(or Libana, near Santander, Sp. ca. 730798). Priest, mond, geog.; opposed adoptionism.* His Commentaria in Apocalypsin (ca. 776) contains one of the oldest Christian world maps. Also wrote against Elipando* and Felix* of Urgel.
(16281703). Prof. philos. 1656 and theol. 1668 Jena U. Works include Institutiones theologicae; Haeresiographia; Theologia conscientiaria; Theologia polemica; Ad institutiones catecheticas Cunradi Dieterici annotationes uberiores.
(April 1, 1894May 30, 1962). B. Baltimore, Ohio; d. River Forest, Illinois Grad. Teachers' Sem. River Forest, 1914. Instructor Concordia Teachers College, River Forest, 191423; prof. 192362. Composed Fourteen Anthems for the Church Festivals; 76 Offertories on Hymns and Chorales; 36 Preludes on Hymns and Chorales.
(180478). B. Balingen; pastor at Waldthann near Crailsheim, and Mergentheim; prof. at Basel 1836 and Tübingen 1843. Opposed the critico-hist. tendencies prevalent in the Later Tübingen School; emphasized return to Bible and Biblical truth. Sought to build system of doctrine on Bible alone, avoiding historicotheol. terms and holding that even the Confessions were significant only because they performed a significant task in hist. Held that inspiration was the living, dynamic union and interpenetration of the human and divine spirit (3 levels of theopneustia;* errors and contradictions in irrelevant matters in Scripture). The kingdom of God, he taught, was the supermundane economy of spirit and life (the heavenly reality), brought and revealed to man through Christ. The ethical or moral is the first and essential mark of the Christian. The above formal and material principles led to departures from Luth. orthodoxy in Beck's theol. system (emphasis on the psychol. in his doctrine of justification rather than on the objective act, seeing the saving hand of love rather than the majestic pronouncement of the Judge; faith, construed as the active ethical grasp of Christa dynamic gift producing personal righteousnessis the cause of justification). Influenced A. v. Schlatter.* See also Biblicism; Ekman, 1; Kübel Robert Benjamin.
A. Schlatter, Christus und Christentum. J. T. Becks theologische Arbeit, Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Gütersloh, 1904); A. Sturhahn, Zur systematischen Theologie Johannes Tobias Becks, Beiträge zur Förderang christlicher Theologie, Vol. 7, No. 6 (Gütersloh, 1903); G. Sentzke, Die Theologie Johann Tobias Becks and ihr Einfluss in Finnland (Helsinki, 1949).
(Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich; August 28, 1904October 24, 1966). B. Little Falls, Minnesota educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Clayton, Illinois, 193043; in Mo. Syn. pub. relations work 194346; ed. CPH 194666. Works include The New Testament in the Language of Today; We Bring Christ: Messages and Bible Studies for Preaching, Teaching, Reaching; The Christ of the Gospels; Bible Truth; The Holy Bible: An American Translation. See also Bible Versions, L 13.
(183499). Conductor of Berlin Cathedral Choir; composer of orchestral and choral music. His Reformation Cantata won for him a much-coveted prize in 1883.
(15611604). Pastor, prof. Leipzig. Put Psalter into hymn form to offset the influence of A. Lobwasser.* Though used by S. Calvisius* and H. Schütz,* Becker's texts lacked the popular appeal of texts prepared by L. Helmbold.*
(ca. 111870), As chancellor of Eng. 115562, an ardent supporter of Henry* II, king of Eng., in his endeavor to obtain absolute mastery in state and ch.; as abp. Canterbury 1162 he sought to free the ch. from all civil jurisdiction; refused to sign the Constitutions of Clarendon* and fled to Fr.; after an apparent reconciliation with the king he returned to Eng., but new difficulties ensued, and Becket was murdered by 4 retainers of Henry; within 3 yrs. after his death Becket was canonized by Alexander III (see Popes, 9); burial place was a shrine until Becket was stigmatized as traitor by Henry VIII. See also Foliot, Gilbert; Henry of Blois; Richard of St. Victor.
Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, eds. J. C. Robertson and J. B. Sheppard, 7 vols. (London, 187585); M. D. Knowles, Archbishop Thomas Becket. A Character Study, Proceedings of the British Academy, XXXV (1949), 177205. See also Stapleton, Thomas.
(171795). Bap.; from 1740 till his death minister at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire; wrote When Israel Through the Desert Passed and many other hymns.
(the Venerable; 673735). B Northumbria: educ. and taught at Jarrow; wrote scientific and theol. treatises, including commentaries (allegorical), books of hymns and epigrams, and Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. Though many of his pupils occupied prominent positions, he remained a simple monk. His influence spread through Eur., and he is often called the Teacher of the Middle Ages. He dictated the last part of his Anglo-Saxon tr. of John on his deathbed. See also Hymnody, Christian, 4; John of Beverley.
(corruption of Bethlehem). lnstitution originally founded 1247 for housing visiting bps. and canons of St. Mary of Bethlehem; given by Henry VIII to city of London as hosp. for lunatics 1547; later became known for brutal treatment of insane people.
(181387). B. Litchfield, Connecticut; d. Brooklyn. Orator; author; lecturer. Son of L. Beecher*; minister (Presb.) at Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis, Indiana; at Plymouth Ch. (Cong.), Brooklyn, New York, 1847; issued hymnal; made antislavery speeches; accepted evolution and Higher Criticism; was sued for adultery, but acquitted; withdrew, with his ch., from Cong. Assoc. 1882.
