Document entitled An Affirmation Designed to Safeguard the Unity and Liberty of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, signed by 1,274 Presb. ministers, pub. 1924, regarding toleration of divergence from traditional theol. views. The strict constructionist party within the ch. wanted the candidates for the ministry to affirm the 5 essential and necessary doctrines of 1910. The broadening influence within the ch. wanted to permit differing theories about the inspiration of the Bible, Incarnation, Atonement, Resurrection, and the continuing life and supernatural power of Christ. Pleading the safeguarding of liberty of thought, it opposed any attempt to elevate the 5 doctrinal statements to tests of ordination or of good standing in the ch. The signers of the affirmation declared that these are not the only theories allowed by the Scriptures and our standards as explanations of these facts and doctrines of our religion and asked for the preservation of the unity and the freedom of the ch. See also Presbyterian Churches, 4 a.
L. A. Loetscher, The Broadening Church: A Study of Theological Issues in the Presbyterian Church Since 1869 (Philadelphia, 1954). CSM
Declaration adopted by New* School Presbyterians 1838 both as protest against the Plan of Union, an instrument to foster inter-denominational miss. work, and as restatement of Calvinism against the charge of Arminianism.
Organized 1818 by those who thought Princeton too narrow; opened for students 1821 at Auburn, New York, under control of the Syn. of Geneva. An institution of The Presb. Ch. in the USA, it became assoc. with Union Theol. Sem., NYC, 1939.
Anthropomorphic Christian sect, schismatic, Quartodeciman (see Easter Controversy), and increasingly heretical; founded by Audius, 4th-c. Mesopotamian lay critic of the clergy's worldly ways, who was ordained bp. illicitly, banned to Scythia, and in old age worked as miss. among Goths.*
(18321874). B. Württemberg; educ. Miss. Training School, Basel; sent to W Afr. 1858; joined Episc. Ch. 1862; head of school at Cavalla, Liberia, 1867; ordained bp. of Cape Palmas 1873. Works include primer, dictionary, tr. of Psalms and other parts of Bible, hymnbook, prayer book in the Grebo language; primer and Bible hist. in the Kru language.
(1555). Est. bet. Ferdinand I and the princes of the Ger. Empire at Augsburg September 25, 1555. Since the Diet of Worms* the followers of Luther had been in a precarious position, in spite of the modifications at the Diet of Speyer* (1526). The formation of the Schmalkaldic* League and the desire of Charles* V to extirpate heresy led to the Schmalkaldic* War. With defeat of the emp. at Innsbruck and the Convention of Passau* (1552) settlement was made. Catholicism and Lutheranism (but not Calvinism) were recognized according to the principle of cuius regio, eius religio: the ruler of the territory chooses the religion that the subjects are bound to follow. Those who did not agree to the ruler's religion were permitted to emigrate. Both religions were allowed to continue in the Imperial cities, where they were already est. By the reservatum ecclesiasticum (ecclesiastical reservation) a RC prelate who turned Lutheran was to give up his office. The pope protested, but the emp. did not override the peace. It was, however, a concession to territorialism (see Territorial System), not toleration. Some of the provisions of the Peace were among the causes of the Thirty* Years War. It was superseded 1648 by the Peace of Westphalia.*
See also Adiaphoristic Controversies.
Text in Church and State Through the Centuries, eds. S. Z. Ehler and J. B. Morrall (London, 1954), pp. 164173; L. W. Spitz Jr., Particularism and Peace: Augsurg - 1555, Church History, XXV (June 1956), 110126. CSM
(1518). Convened to obtain Ger. subsidy for the pope at war with Turks. M. Luther's enemies used the opportunity to prejudice princes and Maximilian* I against the Reformer, even forging theses on the papal ban and claiming they were by Luther. After the Diet, Cajetan* gave Luther a hearing (see Luther, Martin, 10). See also Frederick III (14631525); Nürnberg, Diets of.
A Luth. syn. of the Miss. Valley. The Ger. Augsburg Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. was organized May 5, 1876. It consisted largely of people who did not feel at home among the liberal men of the Gen. Syn. It had congregations in Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Maryland, Arkansas, and Tennessee Its organ was Der Sendbote von Augsburg. In 1897 the Augsburg Syn. united with the Michigan Syn. after the latter's withdrawal from the Syn. Conf. But in 1900 the two synods separated again because of doctrinal differences, and in 1902 the Augsburg Syn. was dissolved; many of its members entered the Ohio Syn. See also Michigan Synod.
Est. 1869 Marshall, Wisconsin, by the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. in N. Am. (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 8); moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1872 by The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Norwegian Danish Augustana Synod in America, The); parts of Augsburg Theol. Sem. helped form Luther Sem. (Norw.), St. Anthony Park. St. Paul, Minnesota (see Luther Theological Seminary, 4); after 1879 LFC; united 1963 with Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota, on the latter's campus. See also Luther Theological Seminary, 1, 4
(15261586). Succeeded his brother Maurice in 1553; staunch Lutheran, but, hoodwinked by the Crypto-Calvinists, he deposed the true Lutherans who opposed the Calvinizing Wittenberg Catechism and the Dresden Consensus. When, however, Exegesis perspicua, by J. Cureus,* appeared in 1574, which actually attacked the Luth. doctrine of the Lord's Supper, he imprisoned the deceivers and spent 80,000 Taler to help bring into being the Book of Concord of 1580. See also Crypto-Calvinistic Controversy; Lutheran Confessions, C 2; Peucer, Kaspar.
