which J. H. Hargens was in charge for over 40 yrs. Pres. California and Oregon Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 188799, California and Nevada Dist. 18991901. Excellent preacher, wise counselor, ardent lover of the Lord, friend of children, splendid organizer.
J. H. Theiss and J. W. Theiss, Lebenslauf und Charakterbild des seligen Präses J. M. Bühler (Oakland, California, 1902); R. T. Du Brau, The Romance of Lutheranism in California ([St. Louis, 1959]).
Religious and evangelistic act undertaken by a cong. in which a ch. home for its people and a house for God is planned and built. The bldg. program includes everything a cong. does and decides that finally leads to adequate facilities for its purposes.
Since each cong. is unique, there can be no plan that would suffice for all programs. Desire for uniformity has resulted in much mediocrity in contemporary ch. architecture. A ch. should not be built until the cong. knows how, whom, and why it worships; what its entire program of parish educ. entails; how it can best advance Christian witness; what new methods of worship and educ. can be adopted. The pastor usually guides and directs the study of these problems.
Publications to guide pastor and people include Architecture and the Church, issued by the Commission on Ch. Architecture of the LCMS (St. Louis, 1965); Church Building Manual, prepared by the Bd. of Am. Missions of the LCA 1965; Manual for the Building Enterprise, ed. E. S. Frey, pub. under auspices of the LCA Commission on Ch. Architecture (New York, 1965); C. H. Atkinson, How to Get Your Church Built (New York, 1964); A. Biéler, Architecture in Worship (London, 1965); D. J. Bruggink and C. H. Droppers, Christ and Architecture: Building Presbyterian/Reformed Churches (Grand Rapids, 1965); A. W. Christ-Janer and M. M. Foley, Modern Church Architecture (New York, 1962); V. H. Fiddes, The Architectural Requirements of Protestant Worship (Toronto, 1961); E. S. Frey, This Before Architecture (Foundation Books, Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, 1963); P. Hammond, Liturgy and Architecture (New York, 1961); J. R. Scotford, When You Build Your Church, 2d ed. (Great Neck, New York, 1958); Church Buildings and Furnishings, ed. J. G. Sherman (Greenwich, Connecticut, 1958); J. F. White, Protestant Worship and Church Architecture (New York, 1964); periodicals Anno Domini, Liturgical Arts, and Your Church.
A ch. should be built from the inside out. Many congs. in hurry to have a bldg. are still pondering the problems of fitting their liturgical needs into a meaningless shell. Much time and prayerful consideration must be given to the meaning of worship before the architect can even be chosen, much less commissioned. A cong. cannot be reminded too often that what it builds is not the end, but a place of corporate and individual worship and a means of witnessing to the Truth, which is the Source of all Being. RRCj
See also Church Architecture.
(18711944). Russ. theol. Warm, but critical, adherent of ecumenical movement. Emphasized doctrine of man as image of God. Christ is God-Man in which all mankind participates. There is that in God's nature which is the image of God in man, the primordial manhood in God (divine God-manhood); the creaturely Godmanhood is the divine in man. This is Sophiology (describes relation of man and God); Sophia is the Godhead, a living, loving substance, ground, and principle. Creaturely Sophia is image of God in in world. Emphasized sobornost.* Works include The Orthodox Church; The Wisdom of God; Du Verbe incarné; Le Paraclet; Die Tragödie der Philosophie.
Balkan country W of Black Sea. The hist. of its people begins in the 7th c. AD; people's Rep. of Bulgaria est. 1947. Area: 42,796 sq. mi. Gk. Orthodox 84.4%, Muhammadan 13.5%, Jewish .8%, RC .8%, Armenian and Prot. .5%. Won for Christianity under Boris* chiefly by Cyril* and Methodius of Gk. Ch. ca. AD 864. Placed ecclesiastically under Rome by Boris (contributing cause of Great Schism* of 1054); returned to allegiance of Constantinople 1869. Bulgarian Ch. restored 187072 with exarch in Constantinople. Methodists began miss. work 1857; ABCFM later. In recent times National Ch. disest.; hospitals and schools prohibited.
