(183391). Brit. atheist; soc. and pol. reformer. Ed. and pub. National Reformer in defense of freethinking; prosecuted 1876 with Annie Besant* for repub. Malthusian Fruits of Philosophy but won case; elected mem. of Parliament but not seated till 1886 (first because he refused to take oath and later forbidden); promoted soc. and pol. reform in India; developed secularism* into atheism.*
(July 18, 1804June 23, 1893). B. Marcellus, New York; d. Bangkok, Thailand; pioneer med. miss. to Thailand (formerly Siam); sent by ABCFM 1834; ordained 1838; returned to US 1847; sent again 1849 by Am. Miss. Assoc.; tr. parts of the Bible and wrote extensively in Eng. and Siamese.
(18461924). Philos.; b. Clapham, Surrey, now in London; educ. Oxford; exponent of absolute* idealism. In Ethical Studies he held that man must first find himself as a whole and then bring himself in line with the universe. In Appearance and Reality he held that ultimate fact is experience that is unity with the perceived; but since absolute spirit is beyond finite minds, judgments err.
(ca. 12901349). Doctor Profundus; b. either at Hartfield or at Chchester, both in Sussex, Eng.; educ. Oxford; lectured at Oxford; fearless confessor to Edward III (131277; king 132777); abp. Canterbury 1349. His De causa Dei contra Pelagium prepared Wycliffe for his work.
(December 2, 18361860). B. Crimmitschau, Saxony. Trained by Löhe; sent to Am.; studied at Wartburg Sem., St. Sebald (later Dubuque), Iowa; miss. to Indians; spent 2 months with J. J. Schmidt in camp of Crow Indians near Fort Sarpy, Montana, 1858; again left St. Sebald July 5, 1859, with other missionaries to work among Indians; erected station on Powder River (E Oregon) 1860. According to report, shot by one of a group of Indians with whom he was last seen July 22, 1860.
Prose ritualistic writings (legends, hist. records, hymns, and rituals) which arose ca. 800 BC from oral traditions regarding particular East Indian Vedas*; explained and interpreted the relations of sacred text and ceremonial; added symbolical meanings. See also Brahmanism; Hinduism.
1. The religion of the Brahmans, the priestly caste in India, esp. one stage in its development. Though the terms Brahmanism and Hinduism* are sometimes used interchangeably to denote the entire development of orthodox religious thought in India, beginning with the period that follows the composition of the Rig-Veda (see Vedas) down to modern times, the term Brahmanism is today often applied to the period following ancient Vedic Hinduism, when the Brahmanas* with their ceremonialism were much in evidence.
2. The Vedic Period. The earliest religion of the Aryan invaders of India, as we find it portrayed in the Rig-Veda, was of a polytheistic nature, particularly in the popular mind. But the Rig-Veda, most ancient sacred book of the Hindus, also shows remains of an earlier monotheism similar to that found in many ethnologically ancient peoples. This is strikingly brought out in the Rig-Veda creation hymn X. lxxxii. 13 and X. cxxi. 15 with its similarities to Gn 1 and 2. According to one authority, in the Rig-Veda the god Varuna (Gk. ouranos), the sky that covers all, is already on the wane and boisterous Indra, the sky that rains (thundergod), is in the ascendancy. Dyu or Dyaus Pitar, Father Heaven, the sky that shines, has often been related to Greek Zeus Pater, Latin luppiter (Diespiter), Teutonic Tiu, and German Zio (Tyr). Prithivi Matar, his wife, is Mother Earth. Agni (Lat. ignis) is the fire god. Soma, originally an intoxicating drink used for libations, is the god to whom all the hymns of one book of the Rig-Veda are addressed. Aditi is the limitless sky and her sons the Adityas are the suns of the different months of the year. In time many new gods were added and there was considerable overlapping of functions. Vishnu, originally the sun crossing the sky in 3 steps (rising, zenith. setting) grew in importance in a later period. In all the Vedas (the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, the two Yajur-Vedas, and the Arthava-Veda) mystical and symbolical terms abound. A creator-god may appear as Purusha, Visvakarman, Hiranyagarbha, Brahma, or Prajapati. The Vedic gods, with the exception of Rudra, storm-god (later Siva, the destroyer), were beneficent. Sacrifices of food, esp. of melted butter and soma, were made to them. Their help was implored against the multitudes of demons and evil spirits, which were believed to cause disease and misfortune of all kinds. The Vedic eschatology included belief in heaven and hell, to which, at death, the good and the evildoers pass respectively.
3. Brahmanism Proper. In earliest times there were neither temples nor holy places nor priests. But toward the end of the Vedic period and with the advent of the Brahmanas* a priesthood developed. The Brahman (or Brahmin) priests interpreted the sacred writings, gained priestly power, and (it is generally believed) introduced and supported the caste system as the Aryans moved southward. Formerly the Aryan invaders had occupied only the northwestern part of India, the Punjab, or five-river country. The mixture of Aryans and darker-skinned aborigines brought with it the beginning of the caste system, a prominent feature in Hinduism. The traditional four castes: Brahman, or priestly caste, which became socially supreme; Kshatriya, or warrior caste; Vaisya, or agricultural caste; Sudra, or servile caste. The prominence now given to the idea of an impersonal deity marks the end of the Vedic period of Indian religious development and the beginning of Brahmanism. During the period that followed, the main features of the Vedic religion were retained, essentially the same gods were worshiped, and the Veda was regarded as a divine revelation; but the Brahmans gained ever greater importance, until they were regarded as gods on earth. The priestly speculation which marks this period was a reaction against the numerous sacrifices, and to some extent against the ritual, which had become a burden. The essential feature of this speculation, which was philos. rather than religious, was the belief in an eternal, unchangeable principle, or world soul. This principle, called Brahman or Atman (i. e., Self), lies at the basis of the universe, and all beings are manifestations of it. Man emanated from it and eventually returns to it. During this period the doctrine of the transmigration* of souls was also developed and found expression in the Upanishads,* the 3d group of sacred Indian texts. According to this doctrine a man is reincarnated immediately at death, and the deeds in his previous existence determine the character of his rebirth. He is reincarnated in a higher state if his previous deeds are good, but in a lower state, even in animal form, as that of a pig, ass, etc., if his previous deeds are evil. As rebirth means continued suffering, the great aim is to be released from rebirth. But it is desire that leads to rebirth, therefore all desire must be abolished. To abolish all desires that fetter the soul to the world and to become one with Brahman-Atman is the great object of human endeavor. This final union with the infinite is called moksha, salvation.