P. Hibben, Henry Ward Beecher; an American Portrait (New York, 1927); L. G. Crocker, Henry Ward Beecher's Art of Preaching (Chicago, 1934).
(17751863). B. New Haven, Connecticut; d. Brooklyn. Clergyman; author. Cong. pastor Litchfield, Connecticut, and Boston; Presb. pastor Cincinnati and pres. Lane Theol. Sem. there. Father of H. W. Beecher* and of Harriet Beecher Stowe. See also Evangelical Alliance; New Haven Theology; Revivals, 2.
(17701827). The master in whose hands the classical temper in music reached its highest development and who helped bring on the advent of Romanticism. B. Bonn; son of an irrational father who foolishly wanted to force Ludwig to become a child prodigy like the young W. A. Mozart,* in order that he, the father, might live in financial security. Studied with F. J. Haydn* and J. G. Albrechtsberger.* In Vienna, music capital of his day, Beethoven soon won acclaim for ability as pianist; he was respected as a composer, but not understood. His deafness of later yrs. troubled him a great deal, though a blessing in disguise, since it caused him to concentrate on his inner self. Works include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 9 sonatas for violin and piano, 17 string quartets, many shorter works, the oratorio Christus am Ölberge, and Missa Solemnis. Beethoven may hardly be called a ch. composer; even Missa Solemnis was intended for the concert stage. See also Mass (music); Passion, The.
P. Bekker, Beethoven, tr. M. M. Bozman (New York, 1926); R. Bory, Ludwig van Beethoven (New York, 1964); J. N. Burk, The Life and Works of Beethoven (New York, 1946); G. Grove, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn (New York, 1951); R. Langer, Missa solemnis: über das theologische Problem in Beethovens Musik (Stuttgart, 1962); A. W. Thayer, The Life of Beethoven, rev. and ed. E. Forbes (Princeton, 1964).
Semimonastic communities of W Eur. from 12th c. on. Beguines (sisterhood) are the original order; Beghards the male counterpart. Celibacy required as long as one remained a mem.; supported themselves by manual labor; devoted to devotional exercises and deaconess work. Persecuted for heresy and prosecuted for concubinage (13th c.), many joined the tertiaries of the mendicant orders. A few small communities of Beguines survive in the Neth. and Belgium. See also Communistic Societies, 2; Inquisition, 1; Lollards; Mechthild of Magdeburg; Nicholas of Basel.
(18531930). Pastor Schlieffenberg 1883, Parchim 1887, Güstrow 1897; supt. Doberan 1900; bp. Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1922. Wrote Die Innere Mission; Geschichte der Laienpredigt im Grundriss; Zur Frage der Weltanschauung.
(18831948). Prot. theol.; b. Doberan, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Ger.; prof. Königsberg 1920, Göttingen 1923, Berlin 1935. Coed. Das Neue Testament Deutsch. Other works include Die Handauflegung im Urchristentum; Der Begriff Diatheke in Neuen Testament; Die Bekehrung des Paulus; Die mandäische Religion und das Christenturn.
(15571622). B. Lauban, Silesia. After serving as private tutor in Vienna, studied at U. of Strasbourg; diaconus and eventually chief pastor Lauban. Renowned preacher; faithful pastor in times of famine, pestilence, war; prolific author; wrote ca. 480 hymns, which emphasize esp. the Passion of Christ.
(March 19, 1884February 23, 1968). B. Cypress, Harris Co., Texas; educ. St. John's Coll., Winfield, Kansas, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained 1906; pastor Houston, Texas, 190835; pres. Texas Dist. of Mo. Syn. 192629; pres. Mo. Syn. 193562. Active in Bad* Boll conferences and in est. LCUSA Works include Noonday Sermons; Mercies Manifold; This I Recall.
(February 13, 1827April 22, 1900). B. Hermannsburg, Ger.; influenced in early youth by Louis Harms. Sent by Hermannsburg Soc. to Afr. November 10, 1857; worked 6 yrs. among Zulu Kaffir in Natal, then among Bechuanas; founded Bethany Village; supervised work of Hermannsburg Soc. among Bechuanas. See also Africa, B 5.
(December 6, 1870March 29, 1943). B. St. Louis; grad. St. Louis 1893; pastor Salt Lake City, Utah, 189394; Tacoma, Washington (doing miss. work in practically the entire state), 189498; Portland, Oregon, 18981909; Chester, Illinois, 1909 to 1924; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 192443; vice-pres. Oregon and Washington Dist. of Mo. Syn. 1899 to 1906; pres. 190609.
(in Aristotelian thought). Differing from Plato's extreme idealistic view that only ideas are the true and ultimate reality and of the nature of Being (R. B. Winn in Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy), Aristotle held that though Being, as the essence of things (RBW) is in itself eternal, it could have no validity outside of things and minds. In other words, knowledge with any stability begins in sense-experience, in which individual existent things are revealed. Individuals are not to be deduced from ideas; on the contrary, abstract concepts devolve by induction from concrete instances.
Obviously Aristotle's method is to this extent empirical, and his parallel contribution to human thought of the distinction between percept and concept (object of sense-perception, object of abstract thought) and their interrelations has been most significant and helpful to later philosophers.
According to Aristotle the highest determinants of Being are actuality (or entelechy*) and potentiality (dynamis). The first has been called perfectionthe realization of the fulness of Being, and the second imperfectionincompleteness with, however, perfectibility.