(Litterae apostolicae sub plumbo). The most solemn and formal written mandate of the pope; used for releases of universal significance, canonization, universal papal laws, changes in ch. provinces, creation of orders, and matters of similar importance. Lat. bulla, bubble, was the lead or wax stamped to seal and authenticate mandates since 6th c. Since 1878 only consistorial bulls (signed by pope and cardinals) are thus sealed; less important ones are stamped and signed by the Cardinal Chancellor, a lesser official, and 2 notaries. Bulls begin with name of pope (without numeral), followed by episcopus servus servorum Dei, greeting, addresses, message. Bulls are designated by their first words. Important bulls are Clericis Laicos (Boniface VIII, 1296), threatening Fr. and Eng. kings with excommunication because of their high taxes; Unam Sanctam (Boniface VIII, 1302), containing the most sweeping claims ever advanced by the papacy (see also Two Swords); In Coena Domini (Urban V, 1362), excommunicating heretics, etc., by name (published with additions every Maundy Thursday till 1773); Exsurge, Domine (Leo X, June 15, 1520), the bull which Luther burned; Decet Romanum Pontificem (January 3, 1521), excommunicating Luther; Dominus ac Redemptor Noster (Clement XIV, 1773), abolishing the Jesuits, and Sollicitudo Omnium (Pius VII, 1814), reestablishing them; Ineffabilis (Pius IX, 1854), proclaiming the dogma of the Immaculate Conception; Pastor Aeternus (Pius IX, 1870), defining papal primacy and infallibility; Munificentissimus Deus (Pius XII, 1950), promulgating the Assumption of Mary. EL
(ca. 15621628). Eng. RC organist and composer of the Madrigalian Era; wrote much ch. music. Though not equal to Gibbons and Byrd, he enjoys a fame that puts him above the rank and file of Eng. composers.
(150475). Swiss reformer. B. Bremgarten (Aargau); d. Zurich. Left RC Ch. 1522. Succeeded Zwingli as chief pastor of Zurich and leader of Reformation in Ger. Switz. 1531. Helped draw up First Helvetic Confession; concluded with Calvin the Consensus Tigurinus; other works include Second Helvetic Confession; History of the Reformation. See also Religious Drama, 3; Switzerland, 2.
(18841976). B. Wiefelstede, Oldenburg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen, Berlin, and Marburg; private instructor Marburg 191216; asst. prof. Breslau 191620; prof. Giessen 192021, Marburg 192151. Works include Die Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition; Jesus; Das Evangelium des Johannes; Das Urchristentum im Rahmen der antiken Religionen; Theologie des neuen Testaments; Geschichte und Eschatologie; Glauben und Verstehen; Die 3 Johannesbriefe; Exegetica; Jesus Christus und die Mythologie; Die Erforschung der synoptischen Evangelien; Das Verhltnis der urchristlichen Christusbotschaft zum historischen Jesus. See also Demythologization; Existentialism, 1.
(January 2, 1810January 23, 1882). B. Etzdorf, near Rosswein, Saxony; scion of family of clerics reaching back to the Reformation. At Leipzig he came under influence of an elderly, retired candidate of theology named Kühn; private tutor Pirna and Dresden; to US with M. Stephan* Sr.; gave practical assistance to colonists in Perry Co., Missouri; one of the founders of the coll. at Altenburg. Teacher Trinity school, St. Louis 1841; asst. pastor Trinity 1844; pastor Immanuel 1847. Walther called him the Am. Luth. Valerius Herberger.* His practical nature was exemplified in his pastoral work. Pres. W Dist., Mo. Syn., 186375. Friend of miss.; Father of Syn. Conf. Negro Miss. Founder of Luth. Hosp. and Orphan's Home, St. Louis.
(17911860). Ger. scholar and diplomat; friend of Frederick William III and IV of Prussia; assisted in preparation of Prussian* Union agenda; ed. hymnbook; wrote on theol. and philos. themes. See also Agenda Controversy.
(162888). Eng. preacher and author; joined Bedford nonconformist ch. 1653; soon began to preach; came into conflict with G. Fox and Quakers; at the Restoration he was ordered to stop preaching; refused; was thrown into jail, where he remained ca. 11 1/2 yrs. and wrote some of his works, which include Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners; The Life and Death of Mr. Badman; The Holy War; The Heavenly Footman; Pilgrim's Progress.
