(17651841). RC; deeply interested in Eckhart, St. Martin, and Böhme; left engineering profession to teach philos. theol. Munich. Considered God an everlasting process of activity, ethics the realization of divine life, and hist. the unfolding of God's redeeming love.
(Baal Shem-Tov [good (or kind) master of the Holy Name]; real name Israel ben Eliezer; known also by acronym BEShT, formed from his initials; ca. 170060). Jewish teacher, healer; founded modern Hasidism* in Poland.
1. Captivity of Jews in Babylon (2 K 24:1416; 25:11; 2 Ch 36:2223; Ez 1:14; Jer 25:1112; 29:10; Dn 9:2; Zch 1:12; 7:5).
2. Metaphorically, period of popes at Avignon,* 130977 (Clement* V, John XXII, Benedict XII, Clement VI. Innocent VI, Urban V, Gregory XI). After papal court was returned to Rome, antipopes Clement* VII and Benedict XIII occupied Avignon. See also Benedict XIII, 1; Christian Church, History of the, II 3; Nicholas V (antipope); Popes, 13, 14.
1. Composite polytheistic form of religion in which the religious ideas current in the area of Babylon were ultimately merged with those prevailing in the city-states of the lower Tigris-Euphrates valley, when the latter were gradually absorbed into the Babylonian Empire under the 1st dynasty of Babylon (ca. 1800 BC). Marduk (Bel, i. e., Lord), chief deity of Babylon, the victorious city, emerged as head of the empire's pantheon. But homage was paid also to the gods of the conquered cities, chief among them Nabu (god of wisdom and writing) of Borsippa, Shamash (sun god) of Larsa and Sippar, Sin (moon god) of Ur, Ishtar (mother goddess) of Uruk (see also Hittites), Ea (god of the watery deep) of Eridu, Enlil (storm god) of Nippur. As the names indicate, the arising religion included elements of Sumerian and Semitic origin. Worship of these gods included votive offerings, prayers which voiced the worshiper's praise of the respective god or presented petitions to him, the recitation of psalms of repentance, and, at the time of the spring equinox, the great ceremonial procession in connection with the New Year festival. On the latter occasion the king of Babylon took the hands of Marduk, a symbolic action to express that he was the god's adopted son.
2. The Babylonians further recognized the existence of a large number of demons, depicted in frightful form, which plagued mankind with disease and a host of other evils. To ward these off, the religious Babylonian wore amulets and resorted to incantations, the chanting of which was a specialty of a certain class of priests. There was, however, also a belief that there were beneficent genii, and each Babylonian was thought to have his particular patron god or goddess to whom he could appeal for help and protection and who would intercede in his behalf before the great gods. Witches and the evil eye were greatly feared.
3. The religious cult was in charge of a numerous priesthood grouped in many classes and ranks. Besides being in charge of the temple worship carried on in the sanctuaries of the various gods, the priests were the recognized authorities in divination carried on by inspecting sheep's livers (hepatoscopy), reading the future in the stars (astrology), and interpreting dreams and omens of a wide variety (abnormalities of newborn children and animals; the shape assumed by a drop of sesame oil on water). The priests, however, were also the learned men of their time and devoted themselves to the preservation of religious and other literature, copying it for use in the temple libraries.
4. Imposing temples housed the images of the many gods, and kings considered it of special merit to erect such sanctuaries in the centers where each god was worshiped. A special feature in connection with some of these structures was the ziggurat, a square tower of as many as 7 stories of decreasing size, with a ramp running around the outside and serving as a staircase leading to the top. Famous is the temple-tower at Borsippa, forming part of the temple of Nabu. Today a large mound known as Birs Nimrud (Tower of Nimrod) marks the location.
5. Death to the Babylonian meant the separation of the soul from the body, the former entering the realm of the dead to continue a cheerless and shadowy existence in dark surroundings. Rulers of this nether world were the goddess Allatu, or Ereshkigal, and her husband Nergal, or Ninazu. In order that the soul might come to rest it was essential that the body be properly interred and not be disturbed in the grave.
6. Two of the abundant remains of the religious literature of the Babylonians are most important: an epic glorifying Marduk and the so-called Gilgamesh epic. The former relates how the gods, the universe, and the human race came into being and how Marduk attained the position of leadership among the gods. The latter epic contains an account of the Flood* that in many respects closely parallels the Biblical story.
7. The religious beliefs of the Assyrians were essentially the same as those of the Babylonians, with the exception that their chief god was Ashur. With the fall of Nineveh (612 BC) and the capture of Babylon by Cyrus (539 BC) the religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians fell into disuse. GVS
M. Jastrow, The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (Boston, 1898) and Die Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens, 2 vols. in 3 (Giessen, 190512); R. W. Rogers, The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (New York, 1908).
(173582). Regarded the most highly talented son of J. S. Bach; the first Bach to study in It. 1754; pupil of Padre Martini; organist Milan Cathedral 1760; joined RC Ch.; to London 1762; friend of W. A. Mozart,* whom he influenced as composer.
C. S. Terry, John Christian Bach (London, 1929).
(16421703). Cousin of J. S. Bach's* father; uncle of J. S. Bach's first wife. Noted for bold harmonies, inventive genius, and elaborate settings. Compositions include Es erhub sich ein Streit; 44 Choräle zum Präambulieren; Ich lasse dich nicht.
(March 21, 1685July 28, 1750). B. Eisenach; son of Johann Ambrosius Bach and his wife, Elisabeth, nee Lämmerhirt. His parents died before the end of his 10th year; he then lived with an older brother, Johann Christoph, a former pupil of J. Pachelbel.* At 15 he became chorister at Lüneburg in the Michaelisschule, where he spent 3 yrs. and studied clavichord, violin, and composition and was probably a pupil of G. Böhm.* In 1703 Bach became organist in Arnstadt, having spent some time in Weimar. In 1705 he was granted a month's leave of absence to become acquainted with D. Buxtehude* and his work in Lübeck. Bach overstayed his leave by 3 months, incurring the displeasure of his superiors at Arnstadt. But his contacts with Buxtehude proved to be of great benefit. In 1807 he became organist at Mühlhausen and married Maria Barbara Bach, a distant cousin. Maria bore him 7 children, including 2 talented sons, Wilhelm Friedemann and Karl Philipp Emanuel. Intense strife had developed in Mühlhausen between orthodox Lutherans and Pietists. Bach was a profound believer in confessional Luth. orthodoxy, but had friends among the Pietists; a number of embarrassing situations developed that prompted him to leave the service of the ch. 1708 to become organist at Weimar at the court of Duke Wilhelm, a profoundly religious man, whose motto was Alles mit Gott and who was very devoted to his subjects. Bach wrote much organ music and many cantatas (see Cantata) at Weimar. In 1717 he became Kapellmeister at Köthen at the court of Prince Leopold. Here Maria died in July, 1720, during Bach's absence from Köthen; December 3, 1721, he married Anna Magdalena Wülcken, who had a beautiful soprano voice and a genuine appreciation of her husband's musical genius. In Köthen Bach composed his Brandenburg Concertos, much music for the clavichord, violin, and other instruments, and some ch. music. But the court at Köthen was Ref., not congenial to ch. music. Desiring again to compose more ch. and organ music and to send his older sons to a university, Bach left Köthen 1723 for Leipzig to become cantor of the Thomasschule and dir. of music at the Thomaskirche and Nikolaikirche. Here, despite many adversities and lack of appreciation and understanding on the part of his townspeople, he wrote much of his greatest music, including several cycles of ch. cantatas, his greatest organ music, the Passions according to St. Matthew and St. John, the Christmas Oratorio, several motets (see Motet), the B Minor Mass, the Musical Offering, and The Art of the Fugue. In his own fields Bach has never been excelled or even equaled. Contrapuntal music found in him its greatest master; coupled with his skill and artistry one soon discovers a Luth. religiosity and theol. acumen that are astounding and that manifest themselves particularly in his music based on texts of the Bible, of Luth. chorales (see Chorale), and of Christian liturgies. Though at times the musicians' musician, Bach is today regarded as one of the great musicians of the people; he enjoys a popularity that surpasses that of any other great composer. He became blind in 1749. His greatness was not appreciated fully until more than a c. after his death. Bach is one of the most outstanding geniuses of Lutheranism, and his work, like that of Luther, is universal and timeless. Pupils include J. C. Altnikol,* J. F. Doles* Sr., G. A. Homilius,* J. C. Kittel,* J. L. Krebs,* J. T. Krebs,* J. M. Schubart.*
The Bach Reader, eds. H. T. David and A. Mendel (New York, 1945); W. Gurlitt, Johann Sebastian Bach: the Master and His Work, tr. O. C. Rupprecht (St. Louis, 1957); F. Hashagen, Johann Sebastian Bach als Sänger und Musiker des Evangeliums und der lutherischen Reformation (Emmishofen, Switz., 1925); G. Herz, Johann Sebastian Bach im Zeitalter des Rationalismus und der Frühromantik (Bern, 1935); H. Kretzschmar, Bachkolleg (Leipzig, 1922); C. H. Parry, Johann Sebastian Bach, rev. ed. (New York, 1934); A. Schweitzer, Johann Sebastian Bach, 10th ed. (Leipzig, 1934); P. Spitta, Johann Sebastian Bach, tr. C. Bell and J. A. Fuller-Maitland, 2 vols. in 1 (London, 1951); C. S. Terry, Bach: A Biography, 2d ed. (London, 1933) and Bach: The Historical Approach (New York, 1930); P. Wolfrum, Johann Sebastian Bach, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1910); F. Blume, Two Centuries of Bach (New York, 1950) and Johann Sebastian Bach, in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. F. Blume, I (Kassel, 1951), 9621047; F. Hamel, Johann Sebastian Bach: Geistige Welt (Göttingen, 1951); F. Smend, Bach in Köthen (Berlin, ); The Little Bach Book, ed. T. H. Nickel (Valparaiso, Indiana, 1950); W. Schmieder, Thematisch-systematisches Verzeichnis der Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs (Leipzig, 1958).