Inevitably the question of Aristotle's position relative to the later classic scholastic terms for Being, ens and esse, is raised. Ens occurs in classic Lat. only once as a participle but quite often as a noun. As a participle it is an essential predicate only in regard to God, in whom existence and essence are one, or whose essence implies existence R. Allers in Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy). Esse usually means existence which is defined as the actus essendi, or the reality of some essence. Esse quid or essentia designates the specific nature of some being or thing (R.A.).
Aristotle could not agree with those who held that, since being is, nonbeing cannot exist or even be thought of as existing and therefore doubted the validity of all sense perception of the external world. He held that sense experience is a true source of conceptual knowledge. Since his basic concepts differ from those of the scholastics, his metaphysical statements, formulae, and predications also differ. It might be said that his categories and methodology bridged the gap between being and becoming and furnished sharp intellectual tools for succeeding ages. AJB
(16901768). B Eberbach, Ger.; to Pennsylvania 1720; est. (Ger.) Seventh Day Baps.; founded Ephrata Community near Reading, Pennsylvania; wrote earliest vol. of Ger. poetry in Am.: Göttliche Liebes und Lobestöne, hymnist; mystic. See also Baptist Churches, 17; Brethren, 1; Communistic Societies, 5.
W. C. Klein, Johann Conrad Beissel: Mystic and Martinet (Philadelphia, 1942).
The country was evangelized when N Fr. was gained for the Gospel and. in part, when the lowlands of Holland were Christianized. It became very strongly RC and has remained so. A few Prot. communions are survivals from the Reformation era; others are the result of immigration from adjacent countries, but mostly and mainly the result of evangelization.
The Ev. Luth. Ch.Syn. of Fr. and Belg. is assoc. with the LCMS Other chs. include the Prot. Ev. Ch. (formerly: Union of Ev. Prot. Chs. of Belg.), the Belg. Christian Miss. Ch., and the Belg. Gospel Miss.; Meths.; Ref. There is also a Prot. soc. for carrying on miss. work in the Congo (Ruanda). The Prot. Theol. Faculty in Brussels was officially recognized by the Belgian govt. 1963, when it was endowed with the ius promovendi. It is bilingual (Fr. and Dutch).
The RC Ch. of Belgium was formally organized 1561, this date also indicating the cessation of foreign authority. After Belgium became an indep. country, an adjustment of boundaries was made. The priests are educ. at the episc. seminaries and at the U. of Louvain. The RC Ch. does not enjoy any particular legal prerogative. It receives a sum of money direct from the state as do also the Prot. Ev. Ch. and some indep. congregations. The archdiocese of Mechlin-Brussels (formerly: Mechlin diocese) coextensive with Belgium, was created 1559 by the pope. The most important bishoprics are: Antwerp (recently created), Brugge, Gent, Liége, Namur, and Tournai. OHS, WJK
A. J. Bronkhorst, Le Protestantisme en Belgique (Amsterdam, 1958); Annuaire des Eglises Evangèliques en Belgique (Antwerp, 1963); J. Hazette, Le Protestantisme en Belgique, sa situation actuelle, ed. lreniko (Chevetogne, 1960); Leon-E. Halkin, La Reforme en Belgique sous Charles-Quint (Brussels, 1957).
(Believers' Baptism). The practice of considering as candidates for baptism only those who are already believers or are at least in a covenant relation through their birth of Christian parents. See also Baptist Churches, 1, 2; Reublin, Wilhelm.
Expression referring to symbolic actions formerly used in excommunication: shutting the pontifical book after pronouncing the curse, extinguishing a candle, and tolling the bell as for the dead. Bell, book and candle - candle, book and bell, forward and backward to curse Faustus to hell (C. Marlowe, Doctor Faustus). Agreement of the ceremony, the 1st instance of which is ca. 1190, with canon law has been questioned.
(18831958). Angl. theol.; dean Canterbury 1924; bp. Chichester 1929; chm. Ecumenical Council for Practical Christianity 193436; chm. Com. Ecumenical Council 194854, honorary chm. 1954. Wrote in area of hist. and on Christian unity.
(fl. 1650). Employed in overseas affairs of state under James I and Charles I. Tr. Luther's Tischreden under the Eng. title Dr. Martin Luther's Divine Discourses at His Table, dedicated to Lord Mayor of London, authorized for printing 1646 by House of Commons, pub. 1652, 2d ed. (London, 1791) titled Colloquia mensalia; or, The Familiar Discourses of Dr. Martin Luther At His Table. See also Coleridge, Samuel Taylor; Luther, Table Talk of.
G. Rupp, The Righteousness of God (New York, 1953), pp. 5677.
(Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino; 15421621). B. Tuscany; d. Rome; nephew of Pope Marcellus 11; Jesuit 1560; prof. Louvain 1570; prof. controversial theol. Collegium Romanum 1576; cardinal 1599; abp. Capua 160205; canonized 1930; doctor of the church 1931.
Bellarmine was an able scholar and controversialist. His chief work, Disputationes de controversiis christianae fidel adversus huins temporis haereticos, is a systematic apology for the RC position. It emphasizes the necessity of the magisterium (teaching office of the church) and tradition. Because its first vol. held that the papacy had only indirect power in temporal matters it was proposed for the Index of Prohibited Books* 1590. Other works include Judicium de libro, quem Lutherani vocant concordiae; De translatione imperil romania Graecis ad Francos, adversus Matthiam Flacium Illyricum; De Christi anima (Book IV of De Christo).
