1. Richard (1738October 4, 1782). Meth. minister; b. and d. Ireland; to Am. as miss. with J. Pilmoor 1769; pastor New York City; returned to Eng. 1774. 2. George Dana, Sr. (February 8, 1801February 11, 1831). B. Livermore, Me.; educ. Andover Theol. Sem. Sent by Bap. Bd. of For. Miss. to India 1825; arrived Tavoy, Burma, April 9, 1828; pioneer miss. to Karen. Made extensive jungle tours accompanied by native convert Ko* Tha Byu. See also Judson, Sarah Hall. 3. George Dana, Jr. (18281903). Am. Bap. pastor; b. Brit. Burma; son of G. D. Boardman, Sr.; educ. Brown U., Newton Theol. Institution; pres. Am. Bap. Miss. Union 188084; pres. Christian Arbitration and Peace Soc. of Am.; writings include Titles of Wednesday Evening Lectures.
(131375). Friend of Petrarch; humanist; student of Dante; because of his Decameron often considered first modern novelist.
(d. 1487). Founded Magdeburg House of the Brethren of the Common Life 1484; Luther visited it 1497.
(17951875). Pastor Nürnberg and Munich; eminent in liturgic researches; friend of J. K. W. Löhe; works include Evangelisch-lutherische Agende.
(January 9, 1849July 21, 1942). B. Langesund, Norw.; educ. Egersund High School, Aars and Voss Lat. School, U. of Christiania (Oslo); emigrated 1875; pastor near Kenyon, Minnesota, 187580; Gol and Moland 188088; prof. theol. Northfield 188690; Augsburg Sem. 189093; pres. United Norw. Ch. Sem. 18931917; pres. Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota, 191730, prof. till 1937; retired. Knighted by Haakon VII of Denmark 1912.
(18651938). Miss. of Norw. Luth. Santal Miss. in India 18891933. Tr. Bible into Santali; wrote Santali grammar and dictionary and studies in Santali culture and folklore. See also Norwegian Foreign Missions, 3.
(18311910). Ger. pastor; devoted many yrs. to inner miss. work at Bielefeld; est. number of institutions, including Bethel Home for Epileptics, schools for training deacons and deaconesses, and the first Arbeiterkolonie, at Wilhelmsdorf, to rehabilitate vagabonds. See also Charities, Christian, 5; Christian Socialism, 4.
The concept body, in sense of organized material of man, has frequently precipitated meditation and discussion regarding relationship of mind and body or interrelationship in trichotomy of soul, body, and spirit.
Materialists have it easy: body is matter; mind is simply matter in action - chemically, physiologically, or neurologically - or even electronically. Similarly, philosophical idealism oversimplifies by making the body merely the vehicle of consciousness.
Efforts to grapple with the problem include animistic views which consider the soul as inhabiting the body but with possibility of temporary or permanent separation. Descartes viewed body and soul as separate entities, having separate qualities, yet interacting with each other. This might be called beginning of interactionism, which with certain modifications is still popular.
In classic thesis-antithesis style a theory of parallelism arose, that relationship of mind and body is so close, even intimate, that both are considered manifestations of same substance (e.g. in Baruch Spinoza.)
Christian thought for a time seemed influenced by Greek dichotomies of mind and body, and mind was considered higher and body lower in man's nature. In more recent times the whole man concept is being stressed. When man fell into sin, the whole man fell; the whole man is restored by the redemptive activity of Jesus; the whole man partakes in the resurrection to eternal life; the whole man becomes more and more the temple of the Holy Spirit.
See also Corporate Personality. AJB
(December 27, 1875December 27, 1942). B. Calumet, Michigan; grad. St. Olaf Coll., Northfield, Minnesota, 1898; United Luth. Ch. Sem., Minneapolis, 1901; ordained 1901; pastor Lawler, Iowa, 190104, Forest City, Iowa, 190412, 191415; pres. Waldorf Coll. (prep. school), Forest City, 190415: mem. of House, Iowa legislature, 190911, of Senate 191315; gen. secy., bd. of trustees and bd. of regents United Norw. Luth. Ch. 191517; gen. secy. bd. of trustees and bd. of educ. Norw. Luth. Ch. 191718; pres. St. Olaf Coll. 191842; commissioner NLC and LWC; Knight (1926) and Commander (1940) of Order of St. Olav; vice-pres. Norw. Am. Hist. Assoc. 193942; pres. State Council of Minnesota Colleges 193742.