(181291). Presb. clergyman in New York city; his remarks associating the opponents of J. G. Blaine with rum, Romanism, and rebellion probably caused Blaine to lose New York's votes and the presidential election 1884.
(180584). Mem. high consistory Munich; with G. C. A. v. Harless* made ch. of Bavaria a model Luth. ch. in doctrine, worship, and use of sacraments; wrote studies of Gospels and Revelation; prevented Loehe's break with state ch.; supported the Gustav-Adolf-Verein.* His hymbook, liturgy, and Bible studies used in America.
(February 17, 1806March 22, 1890). B. Saxony; educ. Dresden and Leipzig; pastor Rochsburg and Lunzenau; joined Saxon emigrants under M. Stephan* Sr.; pastor Seelitz, Perry Co., Missouri; in the confusion resulting from doubts regarding the doctrine of ch. and ministry he resigned as pastor at Seelitz; after the 1841 Altenburg* Debate he left Missouri; en route to Ger. he stopped at Buffalo and was persuaded to remain as pastor of former followers of L. F. E. Krause; charter mem. Mo. Syn.; pastor Buffalo and W. Seneca, New York, Washington, D. C., and Winona, Minnesota.
Memoirs of Ernst Moritz Buerger, tr. by E. J. Buerger (Lincoln, Massachusetts, 1953).
(July 4, 1816March 26, 1847). B. Nördlingen, Bav. Entered teacher training under J. K. W. Löhe* as his 2d student 1841. To US 1842 with J. A. Ernst.* Attended the Ohio Syn. sem. at Columbus, Ohio. Licensed by the Ohio Syn. 1844. Served a cong. in Hancock Co., Ohio. Withdrew from Ohio Syn. 1845 (see Document of Separation); ordained at that time. Pastor Willshire, Van Weft Co., and in Mercer Co., Ohio, 1846. Attended the July 1846 meeting in Fort Wayne, Indiana, that concerned itself with drafting the Mo. Syn. const. (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, I 1, III 1. See also Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 5.
(Burgersdicius; 15901629). B. Lier, Neth., near Delft; d. Ceiden. Dutch logician. Prof. phil. type=ast t=Saumur*; prof. logic and moral philos. and natural philos. Leiden. Works include Logic; Idea Philosophiae Moralis.
(18661943). Brit. philos.; Prof. Reading 190734. Exponent of ethical theism. The antinomies of morality can only be resolved on the religious level which implies communion with God. The frustration of moral striving is resolved by the supervention of divine grace. Wrote The Legacy of the Ancient World; Towards a Religious Philosophy; From Morality to Religion.
1. Burial practices are usually assoc. with conceptions of life, nature of soul, death, and hereafter. But customs are often preserved when beliefs and practices change. Fear, love, and awe are attitudes of the living toward the dead and determine burial practices.
2. In OT the body was often buried in cave, shaft, ground, etc. (e.g., Gn. 23:19; 25:9; 35:19). Even criminals and enemies were not denied burial (Jos 8:29; 10:26, 27; 2 Sm 21:1214). Cremation* was obnoxious (Am 2:1) and usually reserved for executed criminals (Jos 7:25; Lv 20:14; 21:9). The corpse was usually placed on a bier (2 Sm 3:31; Lk 7:1214). In NT bodies were washed (Acts 9:37), anointed (Mk 16:1), wrapped in linen (Mt 27:59), hands, feet, and head wrapped in cloth (Jn 11:44). Graves were regarded as unclean.
3. Christians early showed care for the dead. The church became responsible for the burial of its mems. Candles, incense, and psalms expressed joyful hope of resurrection. Corpses often were dressed in white or in official garments. Prayers for the dead* and eucharists in their honor occurred at an early date. According to Augustine, proper burial expressed faith in the resurrection. It is more a comfort to the living than a service to the dead (De civitate Dei, I, xi, xiii).
4. By the late Middle Ages customs that are still in the Roman rite had become fixed. The Office of the Dead came to consist of the Placebo* (Vespers), the Dirige, or Dirge* (Matins), and the Requiem* Massachusetts. The early note of joy had also changed to sadness (liturgical color: black).