1. After cong. beginnings 1848, The Scand. Ev.-Luth. Augustana Syn. in [or of] N. Am., or briefly, The Augustana Syn. (den Skandinaviska Evangelisk-Lutherska Augustana Synoden i Nord Amerika, eller korteligen, Augustana Synoden) was founded 1860 (see 28); adopted the name Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch. or, briefly, the Augustana Luth. Ch. 1948; merged with the AELC, The Finnish Ev. Luth. Ch. of Am., and the ULC June 28, 1962, Detroit, Michigan, to form the LCA.
2. A small body of Swed. immigrants arrived 1845 in the Miss. Valley, settling in Jefferson Co., Iowa, calling their community New Sweden. January 1848 they organized a cong. Because no ordained pastor was available, they called one of their own number, M. F. Haakanson,* to preach and administer the sacraments. He was a shoemaker who once had planned to be a miss. to the Laplanders. Though lacking theol. educ. and somewhat vacillating doctrinally, he was a fluent preacher. From the outset the cong. was beset by proselytizers who tried to shake the convictions of Hokanson and disrupt the flock. Only the timely arrival of stronger spiritual leaders from Swed. saved a remnant; thus New Swed. became the starting point of the future August Luth. Ch.
3. The first ordained Swed. Luth. pastor to arrive in the Midwest was L. P. Esbjörn.*. Strongly pietistic, like many of his fellow clergymen in Swed., he felt deeply distressed over the low state of morals and spiritual life in the Established Ch. Though thoroughly loyal to the Luth. theol. position, free ch. evangelistic movements based in Eng. influenced his thinking. Moved by reports of spiritual destitution among his countrymen who had migrated to Am., he determined to cast his lot with them. Together with 146 emigrants, many of whom were from his own parish of Östervaala, Esbjörn, accompanied by his wife and 6 small children, sailed from Gävle June 29, 1849, for the New World.
4. Before they reached their destination at Andover, Illinois, 3 months later, many had succumbed to cholera and other diseases. Among the victims were 2 of Esbjörn's children. Esbjörn himself was stricken with cholera in Chicago, but recovered. When he reached Andover, he found his party disintegrating. Some had moved to other places; others had deserted to sects. So hostile was the attitude of many Swed. immigrants toward the State Ch. of Swed. that Esbjörn was constrained to lay aside his clerical garb and use of liturgy. But his bitter experiences with the sects caused him to lose all enthusiasm for free church tendencies. In his first published appeal to Scandinavians he warned them against proselytizers and exhorted them to remain loyal to the AC and Luther's SC. It was not until March 18, 1850, that he effected the organization of a Luth. cong., and only 10 persons became charter members. Andover thus became the first congregation of the future August Syn. to be organized and served by an ordained pastor.
5. Esbjörn's field of labor was soon extended to Moline, Rock Island, Galesburg, Princeton, Swedona, and other places. He also visited New Swed., where he gave encouragement to Hokanson. Beset by poverty and hardships, he made an extended trip in 1851 to Luth. centers in E states to gather funds for his work. He obtained $2,200, of which $1,500 was given by Jenny Lind, the Swedish Nightingale, then touring Am. This money helped build small church structures at Andover and Moline, Illinois, and New Swed., Iowa.
6. When the Ev. Luth. Syn. of N Illinois* was organized in September 1851, Esbjörn became a mem., but only after taking exception to the doctrinal basis of the new body, which grudgingly acknowledged the AC as mainly correct. On Esbjörn's request it was entered into the minutes of the Syn. that his congregations had written into their constitutions that the Symbolical Books of the Lutheran Church contain a correct summary and exposition of the divine Word; wherefore we declare and adopt them as the foundation of our faith and doctrine, next to the Holy Scriptures. Esbjörn's correspondence from this period reveals his hope that with the arrival of more Scand. Luth. in the Midwest there would be a rising tide of confessional Lutheranism, and that The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA, of which the Syn. of N Illinois became a part, would eventually be dominated by the conservative element.
7. When immigration began to reach flood tide, Esbjorn sent appeals for help to P. Fjellstedt* and P. J. Wieselgren (See Sweden, Lutheranism in, 5), pietist leaders in Swed. Those who came to Am. in response to the call included E. Carlsson,* T. N. Hasselquist,* E. Norelius,* and J. Swensson.*
8. With the arrival of more pastors from Swed. and Norw. the conservative Scand. elements soon dominated the Syn. of N Illinois Within the Syn. were some Norwegian Congregations organized as the Chicago Conf. The Swedes formed the Mississippi Conf. Friction developed between the Scand. and the New Lutherans. In 1858 Esbjörn* had become a prof. at Illinois* State U. He soon found himself in conflict with the Neo-Luth. elements, and on March 31, 1860, resigned, advised the Scand. students to go home, and left for Chicago. At a meeting of the two Scandinavian conferences in Chicago, April 23, 1860, Esbjörn's action was endorsed. An indep. syn. was planned. At Jefferson Prairie, Rock County, Wisconsin, June 511, 1860, representatives of the Swed. and Norw. churches voted unanimously to found the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. of [or in] N. Am. The const. acknowledged the Holy Scriptures as the revealed Word of God and the only infallible rule and standard of faith and practice, accepted the Apostolic, Nicene, and Athanasian Creeds, and declared adherence to the unaltered Augsburg Confession as a short and correct summary of the principal Christian doctrines, understood as developed and explained in the other Symbolical Books of the Lutheran Church. See also Augsburg Theological Seminary; General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 4.
9. Hasselquist was elected pres. of the synod. Augustana* Theol. Sem. was est. at Chicago 1860, with Esbjörn as its head. Norwegians (O. J. Hatlestad* et al.) withdrew peaceably from the syn. 1870, leaving the Swedes to work out their own destiny. See also Norwegian-Danish Augustana Synod in America, The.