(November 3, 1875September 13, 1942). B. Memphis, Tennessee; grad. Conc. Sem., Saint Louis, 1898; pastor Ludington, Michigan, 18981906; Grand Rapids, Michigan, 190609; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 190917: pastor Chicago 191725; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192529; pastor Des Plaines, Illinois, 192942. Helped make miss. survey of Nigeria 1935 (see also Africa, C 14). Chm. Miss. Bd. of Syn. Conference. Managing ed. Homiletic Magazine.
(October 28, 1856December 27, 1947). Manufacturer. B. Vanderburgh Co., Indiana; attended commercial coll.; Evansville councilman at large 18971901; mayor Evansville 190609; del. Dem. Nat. Conv., Denver, 1908: mem. 61st and 62d Congresses 190913; mem. Mo. Syn. Bd. of Dir.; helped organize Lutheran Laymen's League (see Lutheran Laymen's League, International).
(ca. 480ca. 524). Christian statesman, writer, philosopher; influenced Theodoric toward benevolent rule; enemies at court brought about his downfall; sought to tr. Gk. classics into Lat. to assure their accessibility, a plan cut short by his early death; bestknown work, De consolatione philosophiae, written while awaiting execution, develops theme that God is good and happiness consists in harmony with Him; wrote a short treatise on Trinity and a defense of Chalcedonian Christology. His 5 books De musica spell the end of antique musical science in the W world. With him, Cassiodorus, and Isidore of Seville began the medieval science of music. Idea that music constitutes a unit of mathematical science may be traced back to him. See also Quadrivium.
(16901774). B. Silesia. Studied law at Jena, then theol. at Halle under Francke. Poor health limited his activities to writing. Spent last 28 yrs. of life at Halle orphanage. Works include Güldenes Schatz-Kästlein der Kintier Gottes (Eng. title, Golden Treasury), Meditations (7 vols.), and the miss. hymn tr. into Eng. as Awake, Thou Spirit Who Didst Fire.
(Bogomiles). Branch of Cathari,* numerous in 12th c. in Bulgaria and Constantinople; theol. a mixture of dualism and gnosticism: rejected Baptism and Lord's Supper; shunned chs. as seats of evil spirits; practiced much praying and strict asceticism. Survived severe persecutions. Found adherents in the W Ch.
Four statements on the means of grace on which agreement was reached October 1963 by pastors of Ev. Luth. Ch. - Colombia Syn., representatives of Caribbean Miss. Dist. of LCMS, LWF pastors of the Caribbean area, and I representative of the Mex. Luth. Church.
Noticiero de la Fe, XXIX, 3 (December 1963), p. 20.
1. Movement inaugurated by J. Hus* did not immediately issue in any definitive theol. formulation. In early yrs. the leader expressly directed the Bohemian* Brethren to let the Law of God [the New Testament] suffice and believe it purely, forsaking all other writings. Thus, when Luther challenged authority of RC Ch., the Hussites were ready for a theol.
2. Luke* of Prague, bp. of the Brethren, was their doctrinal leader. His spiritualistic conception of Lord's Supper clashed with that of Luther, and until Luke's death the Brethren were torn between the two. In this connection Luther composed his treatise of 1523 On the Adoration of the Sacrament. But when Luke died, the Luth. teaching prevailed among the Brethren, and after several consultations Luther expressed approval of their position.
3. The position was expressed in the confession of 1535. Despite differences in terminology and emphasis, it is strongly Luth., and from it we may date the half c. or so of official predominance of Luth. theol. in Boh. Protestantism. In doctrine of Lord's Supper the Brethren accepted the true presence of Christ but insisted on an interpretation of Christ's sitting on the right hand of the Father that differed from Luther's; they were also at variance with his view of Communion of the unworthy. But Luther was willing to overlook these differences and in 1538 pub. the confession with his preface and endorsement. See also Reformed Confessions, E 3.