(171488). Son of J. S. Bach; link bet. him and J. Haydn; assoc. with Klopstock; for a time in service of Frederick the Great. His Versuch über die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen was the first well-organized treatise on playing keyboard instruments. His compositions often lack depth and show the influence of the Rationalistic Era; his Fantasy and Fugue in C Minor for organ represents him at his best. See also Oratorio; Passion, The.
(171084). Oldest son of J. S. Bach. Organist Dresden and Halle. Versatile composer.
Organization founded Leipzig 1850 to make the works of J. S. Bach available. Dissolved 1900. Succeeded immediately by the Neue Bach Gesellschaft, which has popularized Bach's music and founded a Bach Museum in the Bachhaus, Eisenach.
(18171901). B. Antrim, New Hampshire; d. New Hampton, New Hampshire Medical miss. to India for Free Bap. Miss. Soc. Stationed at Balasor 184051; Midnapur 186393. Principal of Midnapur Bible School.
(February 4, 1790February 24, 1874). B. Rhinebeck, New York; d. Charleston, SC Educ. Williams Coll.. His theol. instructors were F. H. Quitman* and P. F. Mayer. Licensed to preach 1813; ordained 1814; pastor St. John's, Charleston, SC, 1815; joined SC Syn.; its pres. Helped est. theol. sem. at Lexington, SC, and Newberry Coll.. Helped est. Gen. Syn. (pres. 1835, 1837) and Gen. Syn. South; helped in adoption of Book of Worship 1866; sympathized with Southerners during Civil War; contributed to Audubon's Birds of America, and collaborated with him on Quadrupeds; prof. of natural hist. in coll. of Charleston. Wrote Unity of the Human Race and A Defense of Luther.
(18321888). B. Berlin; d. Rostock. Pupil of Tholuck and Hengstenberg; taught at Berlin 1856; prof. and U. preacher Rostock 1858; noted for knowledge of Luth. hymnology, biographer of Hengstenberg, and thorough work on the festival laws of the Pentateuch and on Judges 15.
(August 1, 1842March 11, 1919). B. Amsterdam, Holland; educ. Teachers' Sem., Fort Wayne, Indiana; teacher Readfield, Wisconsin, 1864; Bloomington, Illinois, 186566; Venedy, Illinois, 186782; St. Matthew's School, Chicago, 188384; prof. at Teachers' Sem., Addison, Illinois, 18841915 (when he resigned); contributed articles to Lutheraner on educ. and schools.
(17241806). Congr.; opposed Saybrook* platform. Joined New Light separatists 1746. Withdrew over question of infant baptism. Bap. minister Middleborough, Massachusetts, 1756 Championed religious freedom. Trustee Brown U. Active in Warren* Assoc. Wrote A History of New England, with Particular Reference to the Denomination of Christians Called Baptists. See also Baptist Churches, 24; Church and state, 14.
2. Lucas (15701638). B. Rostock. Son of preceding; prof. Rostock 1600; supt. Rostock 1604, Güstrow 1612; hymnist; works include Disputationes contra decreta concilii Tridentini; Tractatus de lege; Disputationes de S. Trinitate.
(15611626). Eng. statesman and philos. Mem. Parliament; Lord Chancellor; peer. Convicted of taking bribes. Paved way for modern philos. by criticizing Scholastics for neglect of natural sciences and by advocating inductive (empirical) method. In Novum organum separated spheres of faith (theol.) and knowledge (philos.). Revelation sole source of faith. Experience source of knowledge. See also Science; Secularism.
Standard ed. of his works (14 vols.) by J. Spedding, R. L. Ellis, and D. D. Heath (London, 1857 to 1874); R. W. Church, Francis Bacon (New York, 1908); R. W. Gibson, Francis Bacon, A Bibliography of His Works and of Baconiana to the Year 1750 (Oxford, 1950); G. W. Steeves, Francis Bacon (London, 1910).
(ca. 1220ca. 1294). Called Doctor mirabilis. Eng. philos. and scientist; Franciscan monk. Educ. Oxford and Paris. Settled at Paris. Opposed Scholasticism.* Insisted on supreme authority of Bible in theol., the right of the laity to the Bible, and the importance of its study in original languages; castigated corruption of priests and monks. Knowledge of physics, chemistry, and astronomy, gained by researches and experiments, put him far ahead of his times. See also Encyclopedias and Dictionaries, 1.
E. P. Cheyney, The Dawn of a New Era, 1250 to 1453 (New York, 1936); T. Crowley, Roger Bacon, The Problem of the Soul in His Philosophical Commentaries (Dublin, 1950); S. C. Easton, Roger Bacon and His Search for a Universal Science (New York, 1952); H. O. Taylor, The Mediaeval Mind: A History of the Development of Thought and Emotion in the Middle Ages, 4th ed., 7th print., II (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1959); E. Westacott, Roger Bacon in Life and Legend (New York, 1954).
Place of Johann Blumhardt's* healing baths. After WW II the Mo. Syn. arranged theol. discussions with Ger. theologians at Bad Boll. See also Baudert, Samuel; Behnken, John William; Free Lutheran Conferences, 6 Germany, C 6; Naumann, Martin Justus.
(18711936). Prof. OT subjects Moravian Coll., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, California Led archaeol. expeditions to Palestine. Works include The Old Testament in the Light of Today.
(December 20, 1823July 10, 1897). B. Westeresch, Hannover. Studied theol. U. of Berlin. Asst. to Charles Stohlmann, New York; organized Luth. congregations at Mount Vernon and Hastings, New York, and St. Luke Ger. Ev. Luth. Ch., Brooklyn, which he served 24 yrs.; ed. Herold, organ of New York Ministerium, 1879; pres. of Ministerium 1881; helped est. Luth. Home for Immigrants in New York; dir. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia; on Bd. of Trustees, Wartburg Orphans' Home.
(d. 1530). Anabap. leader in Augsburg; later broke with Anabaps. and held that his infant son was king of impending millennium, and that he himself was his son's reprensentative; tortured and executed on suspicion of plotting against the govt.
(1470/901545). Ref. theol.; pastor Landau; won for Reformation; excommunicated at Speyer 1524; opposed Anabaps.; his doctrine of Lord's Supper similar to that of M. Bucer*; influenced by K. v. Schwenkfeld.*
(1824May 24, 1913). B. Rixdorf, near Berlin; studied in Gossner* Missionary Society (1846) and under Louis Harms at Hermannsburg (1849) for miss. work in Afr.; deciding to go to Am., he left Louis Harms (1852) and completed studies at Barmen; sent to Am. by Langenberg Soc.; arrived Wisconsin 1853; ordained 1853 by J. Mühlhäuser* and Jacob Conrad; held pastorates at Calumet, Theresa, Watertown, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; pres. Wisconsin Syn. 186064, 186789; one of chief negotiators with representatives of Mo. Syn. in forming Synodical* Conference 1872; pres. Syn. Conf. 1882 to 1912; pres. Bd. of Trustees, Northwestern Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, 18651915; traveled in Ger. to raise funds for Northwestern 1863, 64; resigned pastorate in 1908 but remained asst. till 1913. Led Wisconsin Syn. to confessional Lutheranism. Instrumental in locating Northwestern Coll. at Watertown rather than Milwaukee.
(July 28, 1850October 10, 1927). B. Baltimore; grad. St. Louis 1874; pastor Dallas, Texas, 1874, 75; near Cole Camp, Missouri, 187579; at Mobile and Moss Point, Alabama, 187982; Eng. miss. for W Dist., Mo. Syn., 1882, 83; prof. St. Paul's Coll., Concordia, Missouri, 188487, 18991925; pres. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, 188894; pastor Little Rock, Arkansas, 189499; retired 1925.
(September 21, 1893October 9, 1958). B. Fort Wayne, Indiana; d. Springfield, Illinois; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1914; pastor Haultain, Sask., 1915, 16; McEachern, Sask., 1916, 17; Moose Jaw, Sask., 191720; Winnipeg, Man., 192023; prof. Conc. Coll., Edmonton, Alta., 192336; Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 193653; pres. there 1953 to 1958. Supt. of missions Man. and Sask. 1918 to 1921; vice-pres. Man and Sask. Dist., Mo. Syn., 1922, 23; pres. Synodical* Conf. 195256. Works include A Century of Grace: A History of the Missouri Synod, 18471947; A Century of Blessing, 1846 to 1946: Concordia Theological Seminary, Springfield, Illinois.
(Wilhelm; Baetes; Batis; Betis; Petis; 1777August 17, 1867). Licensed by Pennsylvania Ministerium 1809; served congs. in New Jersey and Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania Ministerium Senior 1836.
(18531924). B. Paderborn, Ger.; Prof. philos. Breslau 1883, Bonn 1900, Strasbourg 1903, Munich 1912. Held that hist. is the evolution of the human spirit and that the past is immanent in the present and provides continuity. Wrote esp. on patristic and medieval philos.
(Baeza; Baes; d. 1638). B. Lisbon, Port.; active in Coimbra; court preacher of the king in Sp.; mem. Fratr. red. S. Trin. Works include Commentaria in cantica Mosis, Ezechiae, in Epistolam Iacobi Apostoli.
Mirza Ali Mohammed (181950) of Shiraz, Persia, assumed title Bab (Gate); proclaimed himself reformer of Islam 1844. Gained many followers (Babists) but was imprisoned and executed by Persian govt. 1850. In 1863 Bahaullah (Splendor of God), follower of the Bab, proceeded to formulate the sect's teachings while confined in Palestine by Turkish govt. After Bahaullah's death in 1892 his oldest son, Abdul Baha, Turkish prisoner till 1908, carried on; visited US 1912; d. Haifa 1921.
Bahaism is represented in Am. since the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. A magnificent temple, Mashrak-el-Azkar (The Dawning Point of the Commemorations of God), was erected at Wilmette, Illinois; designed by Louis J. Bourgeois; is 9-sided, with intricate ornamentation of exquisite beauty, was dedicated in 1942, and is open to the 9 great religions.
Bahaism has no professional clergy, no ritualistic service; proclaims itself a call to religious unity; and sets up as basic Bahai teachings: the oneness of mankind, independent investigation of truth, equality of men and women, universal peace, universal education, spiritual solution of the economic problem, a universal language, an international tribunal.
See also Shi'ites.