10. The formation of the August Syn. was regarded by many as presaging the breakup of the Gen. Syn. because of doctrinal laxity. This occurred 1867, when the Gen. Council was formed. Delegates of the August Syn. attended meetings of the Council from the beginning. In 1870, the yr. of the Norw. withdrawal, the August Syn. joined the Council. But when the Council merged with the Gen. Syn. and the United Syn. of the S 1918 to form the ULC(A), the August Syn. voted not to be part of the new body. In 1930 it participated with the ALC, the Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. (later ELC), the LFC, and the United Dan. Luth. Ch. (later UELC;) in forming the American* Luth. Conf. When a movement was launched 20 yrs. later to form an organic union of the 5 conf. bodies, the Augustana Syn. joined in the preliminary negotiations but later withdrew from the project, which issued 1960 in the formation of The American* Lutheran Church. The August Syn., on the other hand, accepted an overture from the ULC(A) to join that church in inviting all other Luth. bodies to take part in conversations looking toward organic union. The Fin. Ev. Luth. Ch. and the AELC accepted the invitation. In June 1962 they met with the ULC(A) and the August Syn. in a constituting conv. in Detroit to found the Lutheran* Church in America. In keeping with a tradition inherited from the Ch. of Swed., the August Syn. throughout its hist. showed a deep interest in ecumenicity. In 1918 it was one of the founders of the National* Lutheran Council. In 1923 it helped organize the LWC, now The Lutheran* World Federation. In 1948 it was one of the founding churches of the World* Council of Churches, and in 1950 a charter mem. of the National* Council of Churches of Christ in the United States of America.
11. Lutherans of other Eur. origins found themselves split into segments in Am., but the August Syn. never divided but remained the one Luth. gen. body of Swed. background in the US and Canada. Theol. controversies with the Evangelical Mission Covenant Church of America over the doctrine of the Atonement marked the early hist. of the Augustana Syn. See also Evangelical Covenant Church of America, The.
12. During its 102yr. hist. the August Syn. extended its home miss. activities from the Atlantic to the Pacific and into Canada. Congregations were est. in 35 states and the Dist. of Columbia as well as 5 Can. provinces. The church's 13 major divisions, called conferences, were divided into districts. Originally under the jurisdiction of the conferences, home miss. became the responsibility of a syn. bd. 1938, beginning a strong centralization trend that continued till the August Syn. became part of the LCA
13. In for. miss. outreach the August Syn. in its 2d yr. contributed funds to the Swed. Miss. Soc. in Stockholm and the Hermannsburg Miss. in Ger. When the August Syn. became part of the Gen. Council 1870, it shared in the miss. work of that body in India and cooperated in Puerto Rico, where the Luth. Ch. was planted by an August Syn. pastor. An indep. China Miss. Soc., launched in Minnesota 1902, was taken over by the syn. 1908. A large field was developed in China's Honan Province before the Jap. invasion and the following Communist revolution. In 1922 the August Syn. took over the Leipzig Miss. in Tanganyika, Afr. When Ger. missionaries, expelled from Tanganyika in WW I, were allowed to return 1924, the August Syn. opened a new field in Iramba. Under jurisdiction of the LWF the August Syn. assumed principal responsibility for 3 large Ger. missions orphaned at the outbreak of WW II. See also Japan; Lutheran Foreign Mission Endeavors in the United States, Early, 8.
14. When it became part of the LCA, the August Syn. was maintaining a theol., sem., 4 liberal arts colleges, and a junior college. Gustavus Adolphus Coll. had its beginnings 1862 in Red Wing, Minnesota, was moved to E Union, Carver County, Minnesota, and in 1876 found a permanent home in St. Peter, Minnesota Bethany Coll., noted for its Messiah festivals, was founded 1881 as an academy at Lindsborg, Kansas Upsala Coll., founded 1893, first had its home in Brooklyn churches moved to Kenilworth, New Jersey, 1898, and finally located in E Orange, New Jersey. Luther Coll., Wahoo, Nebraska, an academy and jr. coll. founded 1883, ceased to function with the formation of the LCA; its assets were absorbed by Midland Coll.. The August Syn. also cooperated with other Luth. bodies in maintaining a theol. sem. at Saskatoon, Sask., for training a Canadian ministry and supporting Pacific Luth. Coll., Texas Luth. Coll., and California Luth. Coll..
15. The August Syn. and its conferences showed an early interest in charitable work. Immanuel Deaconess Institute, Omaha, Nebraska, where deaconesses have been trained for many yrs., developed into a colony of mercy. When the August Syn. merged with other churches in 1962, 11 hospitals, 17 homes for the aged, 10 children's homes, 9 hospices and inner miss. homes for young women, and 2 immigrant and seamen's homes were being supported.
16. The first pub. of the August Syn. appeared 1855 in Galesburg, Illinois, when Hasselquist began printing a newspaper called The Homeland: the Old and the New. In 1856 he launched an exclusively religious paper called The True Homeland, the forerunner of Augustana, the church's Swed. pub. Its Eng. weekly, The Lutheran Companion, began 1892 as The Alumnus, merged 1950 with Augustana to form The Augustana Lutheran. But its new name was not popular and 1952 it reappeared as The Lutheran Companion. In 1963 it was absorbed by The Lutheran. August Book Concern, Rock Island, Illinois, founded as a private corporation, was taken over 1889 by the church In 1963 it became an institution of the Bd. of Publication of the LCA.