4. Meanwhile the Hussite* majority, the Utraquists, also experienced the impact of the Luth. Reformation. Most of them became Neo-Utraquists, i. e., Lutheran-minded. They expressed their new theol. position in the Boh. Confession of 1575, a combined confession of Neo-Utraquists and Boh. Brethren, seeking legal recognition from the king. He would give it only on the basis of a confession parallel to the AC. For this reason the Boh. Confession is not an accurate representation of the actual theol. situation among the Brethren at the time.
5. Alienated by both Philippism and Gnesio-Lutheranism and attracted by John Calvin's emphasis on discipline, the Brethren had begun to switch their theol. orientation from Wittenberg to Geneva. This can be seen in the thought and activity of their last bp., Comenius,* who quite consistently supported Ref. against Luth. theol.
Whatever chance there may have been for a rebirth of Luth. theol. in Boh. was crushed by the Battle of White Hill (1620) and the consequent victory of the Counter* Reformation. JP, MSF. See also Bohemian Brethren.
G. Loesche, Luther, Melanchthon und Calvin in Österreich-Ungarn (Tübingen, 1909); E. Peschke, Die Theologie der Böhmischen Brüder in ihrer Frühzeit, I, 12 (Stuttgart, 193540).
1. The Unitas Fratrum (Union, or Unity of the Brethren, usually referred to as Boh. Brethren), was founded 1457 in Boh. by men whose conscience could not find certainty of salvation in the Utraquist Ch., whose priests were giving the sacraments and thus assurance of salvation to anyone who requested them, regardless of any evidence of repentance. The Brethren had been influenced by the radical but pacifist Peter Chelcicky,* most original of Hussite* theologians. Following his ideas and those of Utraquist preacher John Rokycana, the Brethren left Prague to escape corruption of ch. and city life. They retired to a village under leadership of Gregory the Tailor and pastoral care of the strict local Utraquist priest. In 1467 they broke off from the Utraquist communion and est. their own ministry. Priests and bp. obtained their call through casting of lots and their ratification through laying on of hands by their local priest authorized by a Waldensian senior. Group expanded by attracting other dissatisfied Utraquists and former Taborites (see Hussites). Priests were expected to live in apostolic poverty, to teach in simplicity according to God's Law (the NT), and to exercise strict pastoral discipline over their flock. Brethren were to avoid the world of secular offices, military service, and commerce. They lived in close fraternal community.
2. The 2d generation overthrew the old regime, feeling that the perfectionist expectations of the fathers overlooked God's grace and human realities. Secular offices, military service, and commerce were permitted and educ. encouraged. Above all, ch. discipline was modified, though still retained and emphasized. Lack of discipline in the early Luth. chs. prevented a rapprochement between Luke* of Prague, the Brethren's greatest theol., and Luther. But after Luke's death the Brethren became widely exposed to world Reformation currents, at first Lutheran (see also Bohemia, Lutheran Theology in), then Calvinist. A leader in the latter period was Jan Blahoslav.*
3. Brethren's excellent schools and tr. of the Bible, the Bible of Kralice, and rich hymnody were significant contribution to the wider Christian ch., including Luths. Their last bp., Comenius,* was pioneer of modern educ. The Counter* Reformation saw the suppression of the Unitas in Bohemia and its dissolution abroad. The Moravian* Church is a later attempt at a renewal of the Unitas. See also Bohemia, Lutheran Theology in; Czechoslovakia.
P. Brock, The Political and Social Doctrines of the Unity (The Hague, 1957); M. S. Fousek, The Perfectionism of the Early Unitas Fratrum, Church History, XXX (December 1961), 396413. J. T. Mueller, Geschichte der Brüderunität, 3 vols. (Herrnhut, 192223); R. Rícan and A. Molnár, Dejiny Jednoty bratrske� (Prague, 1957), tr. B. Popelár, Die Böhmischen Brüder (Berlin, 1961). MSF
(August 30, 1840December 24, 1895). B. Allstedt, Ger.; educ. Jena; to US 1868; active in New York Ministerium; leader of educ. work of St. Matthew's Luth. Ch., NYC joined Mo. Syn. and was ordained 1882; asst. pastor St. Matthew's Luth. Ch. 1882; dir. of the school that became Concordia* Coll., Bronxville, New York.