Group of 690 islands in a 760-mile chain off the SE coast of Florida, N of Cuba. Area: ca. 5,382 sq. mi. (ca. 4,404 sq. mi. inhabited). Columbus' 1st discovery in the New World; assigned to Sp. by papal grant; under Brit. influence from 1629; repeatedly under Sp. attack; Nassau seized by Am. force 1776; islands surrendered to Sp. 1782; restored to Brit. 1783; new const. 1964; Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands under another new const. 1969; indep. nation as the Commonwealth of the Bahamas 1973; mem. Commonwealth of Nations. Ethnic composition: ca. 85% Black and ca. 15% of Brit., Can., and US descent. Language: English. Religion: ca. 29% Bap., ca. 23% Angl., ca. 23% RC, ca. 7% Meth. Others include Brethren, Ch. of God, Seventh-day Adventists. First miss. work was done by Angl. 1731; Meths. began 1848 and Baps. ca. the same time.
(17741841). B. Oberstenfeld; pastor Ludwigsburg; prof. Tübingen 1815; hymnist. Works include Meletemata de miraculis Christi; sermons; works on asceticism; hymns include Walte fürder, nah und fern.
(164795). B. Nürnberg; d. Weimar. Prof. and rector Jena and Halle; gen. supt., court preacher, and city pastor at Weimar. Chief work, Compendium theologiae positivae, shows great influence in synergism J. Musäus,* his teacher and father-in-law, had on him; many editions; that of C. F. W. Walther (1879) included a rich collection of extracts from earlier Luth. theologians. See also Conversion, II 7; Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, V 11.
K. Heussi, Geschichte der theologischen Fakultät zu Jena (Weimar, 1954).
(April 29, 1819October 12, 1901). B. Sierakowski, Posen, Poland; d. Ger.; arrived Frankenmuth, Michigan, as miss. to Chippewa June 10, 1847; worked among Chippewa (Station Bethany, St. Louis, Michigan) 184753; left Bethany and became miss. to India in service of Leipzig* Ev. Luth. Miss.; arrived Madras, India, December 17, 1853; worked at Sadras, Cuddalore, and Tranquebar; discontinued because of poor health 1886. Works include Im Urwalde: Bei den roten Indianern; Nach und aus Indien; Die Ev.-Luth. Mission in Ostindien. See also Miessler, Ernst Gustav Hermann.
W. P. Schoenfuhs, Eduard Raimund Baierlein: Lutheran Missionary to the Indians in America and Asia, CHIQ, 95455), 133141, 145162; XXVIII (195556), 126.
1. Donald Macpherson (18871954). Brother of John. B. Scot.; prof. St. Andrews U., Scot., 1935 to 1954. Opposed liberal theol. and attempts to reconstruct hist. Jesus; defended genuine incarnation; emphasized I-Thou encounter* of faith. Wrote Faith in God; God Was in Christ.
2. John (1886 to 1960). Brother of Donald. B. Scot.; prof. theol. Auburn, New York, 1919, Toronto 1927, New York 1930; prof. divinity Edinburgh 1934; Moderator Ch. of Scot. 1943; rector New Coll., Edinburgh 1950; chaplain to Queen in Scot. 1954. Wrote extensively on revelation. Held all knowledge of God is based on God's self-disclosure (mediated immediacy); God is known to all men. Works include Interpretation of Religion; And the Life Everlasting; Our Knowledge of God; The Belief in Progress: The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought; The Sense of the Presence of God. See also Encounter.
(18941984). Cong. minister and assoc. mem. Soc. of Friends; b. Ilkeston, Derbyshire, Eng.; educ. Whitman Coll., Walla Walla, Washington, and Yale U., New haven, Connecticut; instr. Yale 192023, asst. prof. 192332, assoc. prof. ch. hist. 193236, prof. 193662. Works include Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther; The Reformation of tlhe Sixteenth Century; The Age of the Reformation; Christian Attitudes to War and Peace.
(151389). Flemish RC theol.; forerunner of C. Jansen*; had conflict with popes on questions of grace, free will, and sin; condemned by papal bulls (1567, 1579). In his system (Baianism) innocence is necessary component of human nature in original state; redemption restores original innocence; original sin is hereditary, habitual concupiscence.
(September 8, 1853May 8, 1921). Miss. to African-Americans. B. Norw.; d. Milwaukee; educ. Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis; grad. 1880; ordained November 7, 1880; pastor Sailors' Home, New Orleans, 1880; Concord, North Carolina, 1891; est. Immanuel Luth. Coll., Greensboro, North Carolina, 1903; prof. 190311; helped organize Immanuel Luth. Conf. 1900; field secy. for colored miss. of Ev. Luth. Syn. Conf. 1911. In Cincinnati 191113; St. Louis 191316; Oak Hill, Alabama, 191620; Milwaukee 192021.
(181476). Russ.; worked with Marx and Engels. Developed Bakuninism, a theory of revolutionary anarchy, in God and the State.
In Norse mythology, son of Odin and Frigga; personification of sun's brightness; killed through treachery of Loki.
(15751627). Mem. philos. faculty, Wittenberg, 1601; preacher Freiberg 1602; supt. Oelsnitz 1603; prof. theol. Wittenberg 1604; supt. Wittenberg 1607. Works include a Lat. commentary on the Epistles of Paul and Tractatus de casibus conscientiae. See also Casuistry.
(14951563). Bp. Ossory, Ireland. Wrote mysteries and miracle plays. Used stage to promote Reformation.
(18481930). Brit. statesman and philos. Originator of Balfour Declaration (see Middle East, F). Wrote apologies for religious faith in which he held that all knowledge, including scientific, requires axioms which require religious faith. Works include A Defence of Philosophic Doubt; The Foundations of Unbelief; Theism and Humanism; Theism and Thought. See also Metaphysical Society, The; Zionism
(March 5, 1813November 9, 1865). B. near Albany, New York; educ. U. of Ohio, and Princeton, Union (Virginia), and Andover seminaries. Sent by ABCFM to India 1835; stationed at Ahmadnagar. Assisted in tr. Bible into Marathi. Tr. and wrote hymns in Marathi.
(17711852). Clergyman. Often called Father of American Universalism. Differed from J. Murray* in thoroughgoing anti-Calvinism. Most important work: Examination of the Doctrine of Future Retribution. See also Universalists, 2.
Declaration on the Word of God and the Scriptures adopted 1938 by the ULC at Baltimore, Maryland Sets forth ULC position on the authority of Scripture, the meaning of Word of God, and the inspiration of Scripture. See also Lutheran Church in America, II.
(181487). Leader of Lichtfreunde in Ger.; espoused freedom of doctrine, political and social reform.
(from a Teutonic verb root for Speak; summon; proclaim; curse). (1) In the laws of the Franks and other Germanic peoples: (a) proclamation; often declaration of outlawry; (b) district over which such a proclamation was issued. (2) A fine for disobedience of such a proclamation or for sacrilege or other crimes. (3) Declaration of excommunication.* See also Interdict.
(15441610). B. Farnworth, Lancashire, Eng.; educ. at Cambridge; bp. London 1597; opposed Marprelate* Tracts and Puritanism (see Puritans); held that episcopacy is of divine origin; attended Hampton Court Conference; succeeded J. Whitgift* as abp. Canterbury November 1604. See also High Church.
(15281604). B. Valladolid, Sp.; educ. Salamanca; Dominican; taught at Alcalá and Salamanca; influenced Teresa* of Ávila; disavowed L. (de) Molina's* charge of Bañezianism, which latter was said to involve an improper relation bet. God's grace and human freedom of the will.
1. The 2 constituent parts of baptism, water and the word, or baptismal formula, are found in NT (Jn 3:5; Mt 28:19; Acts 2:38). Some scholars held that Baptism in at least some parts of the early ch. was in the name of the Lord Jesus, (Acts 2:38; 10:48). In any case, the trinitarian formula soon became universal. The Didache, 7, describes the duties of the candidates for baptism and the method of administering it (trine immersion or infusion). Tertullian (Adversus Praxean, 26; De Baptismo; De Corona Militis) gives elaborate descriptions. In the 2d to 4th c. baptism was normally administered only at Easter and Pentecost. Epiphany and other feast days were added later. While the clergy were the ordinary ministers of the sacrament, baptism could be administered at any time and by any Christian in cases of grave emergency, though some fathers and councils discountenanced administration of baptism by women. The laying on of hands (confirmation) or anointing (chrismation) was an integral part of the baptismal rite in ch.
2. The medieval ritual of Baptism, as it had developed by the time of Gregory the Great, combined what had originally been separate stages in the preparation of adults for membership in the ch.; it remained practically unchanged thereafter. According to the Mayence Manual (Agenda Moguntinensis) of 1513 the Order of Baptizing Children (Ordo ad baptizandum pueros) comprised an introduction at the door of the ch. This included: asking for the candidate's name, sign of cross, prayers, tasting of salt (gustus salis), greeting of peace, further prayers, the Great Exorcism, the Holy Gospel, the Lord's Prayer, Ave. Maria, the Apostles' Creed, the ephphatha ceremony, and the entrance into ch. The rite of Baptism proper took place at the baptistry, or font; Renunciation of the devil, the Creed, anointing the breast and back, an admonition to the sponsors, the 3-fold immersion (performed with child's head pointing to E, N, and S respectively), a prayer of thanksgiving, the putting on of the chrisom.* Other ch. orders prescribed kiss of brotherhood, the placing of a lighted taper into the hand of the child or a sponsor, and other ceremonies.
3. Luther's Taufbüchlein verdeutscht (1523) was essentially a tr. of the liturgy of Baptism then in use in Wittenberg. It included the lesser exorcism, the sign of the cross, prayers, the tasting of salt, the Flood prayer, the greater exorcism, further prayers, and the greeting of peace, the Holy Gospel from Mk 10, the Lord's Prayer, the ephphatha ceremony, procession into the church, renunciation of Satan, Creed, Baptism by 3-fold immersion, anointing (cross on head only), putting on of the chrisom, placing of the lighted taper in the hand of the child or sponsor. A simplification of this form published in 1526 became part of the Small Catechism in 1529 (Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelischlutherischen Kirche, 5th, rev. ed. [Göttingen, 1963], pp. 535541); it underlies the normal Luth. baptismal rite, though the greater exorcism and clothing with the chrisom were often omitted. ACP
See also Exorcism.