17. Auxiliary organizations of the August Syn. included the August Luth. Ch. Women, formerly known as the Women's Miss. Soc., which for 70 yrs. gave strong support to the miss. program of the ch.; the August Churchmen, a laymen's group; and the August Luther League, the youth organization of the ch. All 3 groups were incorporated into the corresponding organizations of the LCA at the time of merger.
18. While the August Syn. in polity and practice was theoretically congregational, it carried over from the State Ch. of Swed. a concept of the church as something more than the sum total of its local congregations All candidates for the ministry were ordained at syn. meetings by the pres. of the church A call from a cong. was essential for ordination; through ordination the pastor became a mem. of the August Ministerium and in that sense a minister of the ch. The syn. const. stated that the church shall consist of all pastors and congregations regularly connected with it. The August Syn. never adopted the episc. form of govt., which the Ch. of Swed. carried over from the pre-Reformation ch., but it constantly increased the authority of its pres. and its conf. executives, and the wearing of pectoral crosses became a prevailing practice among these officials.
19. Services in Swed., at first general in all pioneer churches, became increasingly rare following WW I and virtually ceased in all congregations by 1962. But much of the rich hymn heritage of the Ch. of Swed. is preserved in tr. in the August hymnals of 1901 and 1925; some of it is retained in the Service Book and Hymnal, in which the liturgy also reflects influences of the Ch. of Swed.
20. Pres. of the August Syn.: T. N. Hasselquist, 186070; Jonas Swensson, 187073; Eric Norelius, 187481; Erland Carlsson, 188188; S. P. A. Lindahl, 188891; P. J. Svärd, 189199; Eric Norelius, 18991911; L. A. Johnston, 191118; G. A. Brandelle, 191835; P. O. Bersell, 193551; Oscar A. Benson, 195159; Malvin H. Lundeen, 195962. Final statistics showed a baptized membership of 629,547. EER
E. Norelius, De svenska luterska församlingarnas och svenskarnes historia i Amerika (Rock Island, 1890); G. M. Stephenson, The Religious Aspects of Swedish Immigration (Minneapolis, 1932); American Origin of the Augustana Synod, eds. O. F. Ander and O. L. Nordstrom (Rock Island, 1942); Century of Life and Growth: Augustana, 18481948, hist. ed. O. N. Olson (Rock Island, 1948); A. R. Wentz, Lutheran Church in American History, 2d rev. ed. (Philadelphia, 1933) and A Basic History of Lutheranism in America (Philadelphia, 1955); O. N. Olson, Augustana Lutheran Church in America, Vol. 1: Pioneer Period, 18461860 (Rock Island, 1950); G. E. Arden, Augustana Heritage (Rock Island, 1963).
Beloit, Iowa. Began 1874 at Springfield, near Decorah, Iowa, in a parsonage of The Norwegian*-Dan. Augustana Syn. in Am.; moved 1876 to Marshall, Wisconsin, and operated in conjunction with Marshall Academy (est. there 1869 by the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. of [or in] N. Am.; see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 8); name Augustana Sem. adopted 1878; moved 1881 to Beloit, Iowa, across the state line from Canton, South Dakota (the academy, known as Augustana Coll., moved to Canton; helped form Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 1917); merged 1890 with parts of Augsburg* Theol. Sem. and with the sem. of the Anti*-Missouri Brotherhood at St. Olaf Coll., Northfield, Minnesota, to form Luther Sem. (Norw.), St. Anthony Park, St. Paul, Minnesota (see Luther Theological Seminary, 4).
Rock Island, Illinois Founded as Augustana Coll. and Theol. Sem. in Chicago, Illinois, 1860; moved to Paxton, Illinois, 1863, to Rock Island, Illinois, 1875; the sem. became a separate entity 1948; helped form the Lutheran* School of Theol. at Chicago 1962. See also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 9; Ministry, Education of, X M; Norelius, Eric.
(17721841). B. Eschenberga, near Gotha, Ger.; stud. theol. at Jena; prof. philos. Jena 1800; prof. Oriental languages 1823; prof. theol. Breslau 1812, Bonn 1819; counselor of consistory Koblenz 1828; its pres. 1835. Wrote in field of archaeology, hist. of dogma, and introd. to OT.
(d. ca. 604). Arrived Eng. 597 with ca. 40 other persons, including ca. 30 monks, a priest, and interpreters; after baptizing Ethelbert* of Kent, converted and baptized many Anglo-Saxons; first abp. Canterbury. See also Bertha of Kent; Paulinus of York; Popes, 4; Worship, Orders of, 7.
(Lat. Aurelius Augustinus; 354430). One of the greatest of. the Lat. ch. Fathers and one of the outstanding figures of all ages. B. Tagaste, d. Hippo, both in Afr. His father, Patricius, though a mem. of the council of his hometown, was not esp. distinguished for either learning or wealth and remained hostile to the Christian ch. till shortly before his death in 371, when he was baptized. His mother Monica* was a consecrated woman, whose Christian virtues he praised in his writings. He was enrolled as a catechumen. Because of his fine progress in studies, a friend sent him to Madauros and Carthage for formal study. At Carthage he was drawn into sexual excesses, living with a mistress, by whom he had a son, Adeodatus, 372. While studying rhetoric and philos. he came under the influence of Manichaeism,* holding its views for ca. 9 yrs. without becoming a formal convert. Later be wrote Reply to Faustus the Manichaean, showing the unscriptural nature of Manichaeism. He taught grammar at Tagaste and rhetoric first at Carthage and then Milan, where he met Ambrose.* But, rejecting Manichaeism, Augustine was influenced by Neoplatonism,* as his early writings, esp. Of True Religion, show. It is hard to determine from his writings when he was converted. His own account is in his Confessions.