Works in 12 vols. (Paris, 187074) and 8 vols. (Naples, 1872); autobiography (Rome, 1676). Primary sources are the biographies of J. Fuligatti (Rome, 1624), D. Bartoll (Rome, 1678) and N. Frizon (Nancy, 1708); I. Brodrick, The Life and Work of Blessed Robert Francis Cardinal Bellarmine, 2 vols. (London, 1928); E. A. Ryan, The Historical Scholarship of Saint Bellarmine (Louvain, 1936).
In early Christian ch. the faithful were summoned to worship by word of mouth; later trumpets were used, also large hammers, struck against wooden or iron instruments. Bells were introd. in 9th c., suspended at first in special bell towers, or campaniles, later in spires of churches themselves, their use meeting with great favor almost everywhere.
Ch. bells are commonly rung immediately before a service. Other uses have varied from time to time and place to place (e.g., 1/2 hr. before sunrise and 1/2 hr. before sunset; at noon; Saturday evening at 6 o'clock; at the death and/or burial of a ch. mem. [sometimes tolling his age]; at the beginning, middle, and end of the Lord's Prayer in a service; at confirmation; at the end of a service).
(Wisconsin) Popular name of an academy (or high school) opened 1843 for the instruction of young persons of either sex in science and literature.
Spring religious festival of Christian Celtic peoples.
(O. S. B.; Ordo sancti Benedicti). Monastic order founded on Rule of Benedict* of Nursia, father of W monasticism. This rule was based on earlier rules, and while strict in some respects, was, in gen., quite moderate. In addition to the 3 usual obligations of poverty, celibacy, and obedience it required manual labor of the monks and provided for daily reading and for convent libraries. Favored by Rome, the Benedictines absorbed the adherents of rival rules; by 811 only traces of rivals remained. Thereafter, for centuries, the Benedictine remained the normal monastic type. During the palmy days of the order (8211200) its influence controlled the civilization of the entire Christian west. The Benedictines repaid with usury the favor extended them by the papacy. But the riches gathered by the monasteries brought into the order widespread corruption and immorality, which were only partly and temporarily checked by Cluniac, Cistercian, and other reforms. Inner decline and attacks from without reduced the 37,000 Benedictine houses of the 14th c. to only 50 in the early 19th c.
Benedict's sister, Scholastica, est. a convent, but it is doubtful whether that was the beginning of the Benedictine nuns. Certainly many women early adopted Benedict's rule, though they were not strictly enclosed. Benedictine nuns came to Ger. with Boniface.
The Aaronic benediction, Nm 6:2426, was used in Temple and synagogue at the end of the liturgical part of the service. It was used in the early church (Apostolic Constitutions, II, 57) and was retained by Luther as the only one commanded by God. it conveys to the assembled cong., which has accepted the salvation of God in the means of grace, the blessing of the Triune God. The Apostolic benediction, 2 Co 13:14, is customarily used at the end of the minor services. The blessing in Gn 31:49 is called Mizpah benediction.
(ca. 750821). Vlsigothic monastic reformer supported by Charlemagne; wrote against Adoptionist Felix of Urgel; compiled monastic rules; gen. supervisor of Frankish monasteries. See also Cluniac Reform; Cowl.;
MPL,; 103, 3551440.
(ca. 480ca. 543). Est. a monastery at Monte* Cassino (ca. 529); using earlier writings (of Basil, Cassian, and others), he worked out the Rule of 529, almost universally adopted in the Middle Ages by W monasteries. The rule shows excellence in organizing the worship, reading, and laboring activities of monks. See also Benedictines; Breviary; Cowl; Regula Chrodegangi.
1. Pedro de Luna (ca. 13281423). B. Aragon, Sp.: antipope at Avignon* 1394; deposed as Benedict XIII at Council of Pisa* 1409 and Constance* 1417. See also Babylonian Captivity, 2; Gregory XII; Nicholas of Clémanges; Schism, 8. 2. Pietro Francesco Orsini (16491730). B. Gravina, It.; scholarly, upright. peaceloving pope 172430.
The right, granted to a cleric, of receiving the income from lands or other ch. property for performing spiritual duties. The value of benefices led to many abuses and much controversy in the Middle Ages. (See Simony.) Benefices are almost unknown in the US. See also Indult.
(16871752). Foremost post-Reformation theol. in Württemberg; educ. Tübingen; prof. Klosterschule Denkendorf; pastor village cong. 1713; prelate Herbrechtingen 1741; prelate Alpirsbach and mem. of consistory, with residence at Stuttgart 1749. A man of eminent piety and vast and sound learning. In 1734 he pub. a Gk. NT with apparatus criticus, based on a careful study of the text in various MSS. Greatest work: Gnomon Novi Testamenti. Taught chiliasm; predicted millennium to begin 1836. See also Burk, Philipp David; Commentaries, Biblical; Exegesis, 7; Textual Criticism, 3; Vincent, Marvin Richardson.
J. C. F. Burk, Dr. Johann Albrecht Bengels Leben und Wirken (Stuttgart, 1831), tr. into Eng. 1837 R. F. Walker, A Mentoir of the Life and Writings of John Albert Bengel; O. Wächter, Johann Albrecht Bengel (Stuttgart, 1865); E. Nestle, Bengel als Gelehrter (Tübingen, 1893); F. Nolte, D. Johann Albrecht Bengel (Gütersloh, 1913); R. F. Spieler The Theological Significance of Johann Albrecht Bengel, unpub. ThD thesis (Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1957); G. Keller, Johann Albrecht Bengel (Basel, 1948).