(16611733). Luth. composer of organ music; organist of the Johanniskirche, Lüneburg; influence on J. S. Bach is reflected in the latter's chorale partitas and Orgelbüchlein.
(16731722). Luth. theol.; educ. Halle; to Eng. 1701; court preacher of George of Den. and Anne and George I of Eng.; works include The Duty of Reformation; The First Principles of Practical Christianity.
(15751624). Called Philosophus teutonicus. Ger. theosophist; mystic; shoemaker; b. near Görlitz; d. Görlitz. His theosophy attempts to explain origin of evil. God contains conflicting elements in His nature, harmoniously united; in the universe, which is an emanation of God, these conflicting elements separated, but can be harmoniously reunited through regeneration in Christ. Influenced Hegel, Schelling, and others. His influence spread to Eng., where a disciple, Jane Lead, founded the Philadelphians. Believed in Trinity, Incarnation, Atonement. Subscribed to Luth. Confessions shortly before death. Works include Von den drei Prinzipien des göttlichen Wesens; Aurora oder die Morgenröte im Aufgang; Mysterium Magnum; Der Weg zu Christo. See also Theosophy.
F. Hartmann, The Personal Christianity: Doctrines of Jacob Boehme (New York, 1957).
1. Charles (182691). Fr. Prot. theol.; prof. moral theol. and apologetics Montauban. See also Reformed Confessions, B 2. Henri (18621924). Son of Charles. Prof. systematic theol. Montauban and Montpellier. Wrote on Christian certainty, life of Jesus, religious experience, and modern dogmatics. Ed. Revue de Théologie.
(15961665). B. Julémont, near Liége; d. Antwerp. Jesuit; hagiographer, whose work was continued by Bollandists* after his death. Taught belles lettres at Ruremonde, Mechlin, Brussels, Antwerp; attached to Professed House of Antwerp as dir. of Lat. Cong. with assignment of preparing the Acta* sanctorum of H. Rosweyde* for pub. With coworkers Gottfried Henschen* and Daniel (van) Papebroch (van Papenbroe [c]k; 16281714) extended Rosweyde's plan to include study of all materials and to print the text with commentary. The Work continued to present, with interruption beginning 1794 (soc. reconstituted 1837; pub. resumed 1845).
(170365). Trained in Halle; selected with Israel Christian Gronau* to serve the persecuted Salzburgers and accompany them to Am.; pastor Ebenezer, Georgia, from 1734 till his death; notable as preacher and pastor.
(17811848). RC theol., philos. mathematician; prof. Prague 1805, deposed 1819. Held religion to be sum of all views which favor virtue or happiness. In ethics he combined virtue and happiness for the well-being of the whole. The function of logic is to present these Wahrheiten an sich. Used a theory of uniform force (sich gleichbleibende Kraftäusserung) to demonstrate immortality and existence of God.
(Bomelius; Heinrich; Hendrick von Bommel; ca. 150070). Priest Utrecht 1522. Ev. preacher of lower Rhine. Pastor of Brethren of Common Life. Supported Wittenberg Concord; opposed views of later Lutherans. Summa (1st treatise on ethics of the Reformation) ascribed to him.
(180889). B. Edinburgh; ordained in the Est. Ch. of Scot. at Kelso 1837; joined Free Ch. of Scot. at its beginning 1843; pastor Chalmers Mem. Ch., Edinburgh, 1866. Hymnist; even before his ch. authorized hymn singing he pub. 7 tracts of hymns; wrote I Heard the Voice of Jesus Say and I Lay My Sins on Jesus.
(122174). Called Doctor seraphicus It. RC philos., cardinal, dogmatician, poet, mystic. Studied under Alexander of Hales; taught at Paris; gen. of Franciscans. Scholastic (realist); tried to prove that ch. doctrine agrees with reason; denied the doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary. Works include Speculum Mariae Virginis; Breviloquium. See also Marian Psalter.