In the spring of 387, after many sessions with Ambrose and study of the Bible, Augustine was baptized. Returning to Afr., he sold his possessions and founded a monastic-like clerical school. His Christianity remained strongly ascetic. In 395 he was consecrated as coadjutor to Bishop Valerius of Hippo and soon succeeded to the office. He was a pastor till death. His writings, esp. the letters, show that most of his time and thought was spent on pastoral concerns.
For more than 30 yrs. Augustine was the leading theologian of Afr. Christianity. His influence at various synods was decisive. As the defender of the catholic faith he struggled against the Donatists and the Pelagians. In his writings against the Donatists, esp. On Baptism, he develops his theol. on the nature of the ch. and the sacraments. But it is esp. in his writings against the Pelagians, e.g., Of Grace and Free Will, that Augustine makes his great contribution to catholic theol. He clearly asserts man's total inability to exercise his will favorably before God, and stresses on the other hand that God is absolutely sovereign, indeed irresistible, in His gracious activity. His formulations were the center of theol. discussion through the Middle Ages. See also Free Will.
In 410 the Goths sacked Rome. The pagans blamed the Christians and their God for this disaster. Augustine put the capstone on his theol. activity by defending the Christians against this charge in City of God. He showed that the Father of Jesus Christ and the ch., of which He is the Head, can never be identified with any one society, culture, or state. God directs all hist. toward a purpose that is beyond human structures, the City of God.
Other works include De Genesi ad litteram; De spiritu et littera; De Trinitate. WWO
See also Alaric; Analogia entis; Augustinian Rule; Bible Versions, J 2; Credo ut intelligam; Deaf, 2; Docta ignorantia; Doctor of the Church; Donatist Schism, The; Fathers of the Church; Federal Theology; Patristics, 6; Pelagian Controversy, 3, 6; Philosophy; Preaching, History of, 6; Psychology, E 23; Restitution; Time.
MPL, 3247; NPNF, Ser. 1, IVIII; S. J. Grabowski, The Church: An Introduction to the Theology of St. Augustine (St. Louis, 1957); A. C. Pegis, The Mind of St. Augustine (Toronto, 1944); E. Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Augustine, tr. L. E. M. Lynch (New York, 1960); A Companion to the Study of Saint Augustine, ed. R. W. Battenhouse (New York, 1955).
(Augustinian Friars; Hermits of St. Augustine. For Augustinian Canons see Canons Regular). Order formed 1256 by Pope Alexander IV by merging several small hermit bodies. Intended as counterpoise to growing power of older mendicant orders (Franciscans and Dominicans); linked more closely to papacy than they. The so-called Augustinian* Rule was the basis of its rather strict regulations. Soon the hermit character was exchanged for that of mendicancy, and the Augustinians became known as the 4th of the great mendicant orders (see Mendicant Friars). The order spread rapidly and in its prime had no less than 2,000 monasteries and 30,000 members In the 14th c. a decline in discipline led to reforms; as a result part of the order became barefooted* monks. The Ger. congregation of the order was divided into 4 provinces. Luther entered the Erfurt monastery in the Saxon province 1505, tortured himself with rigorous privations of every kind, and went about with a sack as a mendicant. The provincial, Johann von Staupitz, referred him to Christ, encouraged him to study the Scriptures, caused him to be called to the U. of Wittenberg, and remained his friend, though he himself continued in the RC Ch. But so many other Augustinians, including Staupitz's successor, accepted Luther's doctrine, that the Ger. cong. of the order ceased to exist 1526; it was reestablished 1895 as a province. The Augustinians have been active chiefly as teachers and writers, but also as missionaries. They were the miss. pioneers in the Philippines. The motherhouse of the order in the US is at Villanova, Pennsylvania See also Luther Martin, 3; Recollects.
Basis of regulations of Augustinian* hermits; grew out of documents ascribed to Augustine* of Hippo. Chief teachings: love of God and neighbor; common life and the virtues necessary for it; abstinence; care of sick; authority; weekly reading for free followers of divine grace. See also Ambrosians; Dominicans.
(Augustine of Ancona; Agostino Trionfo; 12431328). Italian Augustinian hermit; versatile lecturer and preacher. Works include Summa de potestate ecclesiastica first comprehensive handbook of papacy; defended theory of power of ch. over state.
(Gaius Octavius; Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus; 63 BC14 AD). Grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar (10044; Roman statesman and gen.); stepfather of Tiberius*; b. Rome, It.; 1st Roman emp. 27 BC14 AD; called Caesar Augustus Lk 2:1. Augustus became title also of other Roman emps. (e.g., Nero,* referred to Acts 25:21, 25). See also Roman Empire.
(16701733). Augustus the Strong. King of Poland 16971704, 170933; b. Dresden, Ger.; elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I 16941733; joined RC Ch. to obtain Polish crown; wife and people remained Luth.; made alliance with Peter the Great of Russ. 1701; forced by Charles* XII of Swed. to give up crown 170409.
(18791977). B. Ljungby, Kalmar, Swed.; prof. dogmatics U. of Lund 191333; bp. Strängnäs 193352. Works include Christus Victor; Reformation and Catholicity; The Drama and the Symbols; The Faith of the Christian Church; Jesus in Contemporary Historical Research. See also Christus Crucifixus; Lund, Theology of; Sweden, Lutheranism in, 6.
(Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; ca. 212275). Restitutor orbis (Lat. Restorer of the world, i. e., of the Roman empire); b. Sirmium, Pannonia; Roman emp. 270275; called Lord and God. See also Persecution of Christians, 3.