Practiced by Mormons for salvation of others as ordinance inst. by God from eternity. But the Biblical way of salvation rules out vicarious Baptism, salvation being by personal faith and Baptism (Mk 16:15, 16; Acts 2:38; Mt 28:19, 20). Moreover, Heb 9:27 denies the possibility of salvation after death. Therefore 1 Co 15:29 cannot be quoted in favor of vicarious Baptism. The Greek preposition hyper here may mean over or with reference to, the Baptism of the early adult Christians thus being a confession of their hope of the resurrection of the body to eternal life. The Cath. Apostolic Ch. also practices baptism for the dead.
Term used for martyrdom endured by unbaptized person for faith in Christ.
In RCm, act of love for God by unbaptized person with desire to do all that is necessary for his salvation.
1. The basic principle of Baps. is liberty of conscience. This principle manifests itself negatively in that Baps. reject subscription to human creeds, establishment of ecclesiastical organizations, and the teaching of any form of sacramentalism and sacerdotalism; and positively in that Baps. are enthusiastic, lay great emphasis on the competence and the responsibility of each individual soul in spiritual matters, accept only believer's* baptism, and vigorously maintain absolute separation of church* and state. Baps. do not consider creeds as tests of orthodoxy, but as evidences of unanimity. Since it is the inalienable right of the individual to formulate his own creed, there can be, strictly speaking, no heresy in Bap. bodies (see Democratic Declarations of Faith, 3). Historically the Baps. are divided theologically into two large families, the Gen. and the Particular Baps., the former following Arminianism* and believing in universal atonement, the latter following Calvinism* and subscribing to the theory of a limited atonement.
2. The General Baptists are the spiritual descendants of the Anabaptists,* who interpreted the reformational principle of the universal priesthood of believers to make it apply also to the pol. and soc. spheres. After the collapse of the Anabap. movement in 1535, the scattered remnants of these rebaptizers were gathered by Menno Simons and organized as the Mennonites. The theol. of the Mennonites stressed freedom of the will (see Free Will), enthusiasm* or mysticism,* asceticism,* and literal interpretation of the Bible. The Mennonites placed great emphasis on the outward purity of the ch. and held that the restoration of apostolic Christianity must include Baptism by immersion.* Anabaps. came to Eng. as early as 1534 but could not gain a foothold because of bitter persecution resulting from the 1559 Act of Uniformity, which disenfranchised all religious nonconformists. John Smith* (Smyth), who had spent some time at Amsterdam and there with Thomas Helwys (ca. 1550ca. 1616) had organized a Bap. cong., returned to Eng. 1611 and est. the 1st Eng. Bap. ch. Owing to Dutch Mennonite influence, these early Eng. Baps. were Arminian; they became known as Gen. Baps. But the distinctive principle of all Baps., liberty of conscience, was clearly enunciated in the Articles of Faith adopted ca. 1611: The magistrate is not by virtue of his office to meddle with religious or matters of conscience, or compel men to this or that form of religion, for Christ only is King and Lawgiver of the Church and conscience. The Particular, or Calvinistic, Baps. trace their origin in part to the Separatist Movement in Eng. during the 16th c. Two groups of English Protestants, the Puritans* and the Separatists (see United Church of Christ, I A), opposed the Romanizing tendencies of the Est. Angl. Ch., the former holding that the reformation of the Angl. Ch. must be accomplished by remaining within the Est. Ch., the latter by complete separation. Both the Puritans and the Separatists, also known as Non-Conformists or Congregationalists, were agreed on the principles of Calvinism. They differed only in matters of ch. polity, the Puritans favoring Presbyterianism, the Separatists believing that the Church should be a congregation of free men, founded after the pattern of the Apostolic Church, governing itself, not according to the laws of the State, but according to the Bible (see Polity, Ecclesiastical, 7). In the course of time some of the Separatists adopted the view that only believer's baptism by immersion was a valid Baptism; 1639 they organized the first Bap. Separatist cong. In theol. these early Calvinistic, or Particular, Baps. were in full accord with the Presbyterians and the Congregationalists, except on doctrines of the ch. and the sacraments. C. H. Spurgeon* is the outstanding Eng. Calvinistic Bap., and John Bunyan* the best-known Eng. Gen. Bap. Since 1891 the distinction bet. the Gen. and Particular Baps. no longer applies in Eng. since both groups have united on the basic principles of Bap. theol.: the supreme authority of Scripture, a regenerate membership, a democratic ch. govt., and believer's Baptism by immersion. On all other points great latitude of opinion is permitted. See also pars. 2034; Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland; Democratic Declarations of Faith, 3.
3. The American Baptist Churches owe their origin very largely to the work of R. Williams,* successively an Angl., Puritan, Separatist, Bap., Seeker. Coming to Massachusetts 1631, he was for a short season asst. pastor at Plymouth. In 1635 he was ordained pastor of the Salem ch. His Separatist views went far beyond those of the Salem Separatists and precipitated a bitter conflict with the ecclesiastical and secular authorities. Being an arch-individualist, he maintained that the colonists had trespassed on rights of Indians in acquiring the respective land charters. This interest in civil and individual liberty helped crystallize his views of religious liberty. He was bitterly opposed to the theocratic govt. in the Puritan colonies, denied the magistrates jurisdiction over matters of conscience and religion, and contended for liberty of conscience, for separation of ch. and state, and for the right of the people to choose their own rulers. This led to Williams' banishment from the colony and his founding of a colony at Providence, R. I., in 1636. There the Apostle of Liberty put into practice the principles of civil and religious liberty that he later defended in Bloody Tenent of Persecution for the Cause of Conscience. In 1638 he and his followers adopted Baptism by immersion; the Providence ch. may therefore rightly be called the oldest Bap. ch. in Am. The distinctive tenet of this group was rigid individualism that manifested itself chiefly in stressing the inner religious experience of the individual. This tenet showed little, if any, interest in the visible ch. and considered all ecclesiastical organizations on a par with secular institutions. The Providence Baps. were in principle opposed to the adoption of any creedal statements and granted equal rights to members of Calvinistic and Arminian convictions. The Arminian group at Providence (see 21) held that the six principles of Heb 6:1, 2 included the laying on of hands as a divine ordinance; in subsequent controversy on this point the views of the Arminian Baps., later known as Gen. (or Old) Six-Principle Baps., gained gen. acceptance by 1652. While the Providence ch. is the oldest Bap. ch. in Am., the distinction of being the first Calvinist Bap. ch. in Am. is usually given to the Newport, R. I., ch. founded 1641 by John Clarke (160976). The Baps., in New Eng. states were Calvinists, while the majority of the early Baps. in the colonies favored Arminianism.* The Arminian, or General, Baps. failed to gain a foothold, because the majority of the early colonists were reared in the tradition of Calvinism. The Calvinistic, or Particular, Baps. laid greater emphasis on a trained ministry and were able to develop greater denominational consciousness than the Gen. Baps.
4. The Baps. developed their greatest strength in the Middle Colonies, owing largely to the influence of the Philadelphia Assoc. (see also 26), which adopted the Philadelphia Conf. 1742. This was a Calvinistic standard identical with the Conf. adopted 1677 by London Baps. The latter Conf. was in full agreement with the Westminster Conf. of 1644 and the Savoy Declaration of 1658 except in the statements concerning the Sacraments and the church (see United Church of Christ, I A 2; Presbyterian Confessions, 3). It is therefore correct to state that the theological antecedents of the vast majority of American Baps. are rooted in Calvinistic theol.; this accounts for the fact that formerly all and today many Particular Baps. subscribe to such doctrines as the total depravity of man, the necessity and sufficiency of Christ's atonement (limited to the elect), and unconditional election. Historians are agreed that the Bap. agitation for the separation of ch. and state played a prominent part in the adoption of the First Amendment of the Am. Const. The great period of expansion of the Bap. Ch., began ca. 1800. The vast majority of Baps. are known simply as Baps., sometimes also as Regular Baptists, and organized the American (Northern), Southern, and National (Negro) Conventions. Other Bap. bodies use a descriptive adjective. See also 23.
5. Doctrine. It is a distinct principle with Baps. that they acknowledge no human founder, recognize no human authority, and subscribe to no human creed. The competence of the individual soul under God is said to eliminate every extraneous thing between the soul and God. Included are ecclesiastical or civil order, ordinances, sacraments, preacher, and priest. Strictly speaking, there can be no heresy trial in the Bap. Ch., because there is no creedal subscription; there is no creedal subscription, because it is the inalienable right of every individual to form his own creed. This basic principlein many points similar to that of the Cong. churchesis largely responsible for the fact that Baps., esp. those of the N Conv., grant equal rights to Modernists and Fundamentalists. The conservatives, who hold to the principles of the Philadelphia* and New* Hampshire Confessions, and the liberals, who have accepted the theories of Higher* Criticism, divine immanence, and the soc. gospel, are forced to recognize others' views according to the basic Bap. principle. The essentially distinctive feature of the Baps. is neither their practice of immersion nor their rejection of infant Baptism, but rather their insistence upon the right and competence of every individual, without the intervention of any outside agency, to acknowledge by faith the lordship of Christ and to profess such faith by immersion. Principles which distinguish Baps. from other Ref. denominations: 1. Independence of the local ch.; 2. separation of ch. and state; 3. rel. liberty an inalienable and inherent right of the soul; 4. the local ch. is a body of regenerated people, Baptism being the outward profession of their personal faith; 5. infant baptism is fatal to the spirituality of the ch.; 6. immersion (a dramatic proclamation of the believer's spiritual death and resurrection); 7. the Scriptural ch. officers are pastors and deacons; 8. the Lord's Supper is observed in commemoration of Christ's death. The controversial points that originally separated Particular and General Baps. are no longer an issue among the Regular Baps., but they are still a live issue in some smaller Bap. churches.