(181675). Eng. pianist and composer. Studied in Eng. and Ger. Schumann and F. Mendelssohn among his friends and admirers. Ability as performer, conductor, and composer were first recognized in Ger. Works include oratorio Woman of Samaria.
(18551930). Am. hymnologist; b. Philadelphia; educ. U. of Pennsylvania Practiced law 7 yrs., then studied at Princeton Theol. Sem.; ordained to Presb. ministry 1886. After a 6-yr. pastorate he took up his lifework, that of hymnody and liturgies; ed. hymnbooks; works include The English Hymn; The Hymnody of the Christian Church: Studies of Familiar Hymns (2 vols.).
(January 22, 1858December 15. 1930). B. Wimmer, Hannover; d. Redwood City, California; buried Con. Cemetery. St. Louis. Grad. Saint Louis 1881; pastor Humberstone, Stonebridge, and Jordan, Ont., 188293: vice-pres. Can. Dist., Mo. Syn., 1885; pres. 188793; prof. Conc. Sem., Saint Louis. 18931926. Ed. Lehre und Wehre: coed. Concordia Triglotta with W. H. T. Dau*; wrote Was steht der Vereinigung der lutherischen Synoden Amerikas im Wege? Gesetz and Evangelium; Amerikanisches Lathertum: Amrican Lutheranism (2 vols.); Historical Introductions to the Symbolical Books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.
(17481832). Eng. philos., jurist, exponent of utilitarianism*; influenced thinking on govt., soc., and prison reform esp. through An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. See also Deontology.
(16621742). Eng. clergyman, scholar, critic. B. near Wakefield. Founder of hist. philol. Master Trin. Coll., Cambridge, 1700; prof. theol. Cambridge 1716. Known for critical texts of classical authors. Delivered first Boyle lectures. A Confutation of Atheism. 1692.
(18551906). Pioneer Afr. miss. of Baptist* Missionary Society. Reduced Congo language to writing; works include Life on the Congo; Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Language as Spoken at San Salvador; Pioneering on the Congo; tr. of NT
H. M. Bentley, W. Holman Bentley (London, 1907).
(September 19, 1865July 3, 1936). Ordained 1897; pastor Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, 189798; Erie, Pennsylvania, 18981908; pres. Pittsburgh Syn. (Gen. Council) 190810; pres. Thiel Coll. 190913; Am. prof. Kropp Sem., Ger., 191315; prof. Mount Airy, Pennsylvania, 191536; sent by Gen. Council as commissioner to India 1918; vice-pres. Bd. of For. Miss. (ULC) 1918; sent by NLC to Russia 1922 to est. relief work; contributor to Lutheran, Lutheran Quarterly: coauthor with T. E. Schmauk, The Confessional Principle and the Confessions of the Lutheran Church.
(18741948). B. Kiev. Educ. Kiev and Heidelberg. Russ. philos., at first Marxist, later leaning to Neo-Kantianism. Banished from Russ., he continued activity in Berlin and Paris, where he founded religiophilos, academy. Man is center of his teaching: human liberty and creativity. Wrote Freedom and the Spirit; The Destiny of Man; Solitude and Society; Spirit and Reality.
Interdenom. faith miss.; headquarters: St. Louis, Missouri Formed 1936; inc. 1937 as Berean Afr. Missionary Soc. Began work in Congo 1938. Also active in Ecuador, Barbados, Grenada, Philippine Is., Cuba, among Cuban refugees, and among the Navajo Indians in SW US. The soc. emphasizes Bible institutes and Bible study.
(See Acts 17:10, 11). 1. Religious group founded by J. Barclay* (hence also Barclayites) at Edinburgh 1773. Barclay rejected natural theol. and held that Scripture is source of all truth. After Barclay's death most of his followers merged with Congregationalists.
2. The interdenom. Berean Band, which encouraged memorizing Scripture, was organized by Charles J. G. Hensman* of London 1905.
3. See Berean Fundamental Church.
4. See Berean Mission Incorporated.
(de Tours; Berengar; Lat.: Berengarius; ca. 9981088). B. probably Tours, Fr.; studied under Fulbert* de Chartres; canon of Tours cathedral and head of its school; the important facts of his life are connected with the 2d Eucharistic Controversy (with Lanfranc*), which ushered in the period of scholasticism.* See also Eucharistic Controversies.
(March 20, 1856March 9, 1939). B. Logansport, Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis; commissioned 1878 as first resident miss. and pastor of the Negro Luth. ch., Little Rock, Arkansas; pastor Decatur, Indiana, 1881 to 91; Beardstown, Illinois, 18911911; prof. Immanuel Luth. Coll., Greensboro. North Carolina, 191136.
(August 9, 1862May 13, 1954). B. Hustisford, Wisconsin; d. Fond du Lac, Wisconsin; educ. Northwestern Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, and the Milwaukee Sem. of Wisconsin Syn.; pastor Bay City, Michigan, 188792; Tomah, Wisconsin, 189299; Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, 18991947; retired; mem. Indian Miss. Bd. 190317; pres. old Wisconsin Syn. 190817; pres. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin and Other States 191733.
(18841959). Bp. Oslo; educ. Oslo, Oxford, Cambridge, Marburg, and Lund; ed. Kirke og Kultur 1909; primate Norw. Ch. 1937; leader in ecumenical* movement; active in organizing resistance to Quisling govt. (puppet of Nazis); imprisoned 194245. Wrote With God in the Darkness, an account of Norw. Ch. conflict.