In the E Orthodox Ch. the corpse is carried from the house to the ch. with the singing of Psalms followed by relatives and friends bidding Godspeed. After the funeral troparia (hymns) the body is buried, the priest throwing earth on the coffin and praying for the eternal memory of the dead.
Luther opposed the Office of the Dead, masses for the dead, vigils, formal mourning, and related customs. He emphasized comfort, forgiveness of sins, rest, sleep, life, and resurrection (WA 35, 478479). He held that it is the duty of the ch. to provide Christian burial for its mems. (WA 44, 203). The marks of Luth. burial: proclamation of hope that the departed will be raised to eternal life; manifestation of love; reminder of death and preparation for it. Ringing the bell, accompanying the body from house to ch., interment with prayer and songs were preserved. The Luth. and Angl. committal services are very similar. A divine service with sermon often took the place of the Office of the Dead.
In Am. Protestantism the sermon (often eulogy) is a prominent feature of burial. EL
(ca. 1300ca. 1359). Fr. scholastic philos.; pupil of William of Occam; teacher of Albert of Saxony; held that will and intellect are essentially identical; reputed (perhaps erroneously) to have posed hypothetical dilemma (Buridan's Ass) in which an ass, set midway bet. 2 equal heaps of hay, is unable to decide bet. them and dies of starvation. Wrote Compendium logicae.
(171470). Son-in-law of J. A. Bengel,* by whom he was influenced; espoused analytic, biblical, pietistic preaching; pub. new ed. of Bengel's Gnomon. Other works include: Gnomon in Duodecim Prophetas Minores; Die Rechtfertigung und deren Versicherung im Herzen nach dem Worte Gottes betrachtet.
(April 1, 1815April 4, 1868). B. Dun, Scotland; d. Newchwang; educ. Aberdeen and Glasgow. First miss. of Eng. Presb. Miss. Soc. to China 1847; stationed at Hong Kong, Canton. Amoy, Shanghai, Swatow, Foochow, Peking, Newchwang; made exploratory trip into Manchuria. Tr. Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress into Amoy and Pekingese; tr. hymns and psalms into various dialects. Influenced J. H. Taylor.*
(15771640). Eng. divine. Prolific essayist. Influenced many writers. Treats religious melancholy. Works include The Anatomy of Melancholy.
A. Brownlee, William Shakespeare and Robert Burton (Berkshire, Eng., 1960).
Unwritten Jap. code of honor requiring extreme loyalty to superiors, simplicity of life combined with dignity, and complete indifference toward suffering and death. Approved suicide as escape from disgrace.
(180276). Am. Cong. clergyman; pastor Hartford, Connecticut, 183359; resigned because of ill health. In Christian Nurture he criticized revivals with their emphasis on definite knowledge of the moment of conversion and held that a child should be trained as a Christian from the very beginning. Other works include God in Christ; Christ in Theology; Nature and the Supernatural; Forgiveness and Law; The Vicarious Sacrifice.
Life and Letters of Horace Bushnell, ed. M. A. Cheney (New York, 1903); B. M. Cross, Horace Bushnell (Chicago, 1958); W. A. Johnson, Nature and the Supernatural in the Theology of Horace Bushnell (Lund, 1963); A. J. W. Myers, Horace Bushnell and Religious Education (Boston, 1937); T. T. Munger, Horace Bushnell, Preacher and Theologian (Boston, 1899).