4. Six major systems of Brahmanic philos. were developed, which are based on the Upanishads and are considered orthodox. Each taught its own way of salvation, i. e., how to be released from rebirth. They are Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. The Sankhya is atheistic and dualistic. It teaches that on the one hand there is the soul (or an infinite plurality of individual souls), on the other, matter. Release from rebirth comes to him who recognizes the absolute distinction between these two. The Vedanta, the most important system, appears in various schools of interpretation. It teaches the identity of the ego with the infinite, unchangeable Brahman. He alone exists; the multiplicity of phenomena is an illusion. He who attains this knowledge has moksha (release from rebirth and merging with the universal soul). Vaisheshika (atomic philosophy), Mimamsa (return to Vedic rites), and Nyaya (logic) are minor systems. Followers of Charvaka denied the authority of the Vedas,* considered soul merely intelligence in the body, and considered pleasure the highest good. For later religious development in India see Hinduism.
R. C. Dutt, The Civilization of India (London, 1900); J. N. Farquhar, A Primer of Hinduism (New York, 1914); A. A. Macdonell, A History of Sanskrit Literature (New York, 1929); D. S. Sarma. What Is Hinduism? (Madras, 1945); J. T. Wheeler, Ancient and Hindu India (Calcutta, 1961). AJB
(183397). With Bach and Beethoven, one of the 3 great B.'s of the music world. Lived at close of Romantic Era; did not fall under spell of such Romanticists as von Weber, Chopin, Berlioz, Wagner, Liszt; composed in style of classical masters; studied music of Bach assiduously; enriched classical idiom with new type of lyricism, originality, and rhythm; produced such gigantic works as his 4 symphonies, 2 piano concertos, his violin concerto, 3 string quartets, and other outstanding literature. Was a freethinker. Though his Ein deutsches Requiem is a great masterpiece of concert music, it was not meant to be a Luth. work. When selecting Bible texts for this work, Brahms avoided every passage which mentioned Christ by name (Ger. text); translations have not always reflected the composer's determination to refrain from using the word Christ.
A. Einstein, Greatness in Music, tr. César Saerchinger (New York, 1941) and Music in the Romantic Era (New York, 1947); K. Geiringer, Brahms: His Lite and Work, tr. H. B. Weiner and Bernard Miall (New York, 1936); W. Niemann, Brahms, tr. C. Phillips (New York, 1929); H. Gal, Johannes Brahms, tr. J. Stein (New York, 1963).
1. David (April 20, 1718October 9, 1747). B. Haddam, Connecticut; friend of and missionary to Indians. Commissioned by Soc. in Scot. for Propagating Christian Knowledge (see Bible Societies, 3) to work among Indians near Stockbridge, Massachusetts, but chief work was among Indians of Delaware River basin. Memoirs, pub. under titles Mirabilia Dei inter Indicos and Divine Grace Displayed, influenced later missionaries including Henry Martyn and Wm. Carey. 2. John (172081). Brother of David; miss. among Indians.
(September 9, 1863January 1, 1949). Son of Peter Brand. Grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1886; pastor Braddock, Pennsylvania, 188693; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1893 to 1903; Springfield, Illinois, 190320; pres. Cen. Illinois Dist., Mo. Syn., 190717; vice-pres. Mo. Syn. 1917 to 1929; Dir. For. Miss. 1920; visited China and India 192122, China 1926; wrote Foreign Missions in China.
(November 3, 1839January 11, 1918). B. Ansbach; educ. Cologne and Neuendettelsau; to Am. 1857; miss. St. Clair, Michigan (Iowa Syn.); pastor Eden Valley, Farnham, and Buffalo, New York (Buffalo Syn.); opposed Grabau on doctrine of ch.; one of the commissioners at the Buffalo Colloquium 1866; pastor Washington, D. C. (Mo. Syn.) 1869; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Ohio Syn.) 1876. In protest against stand of Ohio Syn. on doctrines of election and conversion, he and his congregation left Ohio Syn. and helped form Cone. Syn.; later joined Mo. Syn. Pres. Conc. Syn.; pres. E Dist., Mo. Syn., 1888; vice-pres. Mo. Syn. 1899; mem. of its Bd. for For. Miss..
W. Bröcker, Pastor P. Brand, Lutheraner, LXXIV (February 26, 1918), 7577.
(March 19, 1861January 16, 1936). Educ. Augustana Coll. and Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois; grad. and ordained 1884; pastor Denver, Colorado, 18841918, Rock Island, Illinois, 1918 to 1923; pres. Ev. Luth. August Syn. 191835; pres. em.; pres. NLC 8 yrs.; mem. Bd. of Miss., August Syn.; ed. Augustana Journal 18971906; delegate LWC Eisenach 1923, Copenhagen 1925.
(17901857). Luth. pastor Bavaria; defended orthodox faith against rationalism, esp. that of Gustav Friedrich Dinter; active in home miss.; wrote Schullehrer-Bibel; ed. Homiletisch-Liturgisches Korrespondenzblatt.
(January 29, 18241921). B. Norw.; grad. U. of Norway, Christiania (Oslo); ordained 1851; to Am. 1851; pastor Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Decorah, Iowa, 185182 (resigned); taught language and religion at Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa, beginning 1865; helped organize Norw. Syn. 1853; its vice-pres. 185771; coed. Kirketidende beginning 1869.
(February 19, 1862February 20, 1940). Son of N. O. Brandt; b. near Oconomowoc, Wisconsin; grad. Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa, 1879; Northwestern Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, 1880; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1883; U. of Leipzig 1897. Pastor Cleveland, Ohio, 188392, Chicago 189296, Minneapolis 190511; prof. Luther Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota, 1897 to 1936; assoc. ed. Kirketidende 18971902; Commander Order of St. Olav 1924; mem. Norw. Syn. and Norwegian Lutheran Church of America.
(ca. 14581521). Prof. jurisprudence Basel; city clerk for Strasbourg; humanist and reformer of morals; most famous work: Das Narrenschiff 1494, satire on vices and foibles of age, culturally and poetically most significant, source of Alexander Barclay's The Shyp of Folys (The Ship of Fools).
(171664). Spezialsuperintendent Nürtingen; 85th ed. sermons on Gospels, Evangelische Zeugnisse der Wahrheit, Reutlingen 1883.
(May 20, 1857September 26, 1932). B. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; d. St. Louis, Missouri; son of E. A. Brauer; manufacturer; attended the Luth. high school which later became Walther Coll., St. Louis; mem. Bd. of Control, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1893 to 1932; secy. LLL 191732.
(April 19, 1819September 29, 1896). B. Northeim, Hannover; studied theol. Göttingen and Berlin. Moved by appeal of Wyneken, and on advice of L. A. Petri* and Löhe,* went to Am. with Sievers* and his group of miss. emigrants 1847. C. A. T. Selle, of Chicago, prevailed on him to take charge of the newly organized cong. in Addison, Illinois Here he did pioneer work 10 yrs.; pastor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1857; active in controversy with Grabau; prof. exegesis, logic, and isagogics Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 186372; pastor Trinity Ch., St. Louis, 187278; Crete, Illinois, 1878; contributor to Der Lutheraner and Lehre und Wehre; for a time ed. the latter; wrote tracts.
