Arab. philosophy originated in Baghdad and is, in part, a synthesis of Hellenic and Oriental philosophies. Hellenic and Oriental writings were tr. into Arab. between 762 and 900 (the Gk. under Nestorian influence). The House of Wisdom, erected 832 under enlightened caliphs, had as its first famous scholar Hunain ibn-Ishaq (Johannitius, ca. 809ca. 873). This revived learning came to Christians through Muslims in Sicily and Sp. Among outstanding Arab. philosophers were:
Averroës (112698); denied freedom of the will and immortality; commentary on Aristotle widely read by Christian scholars despite RC opposition; followed al-Farabi's theory of the soul.
Avicenna (ibn-Sina; 9801037); famous chiefly as physician; metaphysical writings also widely read in Middle Ages.
al-Farabi (ca. 870950); tried to support Muhammadan mysticism with Neoplatonism (soul is light emanating from divine intelligence); works include De divisione philosophiae; De ortu scientiarum; also wrote on the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle.
al-Ghazzali* (10581111); the Muslim Aquinas; greatest theologian of Muhammadanism.
al-Jahiz (d. 896); tried to show import in theology of natural phenomena.
Scripta Hierosolymitana, Vol. IX: Studies in Islamic History and Civilization, ed. U. Heyd (Jerusalem, 1961); D. B. Macdonald, Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory (London, 1903); De Lacy E. O'Leary, Arabic Thought and Its Place in History (London, 1939); Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie [und Theologie] des Mittelalters (Münster, 1891 ).
(18101877). Fr. Prot.; educ. Montauban and Miss. House, Paris; miss. in Basutoland 1832; returned to Paris 1863; reorganized miss. in Tahiti; pastor Poitou, Ft. Wrote Relation d'un voyage d'exploration au nord-est de la colonie du cap de Bonne-Espérance, entrepris dans les mois de mars, avril et mai 1836 and a description of Tahiti and adjacent islands.
The task of Biblical archaeology is to find out how people in Bible times lived, built their homes, cooked their meals, buried their dead, and worshiped. For answers to these questions the archaeologist looks for a mound or a tell in the gen. area where a Biblical city once stood. Some important mounds (e.g., Ugarit and Marl in Syria) were found by chance. Others beckoned because they were sites of such well-known ancient cities as Jerusalem and Jericho. Mounds like Gibeah and Mizpah were chosen for digging because they are conveniently located along the main highway. Soundings were made at other mounds because the surface sherds gave promise of important finds.
A basic unit of 6 natives probes into a mound. The pickman loosens the earth and exposes objects with a short-handled pick. The hoeman scrapes the loosened earth together with a hoe and sifts it for objects. Then he scoops the loosened earth into rubber baskets which 4 basket men carry to the excavation dump.
A trained field supervisor, responsible to the director, is in charge of each unit and cooperates with such other staff members as the photographer, architect, surveyor, and recorder.
The director and staff lay plans before the operation begins. Squares are laid out; measurements are taken; records are kept at strategic points on the mound. The first objective is to note where the surface level stops and a new layer of soil begins (recognized by the softness or hardness of soil, change in color, difference in texture). The potsherds and other objects found above such a level are sorted and kept separate from objects found lower. A change in the stratum may represent a shift in occupation. A hard surface may point to the fact that the floor level of a building has been reached; an effort is then made to find the walls of the building. Walls of mud, brick, or stone may be discovered first; then the floor must be correlated with the walls.
In the digging process any disturbances that occurred between floor levels must be noted. Later settlements often caused objects to shift from level to level. A cistern or a silo may cut directly through 3 or 4 lower levels. Such disturbances not only ruin valuable evidence but may lead the excavator to erroneous conclusions.
Potsherds, often broken into many pieces, are the most important objects to be sorted. On a large scale excavation as many as 100 baskets of potsherds are brought down from the mound daily. The handles, rims, and bases are separated from the body sherds and all are washed. The sorted pottery is laid out on straw mats and arranged for study at the end of the day. The director goes over the finds with the supervisor who guided their removal, notes where they were found, and has them packed and sent to headquarters. A pottery expert can tell within 50 to 100 yrs. to which archaeological age a piece of broken pottery belongs. When such information is correlated with the level or stratum at which it has been found, important conclusions for the hist. of the mound are drawn.