(February 11, 1739August 5, 1800). Of Dutch descent; b. Hackensack, New Jersey; studied theol. under J. A. Weygand,* at Princeton Coll., and under H. M. Muhlenberg*; probably first Am.-born Luth. pastor in US; helped improve relations between Dutch in New Jersey and Germans in Pennsylvania; mem. Bd. of Trustees, Franklin Coll., Lancaster, Pennsylvania
(December 4, 1899July 2, 1973). B. Milwaukee, Wisconsin Educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Studied at Am. Conservatory of Music, Chicago, Illinois; Northwestern U. School of Music, Evanston, Illinois; Columbia U. and Union Theol. Sem., NYC; Chicago U. Divinity School. Taught at Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 192527. Prof. Bethany Lutheran Coll. Mankato, Minnesota, 192935; Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 193746 (high school dept. 193739). Ordained by Mo. Syn. 1946. Prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, 194647; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 194766. After retirement, music librarian Boys Town, Omaha, Nebraska Cantors at the Crossroads, ed. J. Riedel (St. Louis, 1967) was pub. in his honor. Ed. Response in Worship-Music-the Arts. Prepared and compiled God's Own Sacrifice Complete: An Order of Meditation and Worship based on the Seven Words of Jesus Christ on the Cross and intended chiefly for use in a Tre Ore Service conducted in Christian Churches on Good Friday; ed. The Introits for the Church Year and coed. The Graduals for the Church Year, both in The Concordia Liturgical Series for Church Choirs. Other works include Lather on Music; The Doctrine of the Universal Priesthood and its Influence upon the Liturgies and Music of the Lutheran Church.
(1754December 12, 1816). Grandfather of J. G. Butler* (b. January 28, 1926); b. Philadelphia; served in Revolutionary War; studied theol. under J. H. C. Helmuth*; licensed to preach ca. 1880; pastor at Carlisle and Shippensburg, Pennsylvania; itinerant miss. in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee; pastor at Cumberland, Maryland
(January 28, 1826August 2, 1909). Grandson of J. G. Butler* (b. 1754); b. Cumberland, Maryland educ. Alleghany Coll., Cumberland, Maryland, and Pennsylvania Coll. and Theol. Sem. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; pastor St. Paul Eng. Luth. Ch. 184973 and Luther Place Memorial Ch. 18731909, both in Washington, D. C.; chaplain 5th regt. Pennsylvania Volunteers, in Civil War; appointed hosp. chaplain by A. Lincoln; chaplain US House of Representatives and Senate
(16921752). Eng. theol.; b. Wantage; d. Bath; son of Presb. parents; became Angl. in his youth; bp. Bristol 1738, one of the poorest sees in Eng. of Durham 1750, richest see. Works include Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature. See also High Church.
(181899). Meth. miss. B. Dublin, Ireland; d. Newton Centre, Massachusetts; educ. Hardwick Street Mission Sem. and Training School, Dublin, and Didsbury Coll., near Manchester, Eng. to US 1850; sent to India 1856 by M. E. Ch. to found miss. worked at Bareilly; returned to US; miss. to Mex. 1873. Works include The Land of the Veda.
(16371707). Organist and Werkmeister (gen. overseer) of Marienkirche, Lübeck, 1668, succeeding Franz Tunder,* his father-in-law. Under Buxtehude's direction the Abendmusiken (evening concerts; originated ca. 1646) were presented Sundays at the end of the Trinity season and in Advent and gained great renown, attracting also young J. S. Bach,* who thus became a pupil of Buxtehude. Many of Buxtehude's cantatas and much of his organ music were written for these concerts. His greatness comes to light esp. in his organ works. His works are imbued with the spirit of Lutheranism as well as with the spirit of the North and of the Baroque* Era. He may be regarded as the most typical representative of the great North Ger. School of Luth. organists. See also Toccata.
M. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era (New York, 1947) W. E. Buszin, Dietrich Buxtehude, Musical Quarterly, XXIII (October 1937), 465490; P. H. Lang, Music in Western Civilization (New York, 1941).
1. Johann (The Elder; 15641629). B. Kamen, Westphalia; Heb. scholar and authority on rabbinical literature; prof. Heb. at Basel 15911629. Works include Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum; Biblia sacra Hebraica et Chaldaica cum Masora ac Commentariis. 2. Johann (The Younger; 15991664). Son of 1.; prof. Lausanne; succeeded father at Basel. Finished and pub. father's Concordantiae Bibliorum Hebraicae et Chaldaicae and Lexicon Chaldaicum, Talmudicum, et Rabbinicum. Other works include Tractatus de Punctorum Vocalium, et Accentuum, in Libris Veteris Testamenti Hebraicis, Origine, Antiquitate, & Authoritate. Through their insistence on the absolute dependability of the Masoretic text, the Buxtorfs laid the foundation for the doctrine of inspiration in Helvetic Consensus Formula (see Reformed Confessions, A 10).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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