Albert Brauer, Lebensbild des weiland ehrwürdigen Pastor Ernst August Brauer (St. Louis, 1898).
(January 10, 1831May 12, 1907). B. Lissberg, Hesse; d. N Tonawanda, New York Educ. Frankfurt am Main and Friedberg. To Am. 1850. Teacher Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cleveland, Baltimore. Prof. music Teachers' Sem., Addison, Illinois, 186697; first full-time Mo. Syn. prof. music. Issued Mehrstimmiges Choralbuch 1888.
(d. March 1814). B. Treves; RC miss. among Indians in Can.; convert to Lutheranism, preaching in Frontenac and Dundas, Ont.; formally received into Luth. Ch. by J. C. Kunze, Christ Ch., New York; ministered to chs. of Schoharie parish 179093; pastor Albany 1794 to 1797, Schoharie 17981800, Troytown, Guilderland, and New Brunswick, New York, 180014; secy. New York Ministerium 179397; one of few conservative men who opposed rationalistic views of F. H. Quitman.
(16561730). Educ. Oxford; sent by bp. Compton of London to hello order ch. affairs in Maryland; arrived 1700; tried to est. library in each parish; founder of SPCK and SPG; works include Bibliotheca catechetica; Bibliotheca parochialis; Papal Usurpation and Persecution (often called Martyrology).
E. L. Pennington, The Reverend Thomas Bray (Philadelphia, 1934); H. P. Thompson, Thomas Bray (London, 1954).
(16291711). Dan. Luth. theol. Educ. Rostock, Königsberg, Helmstedt, Wittenberg, Leipzig, Jena, Giessen. Influenced in turn by J. Arnd* for mysticism, J. Böhme* for theosophy, J. Betke* for spiritualism, and C. Hoburg* for syncretism. Became father's asst. Wrote violent attack on Flensburg clergy. Deposed; taken into custody; escaped to Amsterdam. Pastor Zwolle; dismissed under cloud of scandal. Friend of P. J. Spener* and G. Arnold.*
(15751645). Ref. leader Zurich; took part in Synod of Dort; noted for organizational ability.
Organized 1876 by Christian Jensen.* Missionaries sent to India 1881, Afr. 1912, China after WW I. Work in Afr. interrupted by WW I, resumed after WW II. Work in China ended by Communist revolution. See also Sevenringhaus, John Dietrich.
(18621929). Prot. Episc. bp. Philippine Is. 190118, W New York 191826, in charge of churches in Eur. 192628; opposed opium traffic; leader in ecumenical movement; pres. first World Conf. on Faith and Order 1927. See also Ecumenical Movement, 7.
(18381917). Ger. philos.; Dominican priest; liberal; seceded from ch. 1873 in protest against dogma of papal infallibility. Opposed content psychology of Wundt with act psychology, which holds that all mental life is activity and that experience is a way of acting; the task of psychology is to find meaning of act.
(June 24, 1499September 11, 1570). B. Weil der Stadt, near Stuttgart; d. Stuttgart. Educ. Heidelberg. Lectured on philol., philos., and Matthew when he met Luther* (Heidelberg Disputation*) 1518. Preached Luth. doctrine; forced to flee 1522. Settled at Hall, Swabia. Tried to help peasants after their defeat in Peasants' War* 1525. Celebrated Luth. Lord's Supper at Christmas 1525; wrote large and small catechisms 1528. Consistently supported Luther in Communion Controversy. Coauthor Syngramma Suevicum against Oecolampadius 1525. Attended Marburg Colloquy* October 1529. Supported Augsburg Confession (see Lutheran Confessions, A) 1530 against S Ger. mediating theologians (Bucer, etc.) and Zwingli. Introd. Luth. ch. orders in Brandenburg-Ansbach, Nürnberg, Dinkelsbühl, and Heilbronn 1532. Recalled to Swabia after restoration of Duke Ulrich 1534; chief reformer of Württemberg. Reformed the U. of Tübingen 1537. Attended meeting at Schmalkalden February 1537 (see Lutheran Confessions, B 2) and various colloquies: Hagenau* 1540, Worms* 154041, Regensburg* 1546. Work in Hall interrupted by Schmalkaldic War* 154647 and Interim* 1548. Forced to flee by Charles V* December 16, 1546; returned January 4, 1547. Narrowly escaped arrest June 24, 1548; hidden first at Hohenwittlingen Castle, later at Mömpelgard. Met Calvin.* Returned secretly to Stuttgart after his wife's death, but had to remain in hiding 18 months. Pardoned, he prepared the Confessio Virtembergica, which he took to the Council of Trent, March 1552; was not allowed to read it to the Council. Opposed Calvinist encroachment in Württemberg. Reformed the Palatinate 1553. Provost of Cathedral of Stuttgart 1554. Despite his staunch Lutheranism he retained a lively interest in Waldenses* and Huguenots.* Went to Paris and met Cardinal de Guise to obtain peace for Prots. in Fr., but in vain. In last yrs. (156869) helped Duke William of Jülich and Duke Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel introd. Luth. ch. orders. Buried under cathedral pulpit; Jesuits destroyed grave.
Brenz was Luther's most reliable friend in S Ger. Declined many calls in order to help safeguard confessional Lutheranism in Württemberg. Est. excellent educ. facilities for pastors (prep. schools still in existence). Orders of service simple. His was a deep piety, with pastoral concern for all Christians, but without compromise. WGT
See also Adiaphoristic Controversies.
W. Köhler, Bibliographia Brentiana (Berlin, 1904); J. Hartmann and K. Jäger, Johann Brenz, 2 vols. (Hamburg, 184042); H. Hermelink, Johannes Brenz als lutherischer und als schwäbischer Theologe, in Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung, III (August 31, 1949), 242246; W. G. Tillmanns, The World and Men Around Luther (Minneapolis, 1959), pp. 146147; Confessio Virtembergica, ed. E. Bizer (Stuttgart, 1952); Predigten des Johannes Brenz, ed. E. Bizer (Stuttgart, 1955); F. K. Wild, Johannes Brenz's Leben, Das Leben der Altväter der lutherischen Kirche, IV, ed. M. Meurer et al. (Leipzig and Dresden, 1864), 161297; J. Hartmann, Johannes Brenz, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VI, in vol. 3 (Elberfeld, 1862); Magister Johannes Brenz (St. Louis, 1894).