E. Bettoni, Saint Bonaventure (Notre Dame, Indiana, 1964); J. G. Bougerol, Introduction to the Works of Bonaventure (Paterson, New Jersey, 1964).
(190645). Ger. ev. theol.; studied under Harnack, Seeberg; also at Union Theol. Sem.; student pastor at technical high school and instr. at U. in Berlin; protested against Deutsche Christen (see Barmen Theses); accepted pastorate in London; Confessional Ch. (see Kirchenkampf) called him back to Ger. 1935 to lead the sem. at Finkenwalde (Pomerania); in US in summer of 1939 at invitation of R. Niebuhr; his activity in the opposition movement led to his imprisonment 1943; executed at Flossenbürg concentration camp. Tried to answer the question Who is Christ? in the ch. (Communio Sanctorum), in theologies of action and essence (Act and Being), in Biblical studies (The Cost of Discipleship), in the world (letters). His Ethics describes the Christian's conformation to Christ.
E. Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Gesammelte Schriften (Munich, 1958 ); J. D. Godsey, The Theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer (Philadelphia, 1960); The Place of Bonhoeffer, ed. M. E. Marty (New York, 1962).
(Wynfrid (Wynfrith) ca. 680ca. 754). Apostle of Germany. Eng. Benedictine miss. After a short stay in Friesland, commissioned 718 by pope as miss. to cen. Ger.; later made bp. Founded chs. in Hesse and Thuringia; est. sees and monasteries; expelled anti-RC Culdees. Est. 4 sees in Bavaria, but did not overcome anti-RC influence of Culdees. Called by Carloman and Pepin to regulate affairs of Frankish Ch.; had synods pass measures on introd. Roman laws, doctrines, and customs, extirpation of remnants of heathenism, and the reformation of the ch. Despite clergy opposition, the Ger. Nat. Council declared for submission to papal authority and expulsion of married clergy 742. Most bps. acknowledged papal supremacy 747; pope gave Boniface, pillar of papal hierarchy, the see of Mainz. Founded Fulda monastery 744. In 754 resigned office in Mainz to continue work in Friesland, where met death at hands of heathen. See also Adalar; Germany, A 1; Symbolism, Christian, 4.
G. W. Greenaway, Saint Boniface (London, 1956); E. S. Duckett, Anglo-Saxon Saints and Scholars (New York, 1947), pp. 339455; Opera omnia, ed. J. A. Giles, 2 vols. (London, 1844); MPL, 89, 597 to 892.
(172093). Swiss naturalist and philos. Lawyer by profession; natural science his favorite pursuit; credited with discovery of parthenogenesis in aphids. Held doctrine of preexistent germs or particles created by Divine Being with inherent power for self-development in Considérations sur les corps organises. In Palingénésie taught immortality of all forms of existence. World is harmony directed by divine reason. Preformations of creation evolve to perfection. Organic life is a unity. Revelation is necessary. Christ taught resurrection and immortality.
(ca. 14931570). Swiss reformer, politician; humanistic rather than Calvinistic. Imprisoned by Duke Charles of Savoy; hero of Byron's Prisoner of Chillon.
(18481925). B. Norka, Russ.; d. Göttingen. Prof. ch. hist. Dorpat, 1882, Göttingen 1891. Wrote in area of patristics and Russ. ch. Specialized in hist. of dogma in early ch. Prepared eds. and commentaries of Methodius of Olympus and Hippolytus. See also Tschackert, Paul Moritz Robert.
1. Official service book of the Ch. of Eng. and (with nat. variations) of the Angl. Communion. Contains all public rites and services of the Angl. Ch., including Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, Communion, Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, Burial, Psalter, ordination and consecration orders, 39 Articles of Religion.
2. The First Prayer Book of Edward VI, largely the work of Cranmer,* was confirmed by Parliament and made obligatory for all Eng. chs. through the Act of Uniformity 1549. Much of it was tr. from the Sarum* Rite (Salisbury). The first Prayer Book was also significantly influenced by the Consultation, a Ger. ch. order composed mostly by P. Melanchthon* and M. Bucer* and pub. by Hermann* von Wied.