(January 12, 1847February 5, 1927). B Odemark, Norw.; to Am. 1860; grad. August Coll. 1869, Augsburg Sem. 1871; pastor Fergus Falls, Minnesota, 187177; Waterloo Ridge, Iowa, 187782; Luther Valley, Wisconsin, 18821912; Elliott, Illinois, 1912 to 16; hosp. miss. St. Paul, Minnesota, 1916; supt. Chicago Dist., Norw. Luth. Conf., 188390; leader in organizing United Norw. Ch. 1890, Norw. Luth. Ch. 1917; chm. Madison Circuit, United Norw. Luth. Ch., 18971912. Wrote Gammel og ny retning; Hans Egede; Livsbilleder fra kirken i Norden; Underfuld boenhoerelse; I sidste oieblik; I ledige stunder; Slaveristriden; Den norsk lutherske kirke i Amerika; Den norsk lutherske kirkes historic i Amerika; Se, der Guds lam. Ed. Ungeblad for kirken og hjemmet; Vort blad: Kirken og hjemmet.
(15871658). Educ. Heidelberg and Strasbourg; traveled in Eng., Fr., Holland; prof. Frankfurt an der Oder; court chaplain Berlin 1623. Together with Calixt worked for union of Luth. and Ref. Approached Luth. position on doctrine of predestination. See also Leipzig Colloquy.
(17931832). B Ebenezer, Georgia; studied under his father, J. E. Bergmann; pastor at Ebenezer; mem. Syn. of South Carolina and secy. 182532. Influenced by J. Bachmann to become Luth. minister; ordained 1824; succeeded his father at Ebenezer; held Salzburger chs. together and brought them into connection with the South Carolina Syn. See also Salzburgers, Banishment of.
(d. 1824). Last of the ministers sent to the Salzburgers in Georgia by S. Urlsperger* of Augsburg; labored in Georgia from 1785 to his death. Father of C. Bergmann.* See also Salzburgers, Banishment of.
(18591941). Fr. Jew; philos.; b. Paris; prof. Coll. de Fr.; recipient of Nobel prize in literature 1927. In his philos. Bergson conceived of a vital impulse (élan vital) which is basic to all activity and the creative spirit of world-process. This god is itself not complete, but grows in goodness, knowledge, power, etc. He stressed the reality of time and the importance of change and evolution more than Hegel. Consciousness is continuous knowledge of the past and survives after death. Intuition was to him the highest source of truth, and in accordance with that view he took a special interest in mystics. Works include Time and Free Will (essay on immediate data of consciousness): Matter and Memory; Creative Evolution; Spiritual Energy; The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. See also Dynamism; Intelligence, Creative; Frocess Philosophy; Time.
(16851753). Irish philos.; lecturer at Dublin; dean at Derry 1724; lived in Am. 172831; bp. Cloyne, Ireland, 1734; spent last years in retirement at Oxford. The philos. of Berkeley champions idealism. Beginning with the observation that all knowledge comes through sense impressions, he sought to reduce matter to a complex of impressions and thus deny the existence of material substance. He believed, however, in the reality of spiritual being. Wrote Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision and A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. See also Commonsense Realism; Deism, IV; Protestant Episcopal Church, 1 c; Subjective Idealism.
J. D. Wild, George Berkeley (New York, 1962).
(William; October 18, 1820March 7, 1899). B. Oerlinghausen, Lippe-Detmold, Ger.; Am. 1847; attended Gettysburg 184951; pastor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Wheeling, West Virginia, and Mount Vernon, New York; active in immigrant miss. work 186699. See also Immigrant and Emigrant Missions.
(William Christopher; Willem; Berckenmeyer; Berkkenmeyer; April 14[?], 16871751). Father-in-law of P. N. Sommer*; b. Bodenteich, Lüneburg, Ger.; successor to Falckner in Hudson Valley chs. 1725. During his pastorate in New York, Trinity Ch., a substantial stone structure was built 1729. In 1731 he moved to Loonenburg (Looneburgh; later called Athens), in the N part of his extended parish. Representing the orthodox school of Lutheranism in Am., he became leader of the pastors in the Hudson Valley. In 1735 a Kerck-Ordinantie, drafted by him, bound the Dutch and Ger. chs. of New York and New Jersey together in a syn. that had only 1 meeting as far as the records show. Berkenmeyer sought to advance pure Lutheranism and prevent the ecclesiastical mingling of Luth. and Ref. Married Benigna Sibylla Kocherthal 1727. His journal, in Dutch, Ger., and Lat., contains much valuable hist. material. See also Knoll, Michael Christian.
H. J. Kreider, Lutheranism in Colonial New York (New York, 1942) and History of the United Lutheran Synod of New York and New England, Vol. 1 (Philadelphia, 1964).
(Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der evangelischen Missionen unter den Heiden). The miss. movement in Berlin was inaugurated by Father J. Jänicke,* who founded a school for training missionaries 1800. Interest in this school led 10 men including J. A. W. Neander,* F. A. Tholuck,* and K. F. O. v. Gerlach* to appeal for funds and organize a soc. 1824. Several yrs. later the soc. est. a training school; active esp. in Afr., E Indies, China. See also Gossner Missionary Society; Hoffmann, John Martin Theodore Ernst; Hottentots; Kropf, Albert; Lepsius, Johannes; Merensky, Alexander; Missions, 8; Plath, Karl Heinrich Christian; Wangemann, Hermann Theodor.
(18881948). Fr. novelist; exponent of neo-Catholicism; opponent of totalitarianism.