Each supervisor keeps records of the square in which he is working. He makes a top plan daily (diagram of the surface as it looks on each day of operation). Each of the 4 walls (sections) of the square reveals a set of lines representing the floors or occupation levels that have been dug through. The diagram of each section is drawn to scale to show the stratification. All artifacts found are recorded in 3 dimensions, so that a look at the floor plan or section drawing reveals exactly where the object was discovered.
No potsherd or artifact has been found that can be connected with the people of Israel before their entrance into the land of Canaan in the 13th c. BC. The only reference to the Israelites in Egyptian literature is the stela of Merneptah from ca. 1220 BC.
Archaeology shows that the Genesis accounts concur remarkably with evidence noted in Palestine. Archaeological investigation has shown that the Middle Bronze Age (22001550 BC) was one of the most significant periods in the hist. of the ancient world, when the massive fortification systems of the Hyksos were built and when horses and chariots were introduced. In Biblical terms this includes the time from the patriarchs to the sojourn in Egypt. Genesis 111 fits into this archaeological picture as a summary or review of everything in the ancient world before the Middle Bronze Age, including the great Early Bronze city states of 3000 BC, the protourban settlements of 4000 BC, and the period of the early Neolithic food gatherers and producers around 6000 BC
There are close parallels between the findings of archaeology and the records of the Bible from the 13th c. BC on. Mounds reveal that Palestine was pillaged in the 13th c. BC. It may be reasonably concluded that this was done by the incoming Israelites. Remains of Adamah and Zarethan, which the Bible mentions in connection with the crossing of the Jordan, have been found 18 and 30 mi. N of Jericho (Jos 3:16). These cities were assoc. with the production of bronze vessels for Solomon's temple (1 K 7:4546). Recent excavations at Zarethan and Succoth show that bronze ware was made there.
Help for understanding the time of the Judges has been unearthed by archaeology. Excavations at Shechem have uncovered the temple of Baal-berith (Ju 9:4) and shed light on the oak tree and the great stone (Jos 24:26). Operations at Taanach have called attention to a violent destruction there during the 12th c. This helps us understand Deborah's claim that in her fight with the kings of Canaan at Taanach they obtained no spoils of silver (Ju 5:19). The rise of the sea powers put the Philistines into the advantageous position of maintaining a monopoly on iron, thus putting the Israelites at a disadvantage in defending themselves (1 S 13:1920).
Megiddo and Hazor have shed light on the age of Solomon (cf. 1 K 9:15, 19). That Solomon converted Megiddo into a great chariot center is indicated by the complex of stables from his time found there. At Hazor a casemate wall and a city gate from the 10th c. show that Solomon strengthened the city as a defense for the Plain of Huleh.
Tirzah and Samaria (capitals of N Kingdom) have been excavated. Evidence of a destructive fire in the palace at Tirzah may point to Zimri, who took his own life rather than surrender to Omri (1 K 16:18). Omri probably chose to move his capital from Tirzah to Samaria, because the former had no outlet to the W and to commercial enterprises of the Medit. world (1 K 16:2324). Excavations revealed that Omri and Ahab built a double wall around the strategic hill of Samaria; the wall explains why it took besiegers 3 yrs. to force Samaria to surrender (2 K 17:56).
Perhaps the best preserved of all important antiquities in Jerusalem is Hezekiah's tunnel (2 K 20:20). Ca. 1750 ft. long, built to provide water for Jerusalem in a siege, it leads from the Gihon spring to the pool of Siloam. The Siloam inscription was found on its walls. Recent digging in Jerusalem has confirmed the view that an earlier vertical shaft leading upward from the Gihon spring into the city was the passage that gave Joab access to the inner city to open the gates for David and his army (2 Sm 5:68).
Archaeological method has been improved and refined during the 20th c. The school established by W. F. Albright has shown that archaeology provides effective control over hypotheses of hist. and literary criticism and provides an excellent background for Bible study.
See also Geography, Christian.