3. After 1549 some extreme reformers became much more influential in Eng. As a result there was more agitation for a completely rev. Prayer Book. The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI appeared 1552. This rev., esp. influenced by the Swiss Reformation, was a radical departure from the 1549 ed.
4. In 1559, after the death of RC Queen Mary, Elizabeth* I restored the Prayer Book of 1552, with several significant conservative changes. This was the Third Prayer Book. In 1604 a Fourth Prayer Book appeared with only minor changes. The Fifth Prayer Book (1662), a rather thorough conservative rev., became the version still used in Eng.
The first American Prayer Book was issued 1789 by the first Gen. Conv. of the Prot. Episc. Ch., Philadelphia. In this version, suited to the Am. situation, one of the more significant changes from the Eng. version was the adoption of the Prayer of Consecration from the Scot. communion service. But the 1789 ed. differed in many respects from the Eng. version because of the influence of liberal elements in the Am. ch.
A thorough revision of the Am. version was made and adopted 1892. Changes in this version brought it into closer harmony with the Eng. ed. of 1662 and earlier versions. The Prayer Book now in use in US is the rev. of 1928. EFP
M. H. Shepherd, Jr., The Oxford American Prayer Book Commentary (New York, 1950); W. K. L. Clarke and C. Harris, Liturgy and Worship: A Companion to the Prayer Books of the Anglican Communion (New York, 1932); Ritual Notes (London, 1956); E. Daniel, The Prayer-Book: Its History, Language, and Contents (London, 1889); F. Procter and W. H. Frere, History of the Book of Common Prayer, rev. and rewritten by W. H. Frere, new ed. (New York, 1915); J. W. Suter and G. J. Cleaveland, The American Book of Common Prayer: Its Origin and Development (New York, 1949); The Annotated Book of Common Prayer, ed. J. H. Blunt (London, 1895); E. L. Parsons and B. H. Jones, The American Prayer Book: Its Origins and Principles (New York, 1937); The Tutorial Prayer Book, eds. C. Neil and J. M. Willoughby (London, 1959); The Two Liturgies, AD 1549, and AD 1552: with Other Documents Set Forth by Authority in the Reign of King Edward VI, ed. J. Ketley (Cambridge, Eng., 1844); L. Pullan, History of the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1901).
(Concordia). Contains the Conf. Writings of the Luth. Ch., her Symbolical Books: the 3 Ecumenical Creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian); Unaltered AC 1530; its Apology; Luther's SC and LC; SA; Treatise on Authority and Primacy of the Pope; FC J. Andreä's Ger. ed. appeared officially June 25, 1580, 50 yrs. after the presentation of the AC; the Lat. ed. appeared 1584.
(17621825). B. Huttenried, Bavaria. RC priest; experiences in asceticism resembled those of Luther; preached a doctrine of salvation by faith resembling that of Luther. Chaplain 1787. Driven out of Bavaria by ch. authorities; lived in Austria 17991816; forced to leave; returned to Bavaria: prof. Düsseldorf 1817; pastor Sayn 1819.
(d. 1582). Prior, Carmelite monastery, Bourges; embraced ev. faith; fled to Basel, Leipzig, and Wittenberg 1541. Taught at Strasbourg, Bourges, and Heidelberg. Inclined more and more to Reformed view. One of the writers of the Heidelberg Cat.
(d. 907). First Christian ruler of Bulgaria ca. 853889; converted to Christianity 865; accepted primacy of Rome: decided for Byzantine Ch. at Council of Constantinople 870; abdicated, retired to monastery 889; reckoned a saint by Orthodox Ch.
(190177). B. Wuitz, Thuringia, Ger.; prof. Giessen 1927, Leipzig 1935, Heidelberg 1948. Pres. Evangelischer* Bund 193563. Works include Luther und Böhme; Luthers geistige Welt (tr. M. H. Bertram, Luther's World of Thought); Luther und das Alte Testament; Luther im Spiegel der deutschen Geistesgeschichte; Luthers Lehre von den zwei Reichen im Zusammenhang seiner Theologie.