(151459). B. Breslau; d. Königsberg. Educ. Wittenberg. Rector Danzig and Elbing; prof. of physics and medicine Königsberg; son-in-law of A. Osiander* the elder and active mem. of his party. Opposed by M. Flacius* Illyricus.
(151768). B. and d. Breslau. Brother of Andreas. Educ. Wittenberg; friend of Melanchthon. Rector Breslau; prof. Rostock; chief author of Mecklenburg ch. order 155152; prof. Königsberg 1554; helped draw up Prussian ch. order; tried to mediate Osiandrian controversy; pastor and school inspector Breslau 1567.
(151975). Educ. Wittenberg 1537. Tutor to the count of Mansfeld 154044; Luther's famulus 1545; witnessed Luther's death 1546; court preacher Weimar 1550; went to Eisleben 1561; pastor Erfurt 1566. Co-editor of Jena ed. of Luther's works, ed. 2 vols. of Luther's Lat. letters and the Tischreden. See also Crato von Crafftheim.
(ca. 14901543). B. Bohemia; prof. Heb. Wittenberg, 1521; publ. Heb. Grammar 152325, 1531; aided Luther in tr. OT esp. 1540 rev. Wrote Semitic hist. geog. Reallexikon 152639. Rector Wittenberg U. 1542.
Shortened form of Augustine, or Augustinian.
A. Smallest continent; S of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Area: 2,966,200 sq. mi. First contacted by Europeans (Dutch) 1606, who called it New Holland; 1st contact by Eng. 1688; named New South Wales by Capt. Cook 1770; 1st Eng. settlement (convicts) at Port Jackson 1788; came to be called Australia in the 19th c.; whole continent claimed by Brit. 1829; given limited self-govt. 1850; federated into Commonwealth of Australia 1901; mem. Commonwealth of Nations. Ethnic groups: most of Brit. descent; aborigines, Chinese, other non-Europeans. Official language: English. Religion: ca. 35% Angl.; ca. 27%; RC; Meth., Presb., Luth., Bap., and Cong. ca. 23%; aboriginals are animistic. The 1st miss. effort was by the LMS 1825. See also Marsden, Samuel; Taylor, William.
B. 1. Lutheranism in Australia began 1836, when A. L. C. Kavel* of Klemzig went to London to arrange for a whole cong. to emigrate to Am. or Australia. The reason for the contemplated emigration was the way the Prussian Union was forced on confessional-minded Lutherans. Emigration agents in London persuaded Kavel to take his flock to S Australia. The 1st group arrived at Port Adelaide in November 1838 and formed a short-lived settlement that they called Klemzig, a few mi. from what is now the center of Adelaide. In 1839 another colony of several hundred souls was planted at Hahndorf; and in 1841 Pastor G. D. Fritzsche* led another band of emigrants who founded Bethany and Lobethal. Other congregations were founded. With great zeal for the true worship of God and its perpetuation they est. a syn. soon after arrival. But the young ch. was soon disrupted by doctrinal controversies. Pastor Kavel's chiliastic teachings, his attitude toward the Luth. Confessions, and his views on ch. govt. led to a rupture in 1846. Henceforth the followers of Fritzsche and of Kavel pursued separate ways. In 1864, after both leaders had died, there was a brief rapprochement; but this Confessional Union did not lead to syn. reunion and was dissolved 1874 on the question of calling pastors from seminaries not genuinely Luth. (e.g., Basel). The followers of Kavel were now known as the Immanuel Syn. The antichiliastic party became the Ev. Luth. Syn. of S Australia; then, after the organization of other districts, the Ev. Luth. Syn. in Australia; finally, since 1941, the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Australia. See also New Zealand, 3.
The body later known as the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Australia (ELCA) developed along sound, conservative Luth. lines and shows a steady, if slow, outward growth. Pastor Fritzsche had founded a coll. and sem. 1845 (Lobethal); but the doctrinal controversies then raging, as well as many other labors that claimed his time, caused the closing of the school 1855 after it had furnished 3 pastors. A number of missionaries were sent by the Dresden Miss. Soc. 183840; later the ch. depended on Hermannsburg for ministers. In 1876 a private academy at Hahndorf was taken over by the syn. It turned out some good parish school teachers, but was closed 1885 because of lack of support.
2. With this decade began the Missourian influence in the hist. of the ELCA. Pastor Ernst Homann, having become acquainted with Missouri through L. u. W., sought counsel from C. F. W. Walther. He became an enthusiastic Missourian and convinced others of the correctness of the position held by that ch. In 1881 Pastor Caspar E. Dorsch came as the first emissary of the St. Louis sem. and took charge of Bethlehem Ch., Adelaide. Others followed; but far greater was the number of young Australian Lutherans who received or completed their theol. training at various schools of the Mo. Syn.: Ft. Wayne, Indiana, St. Louis, Missouri, and Springfield, II. This movement was most pronounced at the turn of the c. when the 3d attempt to found a coll. and sem. (at Murtoa, Victoria, 1890) had not yet led to the inception of sem. classes nor of the higher preparatory classes. The abandonment of the Murtoa Coll. was staved off by the advice of A. L. Graebner, who visited Australia 1902 at the request of Ernst Homann (18381915). In 1903 C. F. Graebner, who had been called as principal of the coll., arrived and began his work. In 1905 the coll. was moved to Adelaide. For the next 25 yrs. all regularly called teachers (G. Koch, M. T. Winkler,* Wm. Zschech, H. Hamann) were grads. of the St. Louis sem. The coll. is coeduc. since 1927. From 191265 Conc. Coll. supplied ca. 200 theol. grads. and furnished most of the parish school teachers. In 1946 Queensland Conc. Coll., Toowoomba, a coeduc. secondary school, was est. A new secondary school at Croydon, suburb of Melbourne, enrolled its first students 1964. Since 1958 Conc. Sem., on the same campus as Conc. Coll., Adelaide, was housed in its own bldgs. as a separate instituts Formation 1966 of the Luth. Ch. of Australia (see C 1) led to merger of the sem. and Immanuel Sem. on the site of the latter in North Adelaide. The resultant school, Luther Sem., was dedicated March 3, 1968.