W. F. Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine (Middlesex, 1949); K. Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land (London, 1960); G. E. Wright, Biblical Archaeology, rev. and enl. ed. (Philadelphia, 1963); H. J. Franken and C. A. Franken-Battershill, A Primer of Old Testament Archaeology (Leiden, 1963); L. H. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible, tr. and ed. J. Reid and H. Rowley (New York, 1956); R. E. M. Wheeler, Archaeology from the Earth (New York, 1954); A. G. Barrois, Manuel d' archéologie biblique, 2 vols. (Paris, 1939, 1953); Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, ed. J. B. Pritchard (Princeton, 1950); The Biblical Archaeologist, pub. by the Am. Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven, Connecticut AvRS
Title given originally (4th c.) to patriarchs and bps. of important dioceses. Its first use was probably by Athanasius,* who applied it to his predecessor Alexander (see Alexander [ca. 250/273ca. 326/328]) as a mark of respect. Later the term designated a metropolitan* presiding over an ecclesiastical province. In Lutheranism the chief bps. of Swed., Fin., Estonia, and Latvia bear the title. See also Roman Catholic Church, C 3; Titular Bishop.
Originally (and still gen. in E churches) the title of the chief deacon in a diocese. In the W the title had by the 9th c. come to designate a priest in charge of an archdeaconry, an administrative subdivision of a diocese. To a degree this is still true of archdeacons (styled Venerable) in the Angl. Ch., though their duties vary. In the RC Ch. it is usually only a title of honor that may be given to the ranking member(s) of a chapter.
(Arches Court). Angl. court of appeal for the Archdiocese or Province of Canterbury. Named after St. Mary of the Arches (Lat. de Arcubus, rare ablative plural of arcus; cf. Vulgate 2 Esd 4:13), London, where it formerly met; the ch. took its name from arches of the original 11th-c. ch. on the site.
Records, resources, and hist. data have been preserved by the ch. through the ages, often with a view to their immediate usefulness and value to a parish, miss., ch. officials, or religious movement. Records and resources pertaining to the churches in Am. have been deposited in theol, sem. libraries, separate archives, and private collections. There are more than 500 such depositories in Am.
Accessibility of archives increases their value. Their completeness, the care with which they have been gathered, and the exhaustiveness of their research potential are important.
Conc. Hist. Inst. (at Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri designated 1959 as the Dept. of Archives and Hist. of the LCMS, is the most complete depository of Luth. hist. resources; it includes archives of the former Nat. Ev. Luth. Ch. Its collections were begun in the 19th c.; a separate corporation was formed 1927. Its book, pamphlet, and periodical collection exceeds 37,000 volumes; its MS collections include several million items; its microfilm collection is in excess of 50,000 ft.; its museum collection includes more than 1,000 items. In conjunction with the library of Conc. Sem., St. Louis, a wide span of hist. resources are available.
The official archives of the former ALC are at Wartburg Sem., Dubuque, Iowa. Much original source material pertaining to the former Ohio Syn. is at Capital U., Columbus, Ohio The archives of the former ELC are at Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota Both serve as depositories of the present ALC.
The archives of the LCA are at the Luth. School of Theol. at Chicago. Related collections are at Augustana Coll., Rock Island, Illinois, with extensive resources pertaining to the August Luth. Ch.; Grand View Coll., Des Moines, Iowa (esp. former AELC; resources); Suomi Coll., Hancock, Michigan (materials pertaining to the former Fin. Ev. Luth. Ch.); and for the constituent parts of the former ULC, both at the Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and the Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia. Southern Luth. records are at the Luth. Theol. Southern Sem., Columbia. SC.
Records and resources pertaining to the NLC, including resources on Luth. inter-ch. movements, are in the NLC library, New York. Additional archives are at Luther Coll., Decorah, owa; Augsburg Coll., Minneapolis, Minnesota; Northwestern Luth. Theol. Sem., Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Norw.-Am. Hist. Assoc., Northfield, Minnesota.
Regional, dist., or syn. collections are in the various ch. headquarters in the US and Can. The Luth. Hist. Conf., a cooperative agency for Luth. archivists, librarians, and historians, was organized 1962. Meeting biennially, the Conf. endeavors to coordinate and stimulate hist. efforts and provide channels of communication and cooperation for Luth. archivists, librarians, and historians.
A. R. Suelflow, Directory of Religious Archival and Historical Depositories in America (Church Records Committee, Society of American Archivists: mimeographed; Conc. Hist. Institute; St. Louis. 1963).
(variants include Ahrens; Arnzius; d. 1691). Luth. pastor NYC 167191; came from Holland; successor of Jacob Fabritius* at Trin. Luth. Ch., Broadway and Rector St.; directed the building of a 2d ch. after the 1st. erected 1671, was demolished 1673 by the Dutch; his gentle character contrasted favorably with the despotic tendencies of Fabritius.
(18611906). Russ. composer whose works, sacred and secular, are often catchy and pretty rather than virile and strong.