(d. bet. 1124 and 1130). Brother of Thierry* of Chartres; chancellor of School of Chartres 1119; sought to combine Plato's concept of ideas and Aristotle's forms. See also Chartres, School of; William of Conches.
(10911153). Doctor mellifluus. Most influential man of his day; upright monk (see Cistercians), spending himself in ascetic practices. His wise rule as first and lifelong abbot (111553) of the cloister he founded at Clairvaux, France, served to extend the order (now also called Bernardines) throughout Eur., and the influence of his eloquence and personality gave a new impetus to monasticism. He ended the papal schism in favor of Innocent II. In controversy with rationalistic Abelard (1140) he stood for the equally false principle of mysticism. He preached the 2d Crusade (1146), which, contrary to his prophecy, did not sweep back the Mohammedans, but swept Eugene III into office. He was an eloquent preacher, able writer of theol. treatises, composer of beautiful hymns, universal mediator, adviser of pope and king and common man. Despite his exaltation of monachism as the ideal of Christianity, his excessive glorification of Mary (whose immaculate conception, however, he opposed), and his enthusiastic support of the papacy as the highest authority in the church, he was a sincerely pious, truly humble Christian, because he loved the Bible and because he believed in justification by faith, deploring on his deathbed, as throughout his life, the sinfulness of his life, and imploring the mercy of God for the sake of the righteousness gained by Christ-a psychological enigma indeed. Luther: When Bernard is speaking of Christ, it is a pleasure indeed to listen to him; but when he leaves that subject and discourses on rules and works, it is no longer St. Bernard. See also France, 2; Gilbert de la Porrée; Gottfried, 2; Humility; Hymnody, Christian, 4; Malachy; Mariology Mysticism, B; Peter the Venerable; Preaching, History of, 8; Scholasticism, 5; William of Saint-Thierry.
J. A. W. Neander, Der heilige Bernhard trod sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1813), tr. M. Wrench, The Life and Times of St. Bernard (London, 1843); 2d Ger. ed. (Hamburg and Gotha, 1848); ed. S. M. Deutsch (Gotha, 1889); E. Vacandard, Vie de Saint Bernard, 2 vols. (Paris, 1895); H. Daniel-Rops, Bernard of Clairvaux (New York, 1964); E. H. Gilson, The Mystical Theology of Saint Bernard, tr. A. H. C. Downes (New York, 1955); MPL, 182185.
(Bernard of Morlaix; 12th c.). Benedictine monk in Abbey of Cluny* when the monastery was at the height of its wealth and fame; composed De contemptu mundi, from which the hymns Jerusalem the Golden, Brief Life Is Here Our Portion, For Thee, O Dear, Dear Country, and The World Is Very Evil are taken.
W Stählin* cofounder and leader; met 192327 at Berneuchen, in the Neumark (not Barnyówko, Poland); sought ch. revival from within by renewal of liturgy, worship, and life and by creating interest in ecumenism. Writings pub. 1926 in Das Berneuchener Bush.
(162792). Last and most important pupil of H. Schütz; Kapellmeister Dresden, where Schütz had been active. Studied also with Carissimi. Active for a time in Hamburg. Works reveal his skill as a composer and contrapuntist.
(November 8, 1827October 25, 1916). B Prussia; to Am. 1831; grad. Luth. Sem., Lexington, SC, 1849. Pastor Charleston, SC, 185058; near Concord, North Carolina, 185860. Founded a female school Mount Pleasant, North Carolina; it later became Mont Amoena Female Sem. Pastor Phillipsburg, New Jersey, 188393; Wilmington, North Carolina, 189395. Instructor Elizabeth Coll., Charlotte, North Carolina Ed. At Home and Abroad 188188. Works include The Success of God's Work; History of the German Settlements and of the Lutheran Church of North and South Carolina; Localities of the Reformation; The First Twenty Years of the History of St. Paul's Church, Wilmington.
(d. after 1567). Opponent of Calvinism; condemned to death for liberalism; fled from Geneva.
Egyptian god of dancing and pleasure whose image the Gnostics adopted as an amulet.
(18471933). Brit. theosophist; at first mem. Ch. of Eng.; later worked with C. Bradlaugh* in free-thought movements; became pupil of Elena Blavatsky*; pres. Theosophical Soc. 1907; traveled widely in its interest, esp. in India; founded 2 schools for Hindus in Benares; est. Indian Home Rule League; vacillated in support of nationalist position; traveled in Eng. and Am. with J. Krishnamurti.* See also Family Planning, 2; Theosophy.
(18651953). Swed. theol. Unordained, he preached in his own chapel at Djursholm. Opposed secularism with socially oriented gospel; pacifist; active in behalf of working man. Wrote hymns, including Ack saliga dag. Founded workers settlement (Birkagarden) at Stockholm.
(ca. 150062). Pupil of Sebastian Heiden and Joachim Camerarius in Nürnberg; came to Wittenberg 1537; table companion of Luther and later of Melanchthon; returned to Nürnberg 1546; participated in reorganization of ch. of Zweibrücken 155758; participated in 2d ch. visitation in Nürnberg. Gathered table talks of Luther and participated in pub. of Luther's Genesis. Opposed Philippists. See also Luther, Table Talk of.
(Basilius; ca. 13951472). Patriarch of Constantinople; abp. Nicaea; sought to reconcile E and W Chs.; friend of Eugenius IV, who made him cardinal; greatest scholar of his day, he extended speculative thought in theol. by his defense of Plato, In calumniatorem Platonis. See also Florence, Council of, 1; Renaissance.