6. Polity. In accord with its basic theol. principle, Bap. ch. polity is cong., the local cong. absolutely autonomous in fixing its doctrinal platform, discipline, and worship. All members have equal voting rights. Baps. are opposed in principle to every kind of ecclesiastical organization. This anticlericalism accounts in a large measure for the aggressive lay participation in ch. activities. Ordinarily Bap. churches unite as associations or state conventions; these bodies, however, have no legislative, judicial, or ex. powers. Formerly the miss. and educ. activities of the Baps. were carried on by various societies whose membership was not identical with the Bap. congregations, but was made up of those individuals who regularly contributed toward the respective soc. Toward the close of the 18th c. a number of such societies were founded for the purpose of spreading Bap. ideas and establishing Bap. churches in the territories which were opened after the Revolutionary War. In 1814 Baps., organized a soc. for for. missions; in 1824 the Am. Bap. Pub. Soc.; in 1832 the Home Miss. Soc. These societies were entirely indep. of ecclesiastical control and were responsible only to their membership. The various activities of the N Baps. have been reorganized somewhat along denominational lines in the hope that this move will eliminate duplication and work for greater efficiency.
7. Particular Baptists (719). These bodies originally followed and to some extent still follow Calvinistic rather than Arminian theol. The N and S Conventions and the Negro Baps. constitute the vast majority of so-called Particular Baps. These 3 large bodies are agreed in doctrine and polity, but each group has retained its denominational identity for purposes of more efficient administration.
8. American Baptist Chs. in the USA. The hist. of this body until 1844 is described in the previous statement. In that yr. the state conventions of the N and the S split on the question of sending a slaveholding Bap. as a for. miss. It must be noted that the N Baps. were more willing to recognize the desirability of ecclesiastical organizations for effective and systematic ch. work. This willingness resulted in organizing the N Bap. Convention as a corporation in 1907 so that all churches, while retaining local autonomy and the independence of every other ch. and the Conv. itself, were united in carrying out the various Bap. activities. By uniting and coordinating the work of the many Bap. societies and bds., the N Baps. could expand their miss. educ. and philanthropic work considerably. In doctrine the N Baps. have become increasingly liberalistic. Their disregard for creeds and opposition to regimentation of thought has enabled theol. schools such as Colgate Rochester and the Divinity School of the U. of Chicago to introduce liberal theol. with Higher* Criticism, the theories of evolution and divine immanence, and the social* gospel. The N Baps. adopted the name Am. Bap. Conv. in Boston 1950. Present name adopted 1972. See also 26; Missionary Baptists; Union Movements, 7.
9. Southern Baptist Convention. The center of activity of the early Baps. was in the New Eng. and the Atlantic seaboard area. When Bap. churches were planted in the S after the Revolutionary War by missionaries from the N it was natural that the S Baps. united with N Baps. in such activities as for. miss. The agency for this phase of Bap. work was the Missionary Convention for Foreign Missions, organized 1814 with headquarters in Boston. This soc. opposed slavery, and refused to approve the appointing of a candidate for for. miss. work who was a slaveholder. Thereupon the state associations in the S withdrew from the N Conv., and 1845 organized the S Bap. Conv. at Augusta, Georgia In doctrine the S Baps. are much more conservative than the N, and gen. adhere to the Calvinistic New Hampshire Conf. Many of their churches practice close Communion. The seminaries, Southern Bap. at Louisville, Southwestern at Fort Worth, and Bap. Bible School at New Orleans, are fundamentalistic. The S Bap. Conv. has abstained from WCC and NCCCUSA. But the basic principle of all Baps., the right of the individual in all matters of conscience, permits the conservative S Baps. to interchange membership and ministry on terms of perfect equality with N Baps. The reason for the continued separation of the 2 bodies is not doctrinal, but administrative. Five denominational bds. have charge of home miss., for. miss., S. S. work, educ. institutions, and ministerial relief. See also Missionary Baptists.
10. National Baptist Convention, U. S. (A.) Inc.. In the first 15 years after the Civil War Baptists claim to have gained ca. 1,000,000 adherents among the Negroes. The rapid expansion of the Bap. Ch. among the freed slaves was due in part to the Bap. principle of individual liberty, to the ease with which local churches could be formed, and to the low standard of indoctrination required. In 1880 the Negro Bap. churches organized the Nat. Bap. Conv. at St. Louis. The Nat. Bap. Conv. was incorporated in 1915. The Nat. Bap. Conv. of the U. S. (A.), Inc., perpetuates the parent body. The Nat. Bap. Conv. of Am., often called the unincorporated group, withdrew from the parent body in 1916.
11. Primitive Baptists. Following the Bap. principle that Christians must turn to the NT for doctrine and practice, including ceremonies and ch. rites, the Primitive Baps. hold that every form of ecclesiastical organization is sinful if not expressly prescribed in the NT. Since no miss. societies with a money basis are mentioned in the NT a number of Bap. associations denounced the formation of all miss. societies and the pubs. of educ. bds. as contrary to the NT. In protest against what they viewed as anti-Scriptural ecclesiasticism, a number of associations, local groups of Bap. congregations, announced that they would no longer maintain fellowship with those associations which had united themselves with the world and, by their support of benevolent societies, had been preaching a different Gospel. These associations are in principle opposed to every form of denominational organization, to state or nat. conventions. The only bond uniting the various associations is the exchange of the annual minutes. Any assoc. whose minutes are not approved is dropped from fellowship. Since there is no denominational organization, these Baps. have no official distinctive name, and have been known as Antimission (see also Missionary Baptists), Hard Shell, Old School, and most commonly as Primitive Baps. In polity they are extremely cong. Theol. training for pastors is not required; miss. work is not on an organized basis; instrumental music in the service, Sunday schools, and secret societies are not authorized. In theol. the Primitive Baps. are strictly Calvinistic.
12. Nat. Primitive Bap. Conv., Inc. (organized 1907). founded 1865. Later, and till the late 1960s, called Nat. Primitive Bap. Conv. in the U. S. (A.) African-American body formerly called Colored Primitive Baptist.
13. Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists. This group teaches the Manichaean error that all mankind falls into two classes. One class is endowed with a good spiritual seed, implanted by God into Adam. This class is a spiritual generation existing in Christ before creation and are gathered into the Church which is Christ's resurrected body. This group is absolutely sure of salvation (which is by grace). In the spirit of the rest of mankind Satan planted an evil seed.
14. American Baptist Association. Fellowship of regular and indep. missionary Bap. chs. in the US that withdrew from various convs. because they considered the organization of such convs. as contrary to the letter and spirit of the NT; a Gen. Assoc. of Bap. Chs. was organized 1902; nat. fellowship (Bap. Gen. Assoc.) formed 1905; present name adopted 1924. Believing their chs. alone are true, they claim to be the divine custodians of the truth, and that they only have the right of carrying out the Great Commission, of executing the laws of the Kingdom, and of administering the ordinances of the Gospel. This assoc. is a cooperation of local congregations for the purpose of joint work, but its constituent members are so averse to ecclesiastical organizations and so zealous in preserving the rights of local congregations that the annual meetings are called the meeting of the messengers [delegates] composing the American Baptist Association. In doctrine they are in harmony with the New* Hampshire Conf., but interpret Article XVIII concerning Christ's final coming acc. to modern premillennialism. They are represented chiefly in the South and Southwest. See also Landmark Baptists.
16. Seventh Day Baptists General Confernece, USA and Canada. The first Seventh Day Bap. ch. was organized 1617 in London. Some members in both the Providence and Newport, R. I., Bap. churches shared the views of this London Bap. ch. and maintained fellowship with other Baps. until 1671, when Stephen Mumford organized the 1st Am. Seventh Day Bap. ch. The Seventh Day Bap. Gen. Conf. was founded 1801. The Sabbatarian Baps. have been unable to gain a large following. They have, however, been a large factor in determining the views of the Seventh-day Adventists (see Adventist Bodies, 4) and the Ger. Seventh Day Baps. In ch. polity the Seventh Day Baps agree fully with all Baps. thoroughly congregationalistic and uniting for joint work on a voluntary basis. In doctrine they follow the Calvinistic Baps. except in their view that the Sabbath was instituted at man's creation and sanctioned by Christ and the apostles. But their latitudinarianism allows fellowship with all immersionists. See also Seventh Day Baptist World Federation.
17. Seventh Day Baptists (German, 1728). This group of Ger. Brethren, organized 1728 by J. C. Beissel,* est. as communistic* celibate society 1732, Ephrata, Pennsylvania was characterized by extreme pietism, mysticism, and legalism. After a brief period of success as a monastic community with its flourishing industries, school, and printing press, the denomination dwindled away. In theol. and practice they agreed with the Brethren.*
19. Conservative Baptist Association of America. Organized in Atlantic City New Jersey, 1947, this group regards the Bible as divinely inspired Word of God, infallible and of supreme authority. It stresses the autonomy of the local cong.
20. General Baptists (2034; see also 2). These are groups whose doctrinal position is closely related to that of the Anabaps. or who adopted Arminian theol. In contrast to the Particular Baps. they emphasize such doctrines as the universal Atonement and human responsibility. Many of the Gen. Baps. practice foot washing,* observe close Communion, and may be characterized as legalistic, pietistic, and given to enthusiastic expressionism. They are opposed to denominational and organized ch. work. The majority of the Gen. Baps. are united in associations or local federations for purposes of fellowship. Fellowship between the various associations is established and maintained by exchanging the annual minutes. The Arminian Baps. were unable to gain a large following because they were opposed to the organization of denominations, lacked denominational consciousness, and did not believe in a trained ministry. Many Arminian Baps. affiliated with the Calvinistic Baps.
21. General Six-Principle Baptists. The Arminian group at Providence (see 3) held that the laying on of hands was not only a ceremony, but a principle as essential as repentance, faith, Baptism, resurrection, judgment (citing Heb 6:1, 2). By 1652/53 the Six-Principle Baps. gained the majority of the Providence ch. and made the laying on of hands after Baptism the sign of the reception of the Holy Ghost, an indispensable condition for ch. membership. Though the Gen. (or Old) Six-Principle Baps. claim to be the original Bap. Ch. founded by Williams, they are rapidly disappearing.