(Dunkers; Ger. Bap. Brethren). 1. The Ger. Brethren movement had its origin in the Pietistic revival inaugurated by P. J. Spener* during the 2d half of the 17th c. While most Pietists hoped to reform the ch. by retaining their membership in the various state churches, Alexander Mack (1679 to 1735), a Calvinist, and E. C. Hochmann (1670 to 1721), a Halle Pietist, believed that a mere protest against the cold formalism of the churches and the laxity of morals was insufficient. They withdrew from the state ch. 1708 and organized a separate cong. at Schwarzenau, Westphalia. In line with his Calvinistic and legalistic background, Mack believed that a Christian must enter a covenant relation with Christ est. by triple immersion; hence the names Täufer, Tunker, Dunker, Dompelaars, Ger. Bap. Brethren. While the Brethren are opposed to written creeds, they have worked out a system of doctrine. practice, and ch. govt. in line with their enthusiastic. pietistic, mystic, and ascetic views. Like the Friends* and Mennonites,* with whom they have often been erroneously identified, they place greater emphasis on rites and regulations which they find prescribed in the NT than on doctrine, believing that they have reestablished the simplicity of life which marked the apostolic ch. The following rites and practices have been observed by various groups: Baptism by triple forward immersion followed immediately by confirmation while kneeling in the water; the Eucharist, celebrated only in the evening and preceded by foot washing and the love feast; veiling of women in the public service; anointing of sick with oil; excommunication according to Mt 18; total abstinence; nonparticipation in war; opposition to use of oath and civil litigation; simplicity in attire; some forbid cutting the beard.The movement spread rapidly to various parts of Ger., Holland, and Switz. Because of pol. persecution some Brethren emigrated to Pennsylvania 1719; by 1729 practically all had come to Am. Because they retained many Eur. customs and dialects, they were considered illiterate by their Eng. neighbors, though the many publications issuing from the presses of C. Sauer (see Publicity, Church) at Germantown prove the opposite. A serious defection occurred 1728 when J. C. Beissel* est. a group long classified as Brethren but listed with Baps. (see Baptist Churches, 17). In the 19th c. the Brethren were disturbed by several controversies on matters of ch. govt. and practice, which led to the formation of several groups.
2. Church of the Brethren (Conservative Dunkers). The largest group. Its ch. polity is quasipresbyterian. Formerly the clergy was largely untrained and was expected to be self-supporting; in recent yrs. an aggressive program in educ. and miss. was launched.
3. Old German Baptist Brethren. Organized 1881 in protest against the introduction of specially organized missions, Sunday schools, training of ministers, which they consider as opposed to essential Christianity.
4. The original Brethren body in the US split 188183. The Brethren Ch. resulted. A 1939 split of the Brethren Ch. resulted in the Ashland group (see 6) and the Nat. Fellowship of Brethren Chs. (also known as the Grace group), which favors modern methods in ch. work and autonomy of local congs.
5. Church of God (New Dunkers). Small group founded 1848; accepted no denominational name other than Church of God. Disbanded August 1962.
(Christian Brethren). Also popularly called Darbyites;members insist on such names as Believers, Christians, Brethren, and Saints. Originated in Eng. and Ireland during the 2d and 3d decades of the 19th c. Dissatisfied with the schismatic conditions of Christendom and particularly the mingling of ch. and state in the Ch. of Eng., John Nelson Darby (180082) and others held that subscription to creeds, adoption of denominational names, and setting up ecclesiastical organizations were inherently sinful. Darby believed that instead of joining organized denominations Christians must follow the pattern of the NT ch. gather in local brother-hoods to give expression to their spiritual communion by the breaking of bread and prayer, await the direction of the Holy Spirit, and listen to anyone who feels called to preach. Rejecting every form of regular ministry, creeds, rituals, and ecclesiastical organization, they organized meetings, the largest at Plymouth. Darby was joined by men of outstanding ability, chiefly G. F. Müller,* father of Eng. orphanages, and S. P. Tregelles* (181375), exegete. The theol. position of the Brethren is fundamentalistic-literalistic with strong Calvinistic tendencies. Its distinctive doctrine is the belief that the visible Christian ch. must be one. They ascribe. to the visible ch. all the marks which the NT predicates of the holy Christian ch. and say that membership in a denomination is a denial of the one body. in line with this false conception of the ch. the Brethren hold two major errors: 1. Since only true believers can belong to a meeting, the Holy Spirit directly governs the assembly when it accepts a member; 2. a person once incorporated into the visible body of Christ can never be lost. The Brethren have no regular ministry, frequently not even ch. bldgs. The services are primarily for the purposes of praise and the breaking of bread as an act of obedience, testimony, fellowship, and hope. Darby and his co-workers were the forerunners of modern premillennialism. The Brethren came to Am. about the middle of the 19th c. and are now represented by ca. 665 chs. Instead of presenting a trotted Christian ch., they have added to the schisms. The differences are largely concerning matters of discipline. Some meetings are known as Open Brethren; others are Exclusive Brethren because they exclude from fellowship those with whom they disagree in doctrine or in practice and sometimes even all the members of a meeting which has not repudiated an allegedly heterdox meeting. FEM
Three small denominations, Brethren* in Christ Ch.; Old Order River Brethren, or Yorker; and United Zion Church (formerly United Zion's Children), collectively known as River Brethren, trace their beginning to Swiss Mennonites* who settled in Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania, 1752. During the revival of 1770 conducted by P. W. Otterbein and M. Boehm (see United Brethren, 1) among Baps., Luths., and Mennonites, differences of opinion arose concerning the mode of Baptism. The groups advocating triple immersion were opposed to formal ch. organizations and designated their congs. merely as brotherhoods, each known by its respective locality. The largest was near the Susquehanna: hence the name River Brethren. Brethren have not adopted a creed but follow in gen. the principles and practices of Mennonites and Dunkers. They adhere to a legalistic and literalistic interpretation of such portions of the NT as seem important to them, e.g., triple immersion; anointing the sick; veiling women in the public service; foot washing. love feast, and Eucharist observed in evening; unsalaried ministry; nonresistance; nonconformity to the world in dress and soc. customs. Discussions have arisen in their midst about such trivial points as whether the same person should both wash and dry the feet in the ceremony of foot washing. Brethren in Christ Ch. is the largest and most progressive group. Old Order, or Yorker, River Brethren apparently disbanded sometime thereafter.
An assoc. of pious priests and laymen founded by Gerhard Groot(e)* of Deventer (Neth.) and Florentius* Radewijns (1350 to 1400). The Sisters of the Common Life, together with two cloisters for regular canons (see Clergy). were founded soon afterwards. The theol. of the Brethren of the Common Life was that of practical mysticism;* their object, the furtherance of piety; their occupation, the study of Scripture, copying and circulating useful books, manual labor, preaching, and popular educ. Their organization was monastic, but without lifelong vows. Their spreading of the Scriptures and piety (commended by Luther) exerted a wholesome influence; but, emphasizing Christ in us to the virtual exclusion of Christ for us, they were unable to effect a real Reformation. See also Gerhard of Zutphen; Luther, Martin, 2; Thomas à Kempis.