(18251901). B. Den.; to Berlin 1852; civil engineer; persuaded by his wife Caroline (nee Hempel) to become a miss.; arrived India 1865; founded Santal miss. with L. O. Skrefsrud.* See also Norwegian Foreign Missions, 3.
(Cellarius; 14991564). Studied under Eck; friend of Melanchthon; won for Reformation by Luther's On the Liberty of a Christian Man; wrote against Anabaps. but finally joined Zwickau prophets; later gave up enthusiasm; to Basel; prof. rhetoric 1536, theol. 1544.
(153884). B. Arona; studied law at Pavia; turned to theol. on accession of his uncle, Pius IV; cardinal and abp. Milan 1560; prominent at Council of Trent; founded seminaries for clergy; canonized 1610.
(181397). B. Edinburgh, Scot. Hymn writer and tr. Many of her original hymns pub. in Thoughts for Thoughtful Hours. She and her sister, Sarah Findlater, pub. their first translations in Hymns from the Land of Luther. Some of her translations have been included in many hymnals pub. in Eng. and Am. Her translations include Hallelujah! Jesus Lives; Jesus, Lead Thou On; Be Still, My Soul.
(ca. 17511825). Father of Russ. ch. music, though his compositions are It. rather than Russ. in character. Catharine the Great sent him to it. (Venice, Rome, Naples) for training, that he might return to reform Russ. ch. music. After 11 yrs. in It. he returned and gave himself to the assigned task. Not a few of his compositions have been sung in Luth. and other Prot. chs.
(18481923). Brit. absolute idealist; prof. St. Andrews 190308. Held that in finite existence there are only degrees of individuality and value which point to completion in the Absolute. Works include The Principle of Individuality and Value; The Value and Destiny of the Individual; What Religion Is. (See also Absolute Idealism.
(16271704). Fr. RCprelate; canon, priest, and archdeacon Metz; bp. Meaux; tutor of dauphin of Fr. for some yrs. Noted controversialist against Fénelon* and separatists among Romanists. His 6 Funeral Orations rank high in the oratory of his ch. See also Roman Catholic Confessions, A 3.
(17901874). Pastor Geneva; exponent of Enlightenment.* Miss. under auspices of London Continental Soc. for ca. 35 yrs. Hymnist. Works include revision and tr. into Fr. of C. G. Blumhardt's Versuch einer allgemeinen Missionsgeschichte der Kirche Christi.
(January 7, 1786April 19, 1859). B. Fulton, Schoharie Co., New York; elected 4 times to Assembly of New York; state senator; finished difficult section of Erie Canal; built 5 other canals; gov. New York 1842; Asst. Treas. US; participated in councils of New York Ministertum.
(17401821). Am. lawyer, philanthropist, statesman, author. First pres. ABS Works include The Age of Revelation (reply to T. Paine*); The Second Advent; A Star in the West (sets forth the view that the Am. Indians are the 10 lost tribes of Israel).
(18701940). Fr. scholar; held religion responsible for caste system in India; held that morality cannot be satisfactory as long as it depends on religion.
(16321704). Often called founder of Fr. eloquence, Voltaire ranking him above Bossuet; entered Jesuit order at 16; occupied chairs of rhetoric, philos., and moral theol.; known for piety and honesty.
(161680). Quietist who gathered followers in Neth., Fr., and Scot.; convent life and efforts at orphans' work failures due to distrust of human nature; attacked religious organizations of every type; denied divine foreknowledge, atonement, need of Scriptures. See also Poiret, Pierre.
(18651920). B. Lübeck; d. Giessen; prof. NT exegesis Göttingen 1896, Giessen 1916. Prot. theol. of Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule. Works include Hauptprobleme der Gnosis; Religion des Judentums im neutestamentlichen Zeitalter; various studies on the Antichrist.
(18451921). Fr. philos.; prof. Sorbonne. Denied omnipotence of causality. Science deals with only part of reality. There is in reality a certain degree of contingency; science deals with selected data but reason must consider the wholeness of things in their quality. value, and significance for life and include spiritual interpretation. Works include De la contingence des lois de la nature (tr. F. Rothwell, The Contingency of the Laws of Nature); De l'idee de loi naturelle dans la science et la philosophie (tr. F. Rothwell, Natural Law in Science and Philosophy); Science et religion dans la philosophie contemporaine (tr. J. Nield, Science & Religion in Contemporary Philosophy).