22. General Baptists (General Association of). While all those Bap. bodies which reject Calvinism of the Particular Baps. are called Gen. Baps. (see 20), there is also a separate branch by this name. The origin of this group is probably due to the work of Robert Nordin and Thos. White, who were sent 1714 to the Arminian Baps. in Virginia by the London Gen. Baps. But it was not until 1823 that Gen. Baps. appeared as a separate group. This branch tried to unite with other Bap. bodies, and in 1915 formed a cooperative union with the N Conv.
23. Regular Baptists. While the term Regular Baps. is often used to denote the Particular Baps. in the 3 large conventions, there are also a number of smaller associations which claim to represent the original Eng. Bap. principles before a distinction was made between Particular and Gen. Baps. They are similar to Duck River Assoc. Baps. and are found in the S Atlantic states. In doctrine they are gen. Arminian, practice foot washing, observe close Communion, reject creeds and denominational organizations, and est. fellowship with like-minded associations. See also 4.
24. Separate Baptists in Christ. The origin of the Separate movement may be traced to the Whitefield revival, which caused the New and Old Light controversy among Congs., Presbs., and Baps., the New Lights overemphasizing the spiritual qualifications of the ministry. Under the leadership of the outstanding Bap. theol. I. Backus,* who occupied a mediating position between Calvinism and Arminianism,* many New Eng. Bap. churches withdrew from fellowship with the Regular Baps. This breach is now healed in New Eng. and practically so in Virginia In 1754 New Eng. Separate Baps. under Shubael Stearns (170671) settled in North Carolina and spread into adioining states, forming several associations. These Separate Baps. are anti-Calvinistic, rejecting the limited Atonement and double predestination; they lean toward Arminianism. In polity they follow strict Bap. principles and are opposed to all ecclesiastical organizations.
25. Duck River (and Kindred) Associations of Baptists. As a protest against the theory of a limited Atonement, a number of Bap. churches withdrew from the strictly Calvinistic Elk River (Tennessee) Assoc. and in 1825 organized the Duck River Assoc. This assoc. and smaller ones in the mountains of Tennessee occupy a mediating position between Calvinism and Arminianism, and are closely related to the Separate, United, and Regular Baps. These associations frown on every form of denominational organization and have no miss. or benevolent societies.
26. Free Will Baptists. The hist. of so-called Freewill Baps. is difficult to trace because they developed no real denominational consciousness and had no interest in organizing a denomination. The earliest group of Arminian Baps. known as Freewill Baps. was gathered 1727 by Paul Palmer in North Carolina Subsequently the Philadelphia Assoc. (see also 4) exerted its Calvinistic influence, and during the 18th c. the Freewill Baps. almost disappeared. Toward the close of that c. John Randall, a Cong., who had embraced Arminian and Bap. views, was denied fellowship with the Regular Baps. in New Eng. and sought fellowship with the Freewill Baps. of the middle and S Atlantic states. This and other support from N Freewill Baps. enabled the Southern Freewillers to reorganize and gradually to expand their work considerably. In the course of time the Freewill Baps. of New Eng., also known as Free Baps., lost heavily to the Adventist* movement; the remnant united with N. Bap. Conv. 1911 (see also 8) and are no longer separate group. In doctrine Freewill Baps. accept Five Points of Arminianism,* stressing particularly free will, stating that all men, at one time or another, are found in such capacity as that, through the grace of God, they may be eternally saved.
27. United Free Will Baptist Church, The. This is colored ch. corresponding in doctrine to the Freewill Baps. In polity this group grants greater authority to the assoc. or conf. than most Arminian Baps. Organized 1870, but apparently not clearly distinguished from white chs. Separate denomination organized 1901 as United Am. Free Will Bap. Ch. (Colored). American dropped in the 1950s.
28. United Baptists. The origin of this group is similar to that of Regular Baps. ignoring the distinction between Calvinistic and Arminian views. In recent yrs. many United Bap. churches, while retaining their hist. name and affiliation with their respective associations, are also enrolled with the N or S Bap. Conventions.
31. National Baptist Evangelical Life and Soul Saving Assembly of the U. S. (A.) Founded 1921 by A. A. Banks in Kansas City.
35. Two Bap. groups were organized in the 1960s. Their classification is not given. The Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc. was organized in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1961. Bethel Ministerial Association, Inc., began in Evansville, Indiana, 1934 as Evangelistic Ministerial Alliance; became Bethel Bap. Assem.; inc. under present name in Indiana 1960. FEM
Organized Kettering, Northants, Eng., October 2, 1792, as result of sermons preached by W. Carey.* Worked in India, Ceylon, China, Palestine, Afr., and W Indies. See also Bentley, William Holman; Marshman, Joshua.
Building, ususally connected with ch. in which Baptism is performed. Earliest known (256) is that at Duro-Europos. The one at the Lateran is said to date from time of Constantine. See also Church Architecture, 5.
(Heb. son of the law). Term applied to Jewish boy at 13; also the ceremony which recognizes the boy as a bar mitzvah.
Jewish book containing teachings of Tanna not included in the Mishnah.
Indep. (1966) state (parliamentary democracy) in the West Indies; most easterly of the Caribbean* island; sometimes grouped with the Lesser Antilles. Area: ca. 166 sq. mi. Probably first contacted by Port. in the 16th c.; under Eng. influence since 1605; mem. of the Commonwealth of Nations 1966. Ethnic composition: ca. 90% Black, ca. 5% mixed, ca. 5% Caucasian, mainly of Brit. origin. Language: English. Religion: ca. 70% Angl.; the rest mostly Meth., Moravian, Pent., and RC.
Acc. to tradition, daughter of a pagan in Nicomedia. Martyred by her father after conversion to Christianity. Praised by John* of Damascus (MPG 96, 781814); included in Menologion* of Symeon* Metaphrastes (MPG 116, 301316). Mentioned in Ap XXI 35.
(164890). B. Gordonstoun (or Gordonstown), N Moray (or Morayshire), Scot.; educ. RC at Paris, Fr.; joined Soc. of Friends* 1667; repeatedly imprisoned. Works include Truth Cleared of Calumnies; A Catechism and Confession of Faith; Theses theologicae; Theologiae vere Christianae apologia (Eng. title An Apology for the True Christian Divinity). See also Democratic Declarations of Faith, 4.
(15961679). Opponent of Cromwell.
(and Nuns). Popular name for members of various orders who wear no footcovering whatsoever or only sandals. They are also known as discalced (e.g., discalced Carmelites*), though this term is properly applied only to those who wear sandals. The custom was introd. in the W by Francis* of Assisi, probably with reference to Mt. 10:10. It has been followed by the stricter branches of many orders, e.g., Augustinian* Hermits, Franciscans,* Passionists,* Trinitarians.*
(18341924). Educ. Cambridge; held a number of positions as clergyman, last in Devonshire; wrote Lives of the Saints and numerous other works; best-known hymn: Onward, Christian Soldiers.
In harmony with the basic principle of the National* Socialism, as attempt was made by the Deutsche Christen to make the people's state central in religion. The 1st Deutsche Christen movement, a Kirchenbewegung (ch. movement) also called Thüringen Deutsche Christen, began 1927; the 2d, a Glaubensbewegung (faith movement), began 1932; for a time they were assoc. but separate again November 1933. They held that the Deutsche* Ev. Kirche should endorse the social miracle of the Volkswerden achieved through the nat. socialist revolution. They tried to express a new Christ striving in a united people's community. The basic principle of the movement, die Vokskirche bekennt sich zu Blut und Rasse, was stated in the 1st of the Twenty-Eight Theses of the Braune Synode, held in Saxony (prepared by Walter Grundmann-Dressden and others, 1933).
Various opposition fronts developed (e.g. the Pfarrernotbund of M. Niemöller*). The most important were the opposition Bekenntnissynoden. On January 34, 1934, 320 pastors gathered in the Ref. ch. in Barmen-Gemarke (Mittel-Barmen; Central, or Middle Barmen; originally an area discrete from Ober-Barmen [Upper Barmen] and Unter-Barmen [Lower Barmen]). There K. Barth's* Bekenntnis der freien Kirchensynode was accepted as an answer to the Twenty-Eight Theses. In 5 parts (I. The Church in the Present Time; II. The Church under the Word of God; III. The Church in the World; IV. The Message of the Church; V. The Power of the Church) this confession fought against the aggrandizement of humanity in the ch. and stressed the need of submission to, and dependence on, God. Similar synods were held in various places in Ger.; Barth became a prominent leader among Ger. opponents of the Deutsche Christen until stopped by Hitler. EL
K. D. Schmidt, Die Bekenntnisse und grundsätzlichen Aeusserungen zur Kirchenfrage des Jahres 1933 (Vol. I). Vol. II: Das Jahr 1934. Vol. III: Das Jahr 1935 (Göttingen, 193436); S. Herman, It's Your Souls We Want (New York, 1943); G. Niemöller, Die erste Bekenntnissynode der Deutschen Evangelischen Kirche zu Barmen, in Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Kirchenkampfes, ed. K. D. Schmidt, Vols. 56 (Göttingen, 1959).
(Clerici regulares S. Pauli decollati). RC religious order of clergy founded 1530 at Milan by Antonio M. Zaccaria (d. 1539), Bartolommeo Ferrari, and Giacomo Antonio Morigia. See also Counter Reformation, 6; Gavanti, Bartolom(m)eo; Gavazzi, Alessandro.
(18451905). B. Dublin; d. London. Founded Dr. Barnardo's Homes (for orphaned and destitute children); these homes cared for ca. 60,000 up to the time of Barnardo's death; the children were trained in the religion of their parents.
(17981870). Presb. theol.; exegetical writer. B. Rome, New York; d. Philadelphia; pastor Philadelphia; leader of liberals at 1837 disruption of Presb. Ch. (reunited 1870). See also Presbyterian Churches, 4 a.
(18741953). Angl. churchman and mathematician; master of Temple; canon Westminster; bp. Birmingham. Held that religious beliefs must meet the test of rationality and that sciences pointed to spiritual interpretation of reality. Faith must be reformulated to conform to scientific findings. Rejected virgin birth and bodily resurrection of Christ. Wrote Scientific Theory and Religion; The Rise of Christianity. See also Modern Churchmen's Union.