A. Hyma, Brethren of the Common Life (Grand Rapids, 1950).
(November 11, 1893August 10, 1974). B. Wausau, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Sem., Saint Louis, Missouri; ordained LCMS 1918; asst. prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, 191518; pastor Gospel Luth. Ch., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 181823; prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, 192341; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1941 till retirement 1969; acting pres. Conc. Sem. 195253. Involved in Mo. Syn.-Eur. conferences held in Ger., Fr., Swed., and Eng. in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Mem. and chm. synodical Commission on Fraternal Organizations. Chm. synodical Bd. for Parish Education. Mem. ed. bd. of Cresset, Lutheran Education; Concordia Theological Monthly; This Day. Works include The Lutheran Elementary School: An Interpretation; The History and Cultural Significance of the Taschenbuch Urania; The Church in Its Relation to Freemasonry and Related Orders.
(17761848). Gen. supt. Gotha; held to rational supernaturalism; wrote in field of dogmatics; pub. works of Melanchthon; founded Corpus* reformatorum; prepared lexicon on the NT See also Rationalismus vulgaris.
(Brief). Called Litterae Apostolicae in Acta Apostolicae Sedis. Less formal papal release than bull* or encyclical* but often dealing with important matters (honorary privileges, beatification). Usually written in Lat., signed by secy. of briefs, and sealed (or stamped) with the papal signet ring (see Ring of the Fisherman).
RC liturgical book containing all that is necessary to enable a cleric to recite daily Divine Office assigned to the canonical hours.* Divided into 4 books for the 4 seasons. The primitive office consisted of Psalms and Scripture lessons. Under Ambrose* hymns and antiphons were added; responsories, canticles, collects, and other elaborations began with Benedict* of Nursia. In the Middle Ages lives of saints tended to replace Psalms and the Scriptures. Recited by priests and clerics. Many religious orders have their own breviaries. See also Popes, 21; Service Books.
(ca. 15601644). Regarded by many as the outstanding leader of the Pilgrims; organized Separatist Ch. of Scrooby, Eng.; to Holland 1608: to Am. on Mayflower: ruling elder till Ralph Smith arrived. See also Robinson, John.
(ca. 14701534). Educ. Navarre; bp. Lodève 1504; abbot St. Germain-des-Prés, Paris, 1507; bp. Meaux 1516. Attended Council of Pisa. In effort to improve morals of his clergy introd. ev. preachers (J. Lefèvre, Roussel, Farel) and Fr. tr. of Gospels and Epistles. Charged by the Cordeliers (see Cordeliers, 1) before Parliament of Paris with being in sympathy with Luther (152526). Two of his preachers (Pouvan and Saunier) burned at stake. Wrote Synodalis oratio; correspondence with Margaret of Navarre.
(Brigit, Birgitta, Brigitta; ca. 130373). Swed. RC nun and mystic; patron saint of Swed.; mother of Catherine* of Sweden. Her Revelationes, accounts of visions she claimed to have had, contain evangelical tendencies. See also Brigittines.
Eight treatises on various aspects of the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation; written by T. Chalmers,* J. Kidd, W. Whewell, C. Bell, P.M. Roget, W. Buckland, W. Kirby, W. Prout; pub. 183340 under bequest of the 8th Earl of Bridgewater.
(April 22, 1801November 2, 1861). B. Belchertown, Massachusetts; d. Shanghai, China; educ. Amherst Coll. and Andover Theol. Sem. Sent by ABCFM to China 1829; arrived 1830; worked with D. Abeel*; ed. Chinese Repository; pub. Chinese Chrestomathy; active in Bible translation and revision.
(1932). Based on the formulation by F. Pieper, Ich glaube, darum rede ich (1897). In its report, which advocated that the Chicago Theses* be not accepted in the form submitted, the Committee on Intersyn. Matters at the 1929 conv. of the Mo. Syn. recommended the creation of a committee instructed to formulate theses, which, beginning with the status controversiae, are to present the doctrines of Scripture and the Lutheran Confessions in the shortest and simplest manner. The committee appointed by Pres. F. Pfotenhauer (F. Pieper,* F. S. Wenger,* E. A. Mayer, L. A. Heerboth, Th. Engelder*) issued the Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod in 1931. This document treated Holy Scripture, God, Creation, Man and Sin, Redemption, Faith in Christ, Conversion, Justification, Good Works, Means of Grace, Church, Public Ministry, Church and State, Election of Grace, Sunday, Millennium, Antichrist. Open Questions, Symbols of the Lutheran Church. This Brief Statement was adopted by the 1932 Mo. Syn. convention. Efforts toward unity with the ALC continued. The 1938 Mo. Syn. conv. accepted the Brief Statement, the Declaration (prepared by the ALC commissioners), and the entire report of the floor committee of the conv. as a basis for future fellowship with the ALC, and the ALC adopted the Brief Statement and the Declaration. The 1941 Mo. Syn. conv. felt that the ALC had not done everything possible to carry out the 1938 resolutions (esp. in view of the Sandusky Resolutions,* Pittsburgh Agreement,* and failure to persuade the Am. Luth. Conf.); the Mo. Syn. had, also, been informed that its own sister synods were not yet favorable to active fellowship, and it therefore (at the request of synods of the Syn. Conf. 1940) instructed the committee to formulate one document in which we do not mean to dispense with any doctrinal statement made in our Brief Statement. In 1944 this document (the Doctrinal Affirmation) was in preparation. It was presented to the ALC 1946 and declared unsatisfactory. A similar position was taken by the Mo. Syn. 1947. The Mo. Syn. also reaffirmed the Brief Statement 1947 but declared that the 1938 resolutions be no longer considered a basis for establishing fellowship. At the same time it instructed its committee to continue discussion with the ALC using the Brief Statement and other existing documents (and documents to be formulated) and thus try to arrive at one document. See also American Lutheran Church, V 1; Common Confession; Intuitu fidei; Sunday. EL
Proceedings of the Mo. Syn. 1929, p. 113; 1932, pp. 154, 155; 1938, pp. 221233 (contains ALC Declaration); 1941, pp. 277304 (refers to ALC Sandusky Resolutions); 1944, pp. 228252 (contains ALC Mendota Resolutions); 1947, pp. 476 to 515 (contains Mo. Syn. Brief Statement); CTM, II (May 1931), 321336 (Brief Statement in German), 401416 (English): Reports of the ALC conventions, 1938, pp. 255, 256; 1940, pp. 312315; Lutheran Standard, XCVIII (December 7, 1940), 4, 5; Lutheran Companion, XLIX (November 28, 1940) 507, 508; Proceedings of the Syn. Conf., 1940, pp. 8188. An analysis of the situation as it obtained after the 1941 Fort Wayne conv. of the Mo. Syn. is given by M. Reu in Kirchliche Zeitschrift, LXV (October 1941), 577607; Doctrinal Declarations (St. Louis, 1957), pp. 4357; CTM, XVI (January 1945), 15; (April 1945), 265; (November 1945), 787788; C. S. Meyer, The Historical Background of 'A Brief Statement,' CTM, XXXII (July 1961), 403428; (August 1961), 466482; (September 1961), 526542; C. S. Meyer, The Role of A Brief Statement Since 1932, CTM, XXXIlI (April 1962), 199209; F. H. Pralle, A Brief Statement, 19321959, Lutheran Education, XCVII (June 1962), 442453.