(April 30,1916February 5, 1888). B. Middleburn, Vermont: educ. Union Theol. Sem. Sent by ABCFM to India 1847; stationed at Bombay; supported himself; secy. Bombay Tract Soc. and ed. Bombay Guardian. Excerpts of writings pub. in 3 vols.
(18471910). Am. Meth. philos. Educ. New York, Halle, Göttingen, Paris: prof. philos. Boston. Formulated philos. of personalism.* The real is that which acts or can be acted on, namely person. God is the supreme Person, active and creative. Works include Metaphysics; The Principles of Ethics; Theism; Personalism; The Essence of Religion.
(18521904). Ref. theol.; educ. Lausanne and Berlin; prof. NT on theol. faculty Lausanne. Described God in twofold aspect: incomprehensible in work of creation and preservation, comprehensible in relation to spiritual life.
(17921872). B. Exeter. Eng. statesman, linguist, hymnist; Unitarian. Said to have acquired mastery of 200 languages and dialects and speaking knowledge of 100. Served in various govt. positions at home and abroad. Writings pub. in 36 vols. Hymns include In the Cross of Christ I Glory and Watchman, Tell Us of the Night.
(162791). B. Ireland; educ. Eng.; devoted to science (Boyle's Law) and theol.; founded Boyle Lectures, 8 lectures delivered annually in London against unbelievers. See also Society for Advancing the Christian Faith in the British West India Islands.
First organized 1908 in Eng. by Robert Stephenson Smyth (18571941), 1st Baron Baden-Powell of Gilwell. Introduced into US 1910. According to charter granted by Congress 1916, the purpose of the organization is to promote, through organization and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in Scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues, using the methods which are now in common use by Boy Scouts, by emphasizing the Scout Oath or Promise and Law for character development, citizenship training, and physical fitness. Stress is also laid on the effort made by the organization to further love for outdoor life; for this purpose so-called hikes are made, and some time is spent in summer camps. Such outdoor life is also intended to contribute to health and practical educ. The Scout Law, to which obedience must be promised, says that the scout must be trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent. Scouts are required to do a good turn daily. The scout idea is to instill in the boy love and duty to God, home, and country.
In its initial stages, scouting could be charged with possessing a religious character but refraining from the use of the Christian Gospel for the building up of a God-pleasing character; that is to say, with trying to serve God without a true regeneration of the heart and without being guided by the principles of Holy Scripture. The position on religion was later clarified and modified. The organization does maintain that no boy can grow into the best kind of citizenship without recognizing his obligation to God. The recognition of God as the ruling and leading power in the universe and the grateful acknowledgment of His favors and blessings are necessary to the best type of citizenship, and wholesome precepts in the education of the growing boy. However, while recognizing the religious element in the training of the boy, scouting refrains from giving religious training or even announcing a program of such training but assigns to the church whatever spiritual guidance and religious instruction the boy is to receive. The official stand of the scout movement towards religious and moral training is defined as follows: Whatever scouting has to say about religion refers to civil righteousnesstermed character building and citizenship training, good citizenship through service. The oath: The Boy Scout 'Pledge' is a promise, not an oath in the Scriptural sense of the term. The upraised hand, with three fingers extended, has reference to the threefold pledge, not to the Trinity. (Scouting in the Lutheran Church, pub. 1943 by Boy Scouts of America.)
We recognize that there is no Boy Scout authority which supersedes the authority of the local Pastor and the Congregation in any phase of the program affecting the spiritual welfare of Lutheran men and boys in Scouting. (Elbert Fretwell, chief Scout executive)
Various committees of the Mo. Syn. at different times made reports on their dealings with scout authorities and this led to a resolution approving the committee's report in 1944: Your Committee believes that the matter of scouting should be left to the individual congregation to decide and that under the circumstances Synod may consider her interests sufficiently protected. (Proceedings of the Thirty-ninth Regular Convention of the Ev. Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States [St. Louis, 1944] p. 257) TG
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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