(ca. 14951540). Educ. Louvain and Cambridge; prior of Augustinian monastery, Cambridge; leader of scholars and future reformers who met secretly at the White Horse Inn, Cambridge, ca. 152125. Convicted of heresy by Wolsey 1526, Barnes fled to Continent 1528; became close friend of Luther, Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, and others at Wittenberg. At Wittenberg he wrote a Lat. epitome of the main doctrines of the AC titled Sententiae, A Supplication to the Most Gracious King Henry VIII which included 10 doctrinal essays and a short Lives of the Popes. After the fall of Wolsey (1529) Barnes became royal chaplain and an important figure in the Anglo-Luth. diplomacy 1532 to 1540. Burned at Smithfield 1540 when that diplomacy collapsed, he made a fine confession of faith, printed at Wittenberg with a preface by Luther. Helped form Wittenberg* Articles. Other works include Vitae romanorum pontificum; A Supplication unto the most gracious Prince King Henry VIII; Sentenciae ex doctoribus collectae, quas papistae ualde impudenter hodie damnant (under pseudonym Antonius Anglus). See also England, B 2.
Definitive ed. of his works: The Works of Tyndale, Frith and Barnes, ed. John Foxe (London, 1572); The Reformation Essays of Dr. Robert Barnes, ed. N. S. Tjernagel (London, 1963); E. G. Rupp, Studies in the Making of the English Protestant Tradition (Cambridge, 1949). NST
(15381607). RC theol.; studied theol. and law at Veroli and Naples; living in Cong. of the Oratory, Rome, he spent 30 yrs. gathering unpub. material in Vatican archives for Annales ecclesiastici a Christo nato ad annum 1198, RC reply to the Magdeburg* Centuries. See also Counter Reformation, 7; Saeculum obscurum.
(Sp. barrueco, irregularly shaped pearl). Term used in architecture and art for fantastic, grotesque, florid, or incongruous styles that began with Michelangelo in the 16th c. and ended with rococo in the 18th c. (see Church Architecture, 13). In music it applies to the period from ca. 1600 to 1750. See also Buxtehude, Dietrich; Monteverdi, Claudio Zuan [Giovanni] Antonio.
(163077). B. London. Angl. theol., mathematician. Ordained 1659; prof. math. Cambridge 1663 (resigned in favor of pupil Isaac Newton); vice-chancellor Cambridge 1675. Works include A Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy.
Bundle of twigs or small metal-wire rods used by Parsees in sacrificial ceremonies.
(Barsauma; ca. 415/435ca. 489/490). Studied under Ibas* at Edessa*; bp. Nisibis*; est. a theol. school at Nisibis that absorbed mems. of the school of Edessa 489. Chief founder of Nestorianism in Persia (see Middle East, I). See also Narsai.
(May 12, 1883February 17, 1965). Educ. Conc. Coll. Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem. St. Louis (grad. 1905). Pastor Bertrand, Nebraska, 190510, St. Louis, 191021; pres. Conc. Coll. Milwaukee, 192134; pastor Cincinnati, Ohio, 193445; pres. Conc. Sem. Springfield, Illinois, 194552; pastor West Allis, Wisconsin 195256. Mem. Bd. of Dir. LCMS 193441; 3d vice-pres. LCMS 194144, 2d vice-pres. 194445. Pres. Synodical* Conf. 195052. Wrote The Lord's Prayer; The Twenty-Third Psalm; The Life of Joseph; devotional booklets.
(18861968). B. Basel, Switz.; educ. Bern, Berlin, Tübingen, Marburg; asst. pastor Geneva 1909, Safenwil (Aargau canton) 1911; prof. Göttingen, Münster, Bonn, Basel. Influenced by K. G. A. v. Harnack,* neo-Kantians, socialism, S. A. Kierkegaard.*
Attacked attempts to fit the Christian message into man's preconceptions. Tried to keep Christianity from becoming an ideology, i. e. a product of culture. Opposed identifying human conclusions with Word of God and thereby destroying revelation. Held that theol. reflecting soc. and cultural situations lost its critical and prophetic role and that identification of a Weltanschauung (comprehensive conception of the world) with the Word of God rejected justification by grace.
Rejected natural theol. and the analogia* entis of Thomas* Aquinas; held the analogy of faith and, with Anselm* of Canterbury, a fides quaerens intellectum (faith leads, reason follows). God is wholly other. Interpretation of Scripture should not compromise with modern thought. Rejected metaphysical bases of theol. but used logical and linguistic aspects of philos. Regarded religion as a human product and distinguished it from revelation.
His theol. emphasizes a Christocentric approach to predestination. The work of Christ presupposes the work of the Father and has the work of the Spirit as a consequence. Beginning ca. 1925 he emphasized deus dixit (Lat. God said) from a Calvinistic point of view.
Stressed importance of dogmatics in the ch. its main function: to evaluate preaching. Dogmatics itself is tested by Scripture. Barth did not identify the Bible with the Word of God but stressed that it is a witness to the Word. His concept of relationship bet. Spirit and Word vitalizes Calvinism: when we hear the Word the Holy Spirit comes to us.
Works include Der Römerbrief; Die kirchliche Dogmatik; Fides quaerens intellectum; Das Wort Gottes und die Theologie; Dogmatik im Grundriss; Nein! Antwort an Emil Brunner; Die christliche Lehre nach dem Heidelberger Katechismus; Evangelium und Gesetz; Christengemeinde und Bürgergemeinde. EL
See also Barmen Theses; Dialectical Theology; East Asia Mission, German; Existentialism, 1; Holiness, 3; Kerygmatic Theology; Neoorthodoxy; Philosophy of Religion; Switzerland, Contemporary Theology in, 38.
(April 2, 1791July 24, 1859). One of the few who, in that rationalistic age, retained the old faith, he still held an influential govt. position at Leipzig; his home became a center of true piety and Biblical Christianity, esp. for the serious-minded among the students of the U. Emigrated with Martin Stephan* 1838. First treas. Mo. Syn. His son, Martin C. Barthel (February 12, 1838 to February 26, 1899), was the first gen. agent of publishing interests of Mo. Syn. (1860) and first mgr. CPH 186991.
Early on August 24, 1572, the tocsin rang in Paris, the signal for the massacre of Huguenot leaders. The massacre extended over the next 2 days and spread to the provinces. Estimates vary as to the number of victims. In Paris probably 3 or 4 thousand were killed; as many more were put to death in the provinces. The massacre was very likely determined by Catherine de Medicis, queen mother, for revenge on G. II de Coligny,* who had supplanted her temporarily as dominant influence over Charles IX. The Duke of Guise had charge of the murder of Coligny and the Huguenot leaders, all of whom had been carefully designated beforehand. They were in Paris at that time for the wedding of Margaret, daughter of Catherine and the late Henry II, to Henry of Navarre on August 18, 1572. This marriage was to reconcile the religious factions in Fr. which had been at war during much of the previous decade. The massacre, however, caused the 3d religious war. These wars were not ended until Henry of Navarre accepted RCm and issued the Edict of Nantes* 1598. The hist. controversy whether or not the massacre was a long-premeditated plan is one which cannot be resolved. In spite of some evidence that the plot goes back to 1565, no definite conclusions can be reached. See also Goudimel, Claude; Ramus, Petrus.
J. W. Thompson, The Wars of Religion in France, 15591576 (Chicago, 1909); J. E. Neale, The Age of Catherine de Medici, reissue (New York, 1959); Jean H. Marièjol. Catherine de Médicis (Paris, 1920); A. W. Whitehead, Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France (London, 1940). CSM
(Baccio della Porta; 14751517). One of the principal painters of Florentine Renaissance. Came under influence of Savonarola in his youth and destroyed all except his religious paintings. Joined Dominican order 1500. Prior persuaded him to paint. Influenced by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Bellini, II Giorgione, Michelangelo.
(131457). It. jurist; reformed dialectical method (already used by Odofredus); revived exegetical system of teaching law; wrote Commentary on the Code of Justinian; held ch. and state equal in authority; defended the principle rex in regno suo est imperator regni sui.
(ca. 15061534). Noted impostor at time of Henry VIII; used nervous disorder to simulate inspired possession, esp. in interest of hindering progress of Reformation in Eng.; confessed to fraud; beheaded London. Called (Holy) Maid of Kent; Nun of Kent; Nun of Canterbury.
(18551936). B. Charlotte, Vermont; ordained Cong. ministry 1885; ABCFM miss. Harpoot, Turkey, 188592; prof. Miss. Theol. Sem. 188892; pres. Euphrates Coll. Harpoot, 1893; ABCFM for. secy. 1894 to death; mem. various committees and commissions for Middle* East missions and philanthropies; trustee of various Middle East colleges. Wrote numerous books on Middle East missions.
(ca. 172490). Educ. reformer who advocated preparation of special textbooks and literature for children; emphasized pleasurable interest in teaching, object teaching, nature study, physical training. In his Philanthropinum at Dessau he was given opportunity to put his reform ideas into practice. Wrote Methodenbuch; Elementarwerk. See also Philanthropinism.
(143149). Last of the councils of the conciliar movement (see Councils and Synods, 7), convoked by Martin* V, presided over by Card. G. Cesarini, whom Eugenius IV confirmed in this office when he continued the council. Objectives of the council as stated in the first session: 1. Extirpation of heresy; 2. Reunion of all Christians; 3. Make provision for instruction in Catholicism; 4. Settle disputes between Christian princes; 5. Reformation in head and members; 6. Reestablishment of discipline. Declared dissolved by Eugenius December 18, 1431, the council nevertheless continued and reaffirmed the doctrine of the Council of Constance regarding the supremacy of the council over the pope. On December 15, 1433, Eugenius IV again recognized the council by the bull Dudum Sacrum. But the anti-papal climate of the council brought on many restrictions of the papacy. In 1437 the council granted the Bohemians the right to celebrate communion sub utraque. When the pope transferred the council to Ferrara (1437) to meet with the representatives of the E ch. a remnant remained at Basel, deposed the pope, and elected Amadeus VIII of Savoy as Pope Felix V. The Council of Ferrara met 143839, then was transferred to Florence, where it met 143942; then it was transferred to Rome, where it met 144245. In 1448 the rump council moved to Lausanne. After the death of Eugenius, Nicholas V was chosen pope and generally recognized. In 1449 Felix V abdicated and submitted to Nicholas V. See also Feast of Fools, 3; Florence, Council of; Gallicanism; Hussites.