(Briessman; Briessmann; Brismann; Brysmann; 14881549). Monk at Wittenberg and Frankfurt an der Oder; won for Luther by the disputation at Leipzig and by Luther's writings of 1520; spread the Gospel in Königsberg and Riga. First disseminator of the pure doctrine in Prussia.
(18411913). Am. Biblical scholar. Presb. minister; prof. Heb. and Biblical theol. Union Theol. Sem.; suspended from ministry 1893 by Gen. Assem. for liberal views on place of reason in religion; joined Prot. Episc. Ch. ca. 1900. Joint ed. International Critical Commentary. See also Brown, Francis; Lexicons, A.
(18841953). Philos.; prof. Boston 1919. Advocated personalism. God is creative, supreme, personal, but also limited, or finite; involved in cosmic evolution; time enters His very being. Since existence exhibits conflict, God is involved in struggle and victory, thus including redemption by the cross. Works include Religious Values; The Problem of God; Moral Laws; A Philosophy of Religion; Person and Reality.
of Kildare (Bridget. Brigit, Brighid, Bride; ca. 453523). Patron saint of Ireland; child of a bondmaid and a prince of Ulster; freed from parental control by King of Ulster. she founded Kildare and 3 other monasteries: remains placed beside those of Patrick and Columba.
Ordo Sanctissimi Salvatoris. Order founded ca. 1346 in Swed. by Bridget* as an instrument to spread the kingdom of God on earth. The monasteries were double. one part for monks, the other for nuns. The order contributed to the civilization of the North, but was nearly obliterated by the Reformation.
(18911959). B. Västra Ed, Kalmar Co., Smaaland province, Swed.; prof. ch. hist. Turku (Aabo), Fin., 1925; prof. Lund. Swed., 1929; bp. Växjö, Kronoberg Co., S Swed., 1947; abp. Uppsala 1950; active in ecumenical movement. Works include Nyanglikansk renässans (tr. The Anglican Revival: Studies in the Oxford Movement); Nattvarden i evangeliskt gudstjänstliv (tr. [rev. and shortened] A. G. Hebert, Eucharistic Faith and Practice, Evangelical & Catholic); Predikans historia (tr. K. E. Mattson, A Brief History of Preaching).
VII, 3 (March 1962), 34, 67, 10, 12; Prospectus, Westfield House, Cambridge (The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng., London, 1968), p. 1; The Lutheran Witness, LXXV, 3 (January 31, 1956), 51, 466; LXXXI, 8 (April 17, 1962), 193.
(182795). Bap.; b. Virginia; prof. U. of Virginia; pastor Charlottesville, Virginia; prof. S Bap. Theol. Sem., Greenville, SC, 1859; its pres. Louisville, Kentucky, 1888; gave Lyman Beecher Lectures at Yale. Works include Preparation and Delivery of Sermons.
(November 16, 1822December 23, 1876). B. Albany Twp., Berks Co., Pennsylvania, of an old Ger. family, which had come to Pennsylvania at end of 17th c. Educ. Allentown Academy, Marshall Coll. (Lancaster) and Washington Coll. (in W Pennsylvania). Agent for Am. S S Union. Licensed June 4, 1847, in Philadelphia, by Ministerium of Pennsylvania Ed. Der Jugend Freund; Lutherische Zeitschrift; Theologische Monats-Hefte. Started Der Lutherische Kalender; also issued an Eng. calendar. Helped est. theol. sem. at Mount Airy (Philadelphia) and Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown. Pastor Allentown 186776.
(188299). Cofounder Ev. Gesellschaft für Innere Mission; exponent of Darbyites in Germany.
(February 8, 1833January 20. 1904). B. Bergen, near Celle, Ger.; as young man attended services at Hermannsburg; entered Hermannsburg* miss. school; examined, ordained, came to Am. 1862; joined Wisconsin Syn.; pastor Algoma, Mosel (near Sheboygan), Fort Atkinson, and Watertown. (all in Wisconsin); mem. Wisconsin Syn. Indian Miss. Board.
(November 22, 1867November 27, 1932). B. New Orleans, Louisiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor of various congs. Military chaplain 1898 in Sp.-Am. War. Miss. to Brazil 190001 (see also Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, District of The, B 1).
(183187). B. Milford, Pennsylvania: d. Bridgeton, New Jersey; educ. Union Coll. and Princeton Theol. Sem. Sent by Presb. Ch. in USA as miss. to India 1858. Wrote extensively: ed. miss. magazine; tr. hymns.
(April 10, 1846April 27, 1926). B. New York City. Son of Theodore Julius Brohm. Educ. Conc. Coll., St. Louis, later Fort Wayne; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1866; postgrad, work New York U.; pastor East Boston; prof. Northwestern Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, 1871; prof. Teachers' Sem., Addison, Illinois, 18791913, dir. 190613; retired; instr. California Conc. Coll., Oakland, till 1925.
(September 12, 1808September 24, 1881). B. Oberwinkel, near Waldenburg, Saxony; studied theol. in Leipzig 182732; after grad. he became attached to Martin Stephan;* refused to accept a position in state ch.; emigrated with Stephan to Am.; his private secy.; cofounder Conc. Coll., Altenburg, Missouri; instr. till 1843; pastor Trin. Luth. Ch., New York, 184358; Holy Cross Ch., St. Louis, 185878; resigned; assisted in teaching at Teachers' Sem., Addison. Illinois, 187981.
(March 30, 1870October 18. 1949). B. Württemberg; d. San Diego, California; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis (grad. 1891); pastor Gotha and Tampa, Florida, 1891 to 1896; Houston, Texas, 18961902; Cheyenne, Wyoming, 190204; Beatrice, Nebraska, 190411; Hampton, Nebraska, 191124; pres. Nebraska Dist., Mo. Syn., 1915 to 1922, S. Nebraska Dist. 192224; pres. Conc. Teachers Coll., Seward, Nebraska, 192441, instr. 1941 till retirement 1944.
(1866March 5, 1892). B. Aldershot, Eng.; d. Lokoja, Afr.; studied medicine St. Thomas' hosp.; went to Afr. as indep. miss. but failed to reach Sudan; ret. to Eng.; sent as lay miss. with J. A. Robinson by CMS to Sudan 1890; worked at Lokoja; quickly mastered the Hausa language and preached over wide areas.
(181383). Educ. Harvard and Cambridge; Unitarian minister in several cities, at last in Newport, Rhode Island. The Am. version of the hymn God Bless Our Native Land seems to be based on his free tr. of a Ger. patriotic song.
(183593). B. Boston. Educ. Harvard. A failure at teaching, he studied at the Episc. Theol. Sem., Alexandria, Virginia; rector Ch. of the Advent, Philadelphia; rector Trin. Ch., Boston; bp. Massachusetts. Wrote O Little Town of Bethlehem.