4. Der Lutherische Kirchenbote was pub. 18741917, 192540. The Australian Lutheran appeared 1913 as official organ of what was then known as Ev. Luth. Syn. in Australia (later Ev. Luth. Ch. of Australia), merged at end of 1966 with UELCA The Lutheran Herald in The Lutheran, which appeared 1967.
5. Home miss. work, which languished many yrs. because nearly all old settlers lived in the country, was more energetically pursued in the 20th c. Mission stations for work among aboriginals are maintained at Koonibba (since 1901) and Yalata (since 1954) on the so-called W Coast of S Australia. C. A. Wiebusch (St. Louis grad.) was the first miss. in charge at Koonibba. After supporting the work of the Mo. Syn. in China and India with means and some men, the ch. acquired a for. miss. field of its own 1936, the Rooke-Siassi islands NE of New Guinea. This enterprise suffered from the Japanese invasion in WW II, but the work of restoration proceeded rapidly. In 1951 the work was extended to the mainland of New Guinea.
C. 1. The United Ev. Luth. Ch. in Australia (UELCA) came into being in 1921 after a checkered hist. of secessions and reunions, of the affiliation and reaffiliation of various syns. The branch that followed Pastor Kavel experienced a secession movement 1860, the year of Kavel's death; the seceders linked up with the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Victoria (founded 1856 by Pastor Matthias Goethe). Goethe worked energetically among the many Germans who had come to Victoria for other than the religious reasons that had prompted the first immigration into S Australia. Full Luth. conviction was lacking; and through Goethe's successor in leadership, Pastor Herman Herlitz, the influence of the United (unierte) Basel Miss. Inst., as well as United influence in gen., became more pronounced. Hence the union of the Ev. Luth. Victoria Syn. with the Kavel branch, which took the name Ev. Luth. Immanuel Syn., was the signal for the dissolution 1874 of the Confessional Union. The affiliation of the Immanuel Syn. and the Victoria Syn., known as the Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn., lasted till 1884. Its dissolution was caused by the same circumstance that had led the conservative Lutherans (later ELCA) to part from Immanuel 1874: the determination of the Victoria Syn. to continue calling United pastors from Basel. With the Victoria Syn. went a part of the Immanuel Syn. that called itself the Immanuel Synod auf alter Grundlage (a. a. G.). Continuing under the name of Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn., these were joined 1889 by the laxer of the two Luth. churches that had been organized 1885 in Queensland, where missionaries and lay helpers sent by J. E. Gossner* had operated since 1838 and where a heavy Ger. immigration had later set in: the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Queensland. The more confessional-minded pastors (mostly Hermannsburg men), who had called their organization United Ger.-Scand. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Queensland, joined the Immanuel Syn. 1910 in the Ev. Luth. Ch. Union (Kirchenbund), which continued to secure ministers from Neuendettelsau and Hermannsburg. As a result of experiences during WW I the Gen. Syn. and the Kirchenbund joined to form the UELCA at Ebenezer, S Australia, March 8, 1921. One small body that had separated from the ELCA 1902 was for a number of yrs. a dist. of the Ohio Syn. but joined the UELCA 1926. One reason for the merger was the situation in for. miss.: The Immanuel Syn., with the Iowa Syn., had long supported the work of the Neuendettelsau Miss. Soc. in what was then Ger. New Guinea. After WW I this territory was mandated to Australia, which was to dispose of the Ger. miss. Since the govt. would not give the miss. to a ch. outside Australia, the bodies mentioned formed a merger strong enough to handle the matter. In this they were supported by the Iowa Syn., which sent its pres., Fr. Richter, to advise the Australian Lutherans. When Ger. missionaries were permitted to return later, the field was divided bet. the Ger. miss. and the Iowa Syn. (later the ALC), the UELCA taking active part in the work under their Miss. Dir., F. O. Theile. The partnership with the ALC continued through and after WW II. The practical fellowship with the ALC that this work involved became a formally declared fellowship 1959. Connections with various Luth. churches in Ger. were maintained. ELCA and UELCA adopted Theses* of Agreement 1956, which became basis for merger forming the Luth. Ch. of Australia 1966.
2. A coll. was opened 1895 at Point Pass, S Autralia, remained small, and was devoted chiefly to training parish school teachers. As late as 1919 men went to Neuendettelsau, Ger., and Dubuque, Iowa, for theol. training. The formation of UELCA led to a small sem. at Tanunda, S Australia; but 1923 coll. and sem. were moved to N Adelaide (where Angas Coll. had been bought). After WW II a large property was acquired at Camden, suburb of Adelaide, where the coeduc. high-school classes were quartered and taught; theol. classes are in the N Adelaide property. A coll. was opened at Brisbane, Queensland, 1945, and a boarding school with elementary and secondary classes at Walla Walla, New S Wales, 1948. In mid-20th c. the parish school, which had disappeared, was revived.
4. Official organ The Lutheran Herald merged at end of 1966 with ELCA The Australian Lutheran in The Lutheran, which appeared 1967.