J. Hardouin, Acta conciliorum, VIII and IX (Paris, 171415); J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, XXIXXXXI (Florence, 178898); J. Haller and others, Consilium Basiliense: Studien und Dokumente, 8 vols. (Basel, 18961936); P. Lazarus, Das Basler Konzil (Berlin, 1912); I. H. v. Wessenberg, Die Grossen Kirchenversammlungen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, (Constance, 1840). CSM
Offshoot of Deutsche Christentumsgesellschaft.* Founded as institute 1815 by C. F. Spittler,* Nikolaus von Brunn (17661849), and others, on impetus of K. F. A. Steinkopf.* C. G. Blumhardt* was its dir. till 1838. Est. as soc. 1822, when it first sent out missionaries on its own. F. J. Josenhans* (dir. 185079) systematized and industrialized the work of its missionaries and supervised erection of Basel Missionshaus. Female and medical missionaries were first sent out under O. Schott (dir. 187984). See also Christaller, Johann Gottlieb; Hartenstein, Karl; India, Republic of, 13; Indonesia, 4; Lechler, Rudolf; Missionary Institutes; Pfander, Karl Gottlieb; Riis, Andreas; Schmid(t), Friedrich; Stach, Jacob; Steimle, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias.
1. Name commonly given to most monks of E Ch. in Middle Ages. Though Basil the Great (see Cappadocian Theologians) did not write a monastic rule (individual oriental monasteries had their own rules), his Regulae fusius tractatae (MPG 31, 8891306) influenced E monasticism. 2. Adherents of Basil* of Ancyra who opposed Arians at Syn. of Ancyra 358. 3. Soc. of priests founded 1800 in Fr. for training priests.
(December 10, 1813October 3, 1868). B. Langenthal, Switz.; to Am. at 4; printer 1826 to 1836; at 23 attended Pennsylvania Coll. and the Luth. Theol. Sem. Gettysburg. Teacher, miss. pastor, dir. Licensed by W Pennsylvania Syn. 1842; founded several Luth. congs.; secy. of meeting that founded Pittsburgh Syn. January 1845; pres. Pittsburgh Syn. 1848 to 1850, 185658, 186567. Dir. Orphans' Farm School, Zelienople, Ohio, 185468. First pres. Gen. Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N Am. 1867 to 1868. See also Canada, B 5.
Bataks are a vital energetic people in the region of Lake Toba in N Sumatra (see Indonesia, 4). H. Lyman* and 3. Munson,* Am. missionaries who made the first attempt to reach the fierce Bataks, were killed 1834 as they approached the first village.
L. I. Nommensen,* sent by Rhenish* Mission Soc. entered the land alone 1864; he baptized 4 men with their wives and children (August 27, 1865). In 1877 he est. a theol. training school. Nommensen tr. NT into language of the Bataks (1878) and P. H. Johannsen the OT (1894).
The Batak Prot. Christian Ch. (Huria Kristen Batak Protestant) adapted the adat (ethical code of the Bataks), but its Confession rejects it as the basis of the ch. The AC and Luther's SC were included as conf. bases in the 1930 const. The Batak ch. drew up its own conf. (Confession of Faith of the Huria Kristen Batak Protestant) for admission into the LWF in 1951, probably because of resurgent nationalism. The conf. presents Luth. doctrine.
An ordained pastor is usually in charge of 8 to 14 Batak congregations, each of which has its own teacher-preacher assisted by lay presbyters. At the head of the ch. is the ephor.* The ch. has an extensive school system. Nommensen U. was est. 1954.
See also Zending Batak.
J. Ellwanger, The Batak Protestant Christian Church, CTM XXX (January 1959), 117; J. Sarumpaet-Hutabarat, Women under the Adat, Lutheran World, II (Summer 1955), 114125; A. Bäfverfeldt, Comparative Studies on Constitutions of Younger Churches, Lutheran World, I (Autumn 1954), 228 to 233; K. Bridston, A Younger Church in Stormy Seas, Lutheran World, II (Spring 1955), 7174; A. Lumbantobing, Christian Education in the Batak Church, Lutheran World, II (Autumn 1955), 291 to 296; H. Meyer, Study on the Transmission of our Faith as a Constitutive Element in the Growth of the Younger Churches, Lutheran World, I (Autumn 1954), 225227; F. A. Schiotz, A Visit Among the Bataks in Indonesia, Lutheran World Review, I (January 1949), 114; F. A. Schiotz, Lutheran World Missions, The International Review of Missions, XLIII (1954), 311322; M. H. Bro, Indonesia: Land of Challenges (New York, 1954). Theologische Existenz Heute, new series, No. 137: L. Schreiner, Das Bekenntnis der Batak-Kirche (Munich, 1966). EL
(18611929). Fr. RC Est. Revue Biblique with A. M.-H. Lagrange* 1892. His book on the Eucharist (1905) was put on the Index (1911). Opponent of Modernism. Wrote hist. of RC Ch. and development of papal power.
(180982). NT rationalistic critic; taught at Berlin until his Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes and Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker caused revocation of his license. Regarded Gospel story as figment of a single mind. See also Jesus, Lives of; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 10; Marx, Karl Heinrich.
(18771960). Taught at Marburg 1903; prof. NT Breslau 1913, Göttingen 1916. Wrote in area of NT and early Christian Fathers. Works include Griechisch-deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der übrigen urchristlichen Literatur. Ed. Theologische Literaturzeitung 193039. See also Lexicons, B.
(August 6, 1840February 11, 1899). B. Gettysburg, d. Philadelphia; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. and seminaries at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and Andover, Massachusetts; pastor Wheeling, West Virginia Norristown, Pennsylvania Indianapolis, Indiana Omaha, Nebraska; prof. Gettysburg Coll. 186980, 188396; also taught at Howard U. 1883 and Gettysburg Sem. 186973, 1883; dir. Gettysburg Sem. 188999; pres. 1895 to 1896; pres. Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 189597; wrote commentary on Luke.
(July 18, 1804April 14, 1868). B. Adams Co. Pennsylvania educ. Dickinson Coll. (Carlisle, Pennsylvania) and Princeton (New Jersey) and Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) seminaries. Pastor Boonsboro, Maryland teacher at Gettysburg Coll. 1831; prof. Gk. Pennsylvania Coll. its 2d pres. 185068. In 1844 mem. of com. that formed Abstract of the Doctrines and Practice of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland, which omitted or rejected all distinctively Luth. doctrines.
(181289). Ger. theol.; moved to religious life by C. Harms*; follower of E. W. Hengstenberg*; then influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher* and J. C. K. v. Hofmann*; prof. Rostock; deposed for utterances and publications without having been given permission to defend himself and without having Scriptural evidence cited against him; this procedure was later severely criticized even by staunch Lutherans.
(18581934). Prof. practical theol. Jena 1890, Kiel 1894. Chm. Ev. Socialist Congress; mem. Ger. peace delegation 1919. Wrote books and ed. periodicals in area of practical theol. Coed. Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart 1909 to 1913.
(1788 to 1843). B. Merseburg; d. Jena. Studied theol. and philol. at Leipzig. U. preacher Leipzig 1810; prof. Jena 1812; lectured on all branches of theol. except ch. hist.; interested chiefly in hist. of dogma. Advocated rational supernaturalism*; opposed crass rationalism, but also 95 theses of Claus Harms.*
(17921860). Prof. Blaubeuren sem. 1817; prof. Tübingen 1826. Founder and chief representative of Later Tübingen* School of theol.; applied G. W. F. Hegel's* principles of philos. to theol. The real essence of the Christian religion is to him the strictly ethical content of the teaching of Jesus, to the exclusion of the miraculous element; Peter represents the particularistic Jewish, Paul the universalistic heathen-Christian viewpoint of Christ's teaching; in the 2d c. these teachings were gradually brought into agreement; thus the Christian religion has a perfectly natural hist. development; of Paul's Epistles only those to the Romans, Corinthians, and Galatians are genuine; all the rest, because of their conciliatory tendency, are considered spurious. See also Ewald, Georg Heinrich August; Exegesis; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 10 and 12; Paul, Lives of; Ritschl, Albrecht Benjamin; Schwegler, Friedrich Carl Albert; Strauss, David Friedrich; Weizsäcker, Karl Heinrich von; Wieseler, Karl; Zeller, Eduard.
(January 21, 1854March 3, 1922). Am. theol. Educ. Wittenberg Coll. Springfield, Ohio; pastor Tippecanoe City, Bucyrus, Springfield, and Canton, Ohio; prof. hist. and practical theol. Hamma Divinity School, Springfield, Ohio, 1896 to 1922; dean of sem. 191122. Helped organize ULC(A) 1918. Ed. Lutheran World 190112; pres. of The Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 190507. Works include Is the Ministry an Attractive Vocation? and The Lutheran Movement of the Sixteenth Century.
(17961867). Fr. philos. and theol.; prof. Strasbourg and Sorbonne; follower of Kant; rejected rational theistic arguments but was required to sign statements upholding the rationality of the existence of God, immortality, and revelation.
(18951965). B. Rotterdam, Neth.; miss. Indonesia; prof. Amsterdam and Kampen, Neth. Works include Inleiding in de Zendingswetenschap (tr. D. H. Freeman, An Introduction to the Science of Missions); The Church Between Temple and Mosque; The Impact of Christianity on the Non-Christian World. See also Indonesia, 2.
(161591). Educ. Wroxeter; chaplain in one of Cromwell's regiments; chaplain to Charles II; refused bishopric of Hereford; afterwards took out license as nonconformist* minister; works include Saints' Everlasting Rest. Hymnist; wrote Lord, It Belongs Not to My Care.
(16471706). Fr. philos.; prof. Sedan and Rotterdam; skeptic; considered faith and reason exclusive realms; emphasized freedom of thought and toleration. Wrote Pensèes diverses sur la cométe de 1680; Critique gènèrale de l'Histoire du calvinisme du P. Maimburg; Dictionnaire historique et critique. See also Enlightenment, 2; Rationalism.
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