(16941764). One of Denmark's greatest hymnists; ordained 1722: bp. Ribe 1741; popular preacher; pietist.
Terms denoting groups of men or women participating in a common center, primarily family, then also in race, humanity, fellowship, purpose; used in religious literature esp. with reference to unity of man in origin and structure and to designate disciples of a charismatic personality. Brotherhoods and sisterhoods develop in religious groups for cultivation of piety and achievement of goals through community life. In Christianity the terms describe those who participate in the fellowship* of Christ; in RCm esp., they denote religious orders united by common vows, life, and goals; similar orders have multiplied in Anglo-Catholic, Prot., and Luth. churches. The terms also apply to some secular and religious associations. See also Sisterhoods.
Organization of laymen in Prot. Episc. Ch. in US, the Ch. of Eng., and their branches. Purpose of the soc. is the spread of Christ's kingdom among men, especially young men. Organized in St. James' Ch., Chicago, Saint Andrew's Day, November 30, 1883. Two rules were adopted: 1. To pray daily for the spread of Christ's kingdom among men; 2. to make an earnest effort each week to bring at least one young man within the hearing of the Gospel of Jesus Christ as set forth in the services of the church and in young men's Bible classes. 35 such groups organized 1886 as the Brotherhood of St. Andrew.
RC order; developed out of work for the sick in Granada by John* of God. Pius V approved the order 1572. The Hospital of St. John Calybita, Rome, was given to the order 1584 by Gregory XIII and became the motherhouse.
(181794). B. near Lincolnton, North Carolina: grad. Emory and Henry Coll., Emory, Virginia; taught at Jefferson Male Academy, Blountville, Tennessee, and Greeneville (Tennessee) Coll.; deacon 1836; ordained pastor 1837; pastor N and S Carolina, and for 36 yrs. Sullivan Co., Tennessee; leader Tennessee Syn.; one of founders of Holston Syn.; pres. of diet of Salisbury, North Carolina, which led to the organization of The United* Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South.
(December 3, 1873December 5, 1921). B. Iredell Co., North Carolina; educ. Roanoke Coll., Salem, Virginia, and Mount Airy Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ordained 1898; miss. to Japan 18981916; founded and organized Kyushu Gakuin, boys' school at Kumamoto, Japan, with 2 depts.: middle school and theological; taught at the school till his return to Am. 1916; acting gen. secy. Bd. of For. Miss. of United* Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South 191618; taught at Southern Theol. Sem., Columbia, SC, 1918; one of 3 gen. secretaries of The United* Lutheran Church 191821; visited Luth. miss. fields in India and Afr. 1921; d. Sanoghie. Liberia.
In Memoriam: Charles Lafayette Brown, prepared by E. K. Bell, L. B. Wolf, and G. Drach (Baltimore. 1922).
(182193). Eng. painter; studied at Brugge, Gent, Antwerp, Paris; assoc. with Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, but not mem. of it; worked chiefly in secular field. Paintings include Christ Washing St. Peter's Feet.
(18491916). B. Hanover, New Hampshire Educ. Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, New Hampshire; Union Theol. Sem., NYC; U. of Berlin, Germany. Prof. Union Theol. Seminary. Dir. Am. School for Oriental Study and Research in Palestine (Jerusalem) 190708. Ed. with cooperation of C. A. Briggs* and S. R. Driver,* A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament; joint ed. and tr. Teaching of the Twelve Apostles; other works include Assyriology: Its Use and Abuse in Old Testament Study.
See also Lexicons, A.
(February 19, 1821June 19, 1882). B. Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania, of Quaker lineage; educ. Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg; baptized in Presb. Ch.; studied theol. privately; licensed 1845 byMarylandSyn.; pastor Baltimore, Maryland, and York and Reading, Pennsylvania; prof. theol. Newberry Coll., S.C.; pres. 1860; left because of his Union sentiments; chaplain 87th Pennsylvania Regiment and of US Army Hosp., York, Pennsylvania; S. S. Schmucker's successor at Gettysburg 1864; pres. Gen. Syn. 1866; coed., with M. Valentine, The Quarterly Review of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 187175, ed. 1876 to 1879; disabled by paralysis 1879.
(172287). Scot. clergyman and commentator. B. Carpow; poor and largely self-taught: herdboy; peddler; soldier; schoolteacher; proficient in several modern and ancient languages; preacher at Haddington during entire ministry; prof. theol. Works include Self-interpreting Bible.
(June 22, 1807January 1, 1886). Am. Bap. Conv. miss. to India. B. New Ipswich, New Hampshire To Burma 1832; est. miss. at Assam 1835, then in other areas; returned to Am. 1855; to Yokohama 1873; worked there 6 yrs. Works include NT in Assamese and Jap.; parts of OT in Assamese and Shan; catechism in Assamese and Shan; hymns in Assamese and Burman; Grammar of the Assamese Language; arithmetic in Burman and Assamese; comparative vocabulary of ca. 50 Indian languages and dialects. Ed. Orunódoi, monthly magazine.
(June 16, 1810June 20, 1880). B. E Windsor, Connecticut; educ. Yale Coll. and Columbia Theol. Sem., SC; sent to China by ABCFM 1838; returned to Am. 1847; to Jap. under Ref. (Dutch) Ch. of Am. 1859. Persuaded many Chinese and Jap. (including princes) to study in Am. Assisted in Jap. Bible tr.
(160582). Eng. physician, author. B. London; d. Norwich. Aided in condemnation of 2 women as witches 1664. Works include Religio Medici (blending religious feeling and skepticism); Urne-Buriall. See also Deism, III 2.
(181289). B. Camberwell, suburb of London; considered the most intellectual and erudite of Victorian poets. Son of a London banker, received main training under private tutors; read voluminously. Interested in music, painting, sculpture, poetry; never unsympathetic with people, but essentially analytical in his attitudes. Sought to express spiritual values in dogmas and contemporary philos.; emphasized the soul and future life. Chief works: Paracelsus; Sordello; Pippa Passes; A Blot in the 'Scutcheon; A Soul's Tragedy; My Last Duchess; The Pied Piper of Hamelin; How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix: The Lost Leader; The Bishop Orders His Tomb at Saint Praxed's Church; The Confessional: The Glove; Fra Lippo Lippi; Saul; Rabbi Ben Ezra; Caliban upon Setebos, or, Natural Theology in the Island; Prospice; The Ring and the Book.
(ca. 1490ca. 1554). Composer; b. Bruck, Austria; dean Laibach (Ljubljana, or Lyublyana; ancient Emona; Slovenia, NW Yugoslavia); royal Kapellmeister. Works include sacred and secular songs, motets,* miserere.*
(Gregor; Georg? Real name Heinse, Henisch, or Heincz; latinized Pontanus; ca. 14841557). Jurist; b. Brück, near Wittenberg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg and Frankfurt an der Oder; councillor of Frederick* III (the Wise); later chancellor. See also Lutheran Confessions, A 2.