Books, popular in Middle Ages, which described animals (real and imaginary; often with illustrations) in verse or prose with added moral and religious lessons; developed from the Hexaëmeron of Ambrose, Etymology of Isidore, and writings of Rabanus* Maurus. Much of the material comes from Aristotle, Pliny, and Solinus. Medieval Lat. bestiaries are traced to the earlier Gk. Physiologus (Naturalist). Animals described in these bestiaries are often used in ch. architecture.
1. Military order dedicated to Our Lady of Bethlehem; came from Palestine to Bohemia 1217; later devoted to care of sick and education. 2. Military religious order authorized 1257 by Henry III to open a house near Cambridge. 3. Followers of J. Hus sometimes called Bethlehemites after the name of the ch. in Prague where he preached. 4. Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Bethlehem founded 1459 by Pius II as Aegean defense against Turks. 5. Hospitaler order (Belemites) which grew out of Pedro de San José de Betancourt's (Betancur, Bethencourt; d. 1667) care of children, sick, and poor in Guatemala. Innocent XI placed it under Augustinian rule 1687.
(15801629). King of Hungary 162029. Champion of Prot. cause against Hapsburgs in Thirty Years' War.
(180562). Dutch Ref. clergyman. B. Greenwich, New York; d. Florence, It. Educ. Dickinson Coll., Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and Princeton Sem.; miss. to Negroes, Savannah, Georgia; naval chaplain; pastor of Dutch Ref. chs. in various cities in New York and Pennsylvania; hymnist; tr. H. Malan's* It Is Not Death to Die.
(Friedrich; 18371915[1916?]). B. Morges (or Morsee) or Etoy, near Morges? Vaud canton, Switz.; studied math. and mechanics in Switz., art in It., natural sciences at Tübingen, Ger.; taught in Scot. and Ger. Works include Das erste Blatt der Bibel (The First Page of the Bible); Die Bibel Gottes Wort (The Bible the Word of God); Naturstudium und Christentum; Das Buch der Wahrheit; Das Lied der Schöpfung; Mann und Weib.
Benedictine abbey, SW Ger., on N bank of Danube ca. 8 mi. NE of Tuttlingen. Originally est. as monastery for Augustinian Canons. Given to the brothers Maurus (182590) and Placidus (18281908) Wolter by Princess Katharina von Hohenzollern 1863; constituted an abbey 1868. Known for work in liturgical reform. Home of Palimpsest Institute.
(18771953). Educ. Union Sem. (New York), Columbia U., Basel, Halle, and Berlin; prof. OT exegesis Oberlin. Union, Columbia. and New Brunswick; worked on RSV; wrote extensively on OT canon, text, and exegesis.
(Baler; ca. 14821535). B. Kleinlangheim, Lower Franconia, W Bay., Ger.; lawyer; taught at Wittenberg beginning 1507; mayor Wittenberg 1513; Saxon chancellor 1528; read AC at 1530 Diet of Augsburg (see Lutheran Confessions, A 2 c).
(151677). Educ. Wittenberg; pupil of Luther and Melanchthon; corresponded with Bugenhagen, Jonas, Brenz, and other prominent Luths.; called to Frankfurt, where he zealously opposed the Augsburg Interim and checked the advance of Calvinism. Wrote 2 works against RCm (under pseudonyms Sigismund Cephalus and Andreas Epitimius) and a mathematical treatise (De sphaera). Sermons preserved in MS
(June 26, 1832January 19, 1905). Clergyman; b. Bavaria; attended Conc. Coll., Ft. Wayne, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis; ordained October 7, 1855; pastor Memphis, Tennessee; Altenburg, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Brooklyn, New York; secy. Synodical* Conf. 1872; pres. E Dist., Mo. Syn., 187588; vice-pres. Mo. Syn. 1893 to 99; founder and ed. Lutherisches Kinderblatt (later Lutherisches Kinder- und Jugenblatt); wrote Der Brief St. Pauli an die Epheser in Predigten.
(Théodore de Bèze; 15191605). Fr. humanist; Ref. leader. B. Vézelay, Fr.; d. Geneva; renounced RCm at Geneva 1548; prof. Gk. Lausanne; prof. and pastor Geneva; defended burning of Servetus;* Calvin's second self and successor; strongly opposed Luth. doctrines of Eucharist and person of Christ; a power among Huguenots; real originator of Textus* receptus; gave Cambridge Codex D; works include Vie de Calvin; Histoire ecclèsiastique des églises réformées; tr. of NT into Lat. with annotations. Completed C. Marot's* metrical Psalter. See also Bible Versions, K; Calvin, John, 7; Descen-into Hell; Dogmatics, B 5; France, 7; Goulart, Simon; Junius, Franciscus; Lafaye, Antoine; Lasitius, Johann(es); Lobwasser, Ambrosius; Manuscripts of the Bible, 3 a; Marlorat, Augustin; Marnix, Philip van; Montbeliard, Colloquy of; Music, Church; Poissy, Colloquy of; Poullain, Valérand; Reformed Churches, 2; Schmidt, Erasmus; Switzerland, 2; Taffin, Jean.
G. Friedlaender, Beiträge zur Reformationsgeschichte (Berlin, 1837); H. Heppe, Theodor Beza, in Leben und ausgewaehlte Schriften der Vaeter und Begründer der reformirten Kirche, VI (Elberfeld, 1861).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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