5. Metropolitan congregations in Sydney and Melbourne left the UELCA 1923 and 1934 resp. and joined the Reichskirche 1929 and 1934. HH, HPH
A. Brauer, Under the Southern Cross: History of Evangelical Lutheran Church of Australia (Adelaide, 1956).
Area: ca. 32,376 sq. mi. Pop.: ca. 7,171,000. Rep. 191933; lost indep. in Eur. upheaval of 1930s and 1940s; reest. as rep. 1945. Austria covers the territory of the Roman provinces Raetia, Noricum, and Pannonia. Christianity was probably brought to Noricum by Christian legions. Florian(us)* was martyred under Diocletian.* Severin(us)* worked in Noricum in the 5th c. The ch. was given a permanent structure in the 8th c. The Benedictines, who were chiefly instrumental in evangelizing the country, founded elaborate monasteries and est. the ch.
Bet. 1483 and 1804 Austria, under the Hapsburgs, was most intimately concerned in all the fortunes of the Ger. Empire. Maximilian I really est. the empire and incidentally fixed its relation to the Pope, esp. by uniting Sp. and the Neth. under his dominion; as a result Philip II became one of the most powerful RC monarchs the world has ever seen.
Ev. pastors were active in Austria at time of Reformation (P. Speratus,* M. Stiefel,* J. Strauss*). Many students went to Wittenberg; by 1527 there were many demands for the pure Gospel. Countermeasures were taken. Kaspar Tauber, Leonhard Kaiser, and Hubmaier were martyred. Luther's writings were forbidden.
But the cause of Protestantism received a severe setback 1629 by the Edict of Restitution of Ferdinand II; the Ev. congregations had to fight for their very existence. So severe were the persecutions of the Protestants, that large areas of the country were almost depopulated by the zealotism of their rulers, as in the case of the Salzburgers.* From 1624 Prot. clergy were exiled. In 1628 ev. services were forbidden. Protestantism survived through private reading of the Bible and devotional books. Under Joseph II non-RCs were granted limited religious freedom by the Edict of Toleration 1781. The greatest victory for the hierarchy was the Concordat of 1855, which practically made the Pope the ruler of the country. But 6 yrs. later the Evangelicals won a pronounced victory, and the Patent guaranteeing them religious liberty and ecclesiastical indep. was followed 1870 by the recall of the Concordat.
The RC Ch. is both numerically and politically by far the strongest ch. in Austria. Of its pop. ca. 89% are RC. It has many societies, institutions, and foundations. In almost every parish there are brotherhoods and societies for prayer, associations for both sexes and all ages, societies of priests, congregations of Mary, Franciscan Tertiaries, and the Soc. of the Holy Family. Children and youth are cared for in protectories, kindergartens, orphan asylums, boarding schools, refuges, training schools for apprentices, and the like.
The Prot., or Ev., churches of Austria are a minority. The Luth., Swiss, and Anabaptist movements gained strong support at the time of Reformation but only a remnant remained. The movement away from Rome has gained some force in the Ger. sections of Steiermark. Among the institutions of the inner miss. of the Ev. Ch. the Deaconess Mother House of Gallneukirchen, over 85 yrs. old, is important. Lutherans and Ref. are under one administration in the Ev. Ch. of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions. The situation of the evangelicals had improved after WW I, but the 1933 Concordat brought new difficulties.
The govt. has recognized the following besides Luth. and Ref.: Gk., Orthodox 1781, Israelite 1781, Old Catholics 1877, Herrnhüter 1880, Islam 1912, Methodists 1951, Mormons 1955. Baptists and Mennonites are also active in Austria. Non-RC Christians participate in the Ecumenical Council, est. 1958.
Georg Loesche, Geschichte des Protestantismus im vormaligen und neuen Österreich, 3d ed. (Leipzig, 1930); H. Zimmermann, Österreich, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. H. v. Campenhausen et al., IV (Tübingen, 1960), 158895.
As in all spheres of human endeavor that impose or involve responsibilities, privileges, obligations, and duties, there is and must be authority, so there is authority also in the ch. This authority was bought and est. by the blood of Christ and is given to the ch. by Him, to be exercised by it as such or conferred by it on its individual members. Authority in the ch. is authority of the Word of Christ, which must always be the norma normans in confessing, teaching, and living. Authority must be in perfect accord with the Christian liberty which is ours through redemption in Christ Jesus. Since authority is given by the Bible to the spiritual priesthood of all believers (see Keys, Office of the), of which, in fact, delegated authority is an emanation, those who have been given authority cannot lord it over the Christian cong. They are stewards rather than masters, servants rather than lords, and accountable to God. Though a cong. consist of only 2 or 3 members, it has all rights and spiritual powers. Those who exercise these powers for the cong. must administer such authority in the fear of God, for the welfare of the ch., in the interest of their fellowmen, and to the glory of God. HS
T. Coates, Authority in the Church (St. Louis, 1964); H. Studtmann, Authority in the Church, Abiding Word, ed. T. Laetsch, I (St. Louis, 1946), 410441; Symposium on Church Authority, American Lutheran, XLIV (December 1961), 318322; XLV (January 1962), 1214+; (February 1962), 4349+; (March 1962), 7077+.
(Port. act of faith). Ceremony attending official final sentence of Inquisition,* esp. in Spain.* Included procession to place of condemnation, sermon, reconciliation or sentence of condemnation, and handing over of recalcitrants to civil authority.
Belief that animals and man are machines governed by mechanical laws. Advanced by Fr. physician and philos. Julien Offroy de La Mettrie* and later by S. H. Hodgson,* T. H. Huxley,* and W. K. Clifford.* Found in some forms of behaviorism. See also Psychical Research; Psychology, J 4.
Term used to describe belief (held by Unitarians, Modernists, and similar groups) that man saves himself.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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