(182496). RC Austrian composer and organist. Wrote only symphonies (9) and religious choral works (e.g., masses). Admirer of Richard Wagner*; relations between Bruckner and Brahms* were notoriously hostile. Regarded by many as last of great composers of RC ch. music.
W. Wolff, Anton Bruckner, Rustic Genius (New York, 1942); D. Newlin, Bruckner, Mahler, Schoenberg (New York, 1947); E. Doernberg, The Life and Symphonies of Anton Bruckner (New York, 1961); H. F. Redlich, Bruckner and Mahler, rev. ed. (London, 1963).
(18241905). Educ. Leipzig; pastor Hohburg, near Wurzen; pastor and prof. Leipzig; canon Meissen; consistorial councillor Prussia; provost, prof., and gen. supt. Berlin; canon Brandenburg; chief interest in ch. govt.
(May 24, 1839May 9, 1910). Luth. layman; b. Alsace, near Strasbourg; d. Milwaukee; father taught school; to Am. 1857; pub. first hymnal of Wisconsin Syn. and Ger. journals and newspapers including Familienfreund; Haus- und Bauernfreund; Hausfreund; Germania; Germania-Herold; Milwaukee-Herold; Die Rundschau.
On the N coast of Borneo; bordered on the S by Sarawak. Area: ca. 2,225 sq. mi. Captured by Spaniards 1580 but not held; became a resort for pirates; under Brit. protection 1888; Brit. dependency 1905; indep. January 1, 1984. Main ethnic groups: Malay 65%, Chinese 25%. Official language: Malay; other: English. Official religion: Islam. Christian miss. work began ca. the middle of the 19th c.
(July 10, 1880August 27, 1949). B. Chicago, Illinois; grandson of F. A. Brunn*; grad. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1900; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1903; pastor Brooklyn 190349; mem. Mo. Syn. Army and Navy Com. during WW I; pres. Mo. Syn. Atlantic Dist. 193041; vice-pres. Mo. Syn. 194149; mem. Bd. of Dir. ALPB; assoc. ed. The American Lutheran; ex. secy. Wartburg Luth. Home for the Aged, Brooklyn; mem. Bd. of Dir. Bethlehem Luth. Children's Home, Staten Is.; mem. Bd. of Trustees Conc. Collegiate Inst., Bronxville, New York.
(18191895). B. Castle Schaumburg, Duchy of Nassau; educ. Leipzig, Bonn, and the theol. sem. Herborn; entered ministry 1842; severed connection with state ch. of Nassau 1846; with a number of families organized indep., cong. Steeden; 184660 yrs. of development; break with Breslau Syn. 1865; with Immanuel Syn. 1870; with Luth. state ch. 1875. First meeting of Ev. Luth. Free Ch. of Saxony, which Brunn joined, was held 1877. Brunn's first contact with Missourians probably 1846, when he received a letter from G. Loeber. Walther's visit to Ger. 1860 gave impetus to opening the preparatory institution at Steeden 1861, which furnished the Mo. Syn. ca. 235 men. Works include Gottes Wort und Luthers Lehr'; Vom Gefühlschristentum; Die Lehre von den Gnadenmitteln; Die Lehre von tier Kirche; Thesen über die Lehre von der Rechtfertigung; Mitteilungen aus meinem Leben. See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 45.
R. D. Drews, The Relation of Friedrich Brunn to the German Free Churches and the Missouri Synod, 18461876, unpub STM thesis (Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1962); Leichenreden für den ehrw. Pfarrer Friedrich August Brunn and Zum Ehrengedächtnis des sel. Pfarrer Brunn, in Die Evangelisch-Lutherische Freikirche, XX (May 1895), 8592.
(18891966). B. Winterthur, Switz.; educ. Zurich, Berlin, and New York; taught in 191624; prof. Zurich, Switz., 192453; lectured in Eng. 1913; pastor Obstalden, Canton Glarus, Switz., US and Jap.; helped est. dialectical* theol.; opposed theol. of experience; emphasized use of Word of God in approach to modern man; with M. Buber* and F. Ebner* he emphasized confrontation with God in an I-Thou relationship; involved in ecumenical* movement. Works include Erlebnis, Erkenntnis und Glaube; Wahrheit als Begegnung (tr. A. W. Loos, The Divine-Human Encounter); Der Mensch im Widerspruch (tr. O. Wyon, Man in Revolt); Das Gebot und die Ordnungen (tr. O. Wyon, The Divine Imperative); Dogmatik (tr. O. Wyon, Dogmatics); Das Ewige als Zukunft und Gegenwart (tr. H. Knight, Eternal Hope). See also I-It and I-Thou; Dogmatics, B 5; Switzerland, Contemporary Theology in, 68.
(d. 1757). Dan. Luth. pastor. B. Schleswig; educ. Halle; assisted H. M. Mühlenberg,* serving at Philadelphia and Germantown 174551; at Philadelphia alone 175157; cofounder Pennsylvania Ministerium; zealous worker but suffered from poor health. See also Koch, Peter; Liturgics.
(ca. 15481600). It. philos.; put to death by Inquisition for cosmological theories based on Copernicus; opposed Aristotelianism; held theory of animate monads; taught relativity of space, time, and motion; influenced J. Böhme, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Descartes, Schelling, Hegel.
(the Great; 925965). Youngest son of Ger. Emp. Henry I (the Fowler). Under reign of his brother Otto I (the Great) chancellor 940, abp. Cologne 953; regent of empire 961 with William, abp. Mainz, on Otto's 2d expedition into Italy. Promoted close alliance bet. episcopate and crown.
(ca. 10301101). B. Cologne; educ. Cologne, Reims, Tours; head of cathedral school at Reims and overseer of diocesan schools 1057; chancellor diocese 1075; deposed and forced to flee by archbishop Manasses; returned after Manasses' deposition 1080 but soon withdrew to mountains near Grenoble and founded Carthusian* order.
(Bruis; Petrus Brusius; d. ca. 1126 [or 1132/33?]). Fr. reformer; pupil of P. Abelard,* but was condemned by him for subverting the ch.; advocated abolition of ch. bldgs., prayers for the dead, infant baptism, veneration of the cross; ascetic; burned by people enraged at his burning of crosses. Followers called Petrobrusians. See also Waldenses.
(18601925). Am. lawyer, statesman, orator; Presb.; in wide demand as Chautauqua lecturer; strong advocate of Fundamentalism in religion. Died a few days after the end of the Scopes trial in Tennessee, at which he defended the truth of revealed religion against attacks of evolutionism, winning the case for the state.
(ca. 18331914 [1918?]). B. Constantinople; d. Chalcis; educ. Chalcis, Berlin, Munich, and Leipzig; E Orthodox prof. ch. hist. Chalcis; metropolitan of Serrae in Macedonia and of Nicomedia. Discovered Didache and MSS of other early Christian writings.
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