(Grecized from Marti; ca. 1522 to 74). Scientist and theologian; prof. of Gk. and Heb., later of theology, Bern; wrote in area of botany, classics, Heb., theology. Works include Examen theologicum: Problemata theologica.
1. Origin. Arius (d. 336), a priest in a suburb of Alexandria, tried to combine the adoptionism of Paul* of Samosata with the Neoplatonic (see Neoplatonism) idea of divine transcendence and utter inaccessibility of God. God was described as an abstract monad,* alone unbegotten, without equal, unchangeable, ineffable. Since God could not create the world directly because of His very nature, He created out of nothing, before all times and eons, an intermediate being, exalted above other creatures, through whom He created the world. This intermediate being is the Logos,* called Son, who is not true God and not eternal. Some went so far as to teach that the Logos was dissimilar (anomoios) from the Father in essence (see Anomoeans). In time this being took human flesh, not inherently sinless, but capable of moral progress, choosing the good and continuing therein.
2. Controversy. Alexander,* bp. of Alexandria, called a council ca. 321, which excommunicated Arius, who continued to defend himself and found powerful supporters in Eusebius* of Nicomedia and Eusebius* of Caesarea. Constantine* I advised all involved to overlook trivia and agree on fundamentals. When this advice failed, perhaps on the advice of Hosius,* Constantine summoned the 1st ecumenical council to meet at Nicaea.* There the formula proposed by the Arians was laughed out of session. But the vast majority could not agree on a positive statement. One group, following Eusebius of Caesarea, did not agree with Arius, but did insist that the godhead was of 3 hypostases. When the W bps. would not agree to this formula, fearing it would lead to Arianism, and insisted on the statement that God is One in essence (homoousios*), a long standing suspicion between Gk. and Lat. teachers came to the surface. Those who insisted on the 3 hypostases believed that a simple statement of homoousios would lead to modalism. Therefore they used the term homoiousios* (of like essence) to preserve the identity of each. These were later designated Eusebians. They signed the Creed of Nicaea but only upon assurances from Constantine that it did not involve modalism.
3. Issue. After Nicaea there was constant quarreling between these 2 positions. The quarrel allowed the Arians to retain their positions. As long as Constantine lived, a balance was retained, but with his death and a redivision of the empire bet. his sons, one of whom supported the W and the other the E position, the teachers of the ch. fell into bitter provocation and acrimony. Athanasius even called the Gks. Semi-Arians. Constantius, who ultimately was dominant, had no interest in theology and was interested only in settlement. He deposed any bp. who stood for a strong position, especially the homoousians. Only with Constantius' death were the various parties to this dispute able to get together and settle the matter. This settlement, worked out by Hilary* of Poitiers and Ambrose* of Milan in the W with Basil of Caesarea and Athanasius in the E, was formalized by the Council of Constantinople, 381. The godhead was designated homoousios made up of 3 distinct hypostases, 1 substance in 3 persons. This council is also said to have drawn up what we call the Nicene Creed.
4. Prominent anti-Arians include the Cappadocian* Theologians.
C. J. Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church, tr. and ed. W. R. Clark, Vols. I, II (Edinburgh, 1894, 1896); H. M. Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism, 2d ed. (Cambridge, 1900) and Arianism, Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 1: The Christian Roman Empire, ed. H. M. Gwatkin and J. P. Whitney (New York, 1924), pp. 118142; J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 2d ed. (New York, 1960); H. Lietzmann, A History of the Early Church, tr. B. L. Woolf, vols. III, IV (Cleveland, 1961). WWO
(384322 BC). 1. Aristotle was born in the Gk. colony of Stagira on the Macedonian peninsula Chalcidice, the son of Nicomachus, court physician to Amyntas II, king of Macedon and father of Philip II of Macedon. In his 18th year he was sent to Athens, where he remained in close assoc. with the Academy for 20 years, until the death of Plato.* He then left Athens and lived with friends of the Academy first at Atarneus, in the Troad, and then at Mitylene, on the island of Lesbos, where he engaged in biological research. Invited by Philip to take charge of his son's educ., Aristotle became tutor to Alexander the Great, probably for the yrs. just before Alexander's appointment as regent for his father. In 335/4 Aristotle returned to Athens, where he labored 12 yrs. in the Lyceum, instituting and pursuing a program of investigation in almost every branch of human knowledge, and composing at least the more scientific portions of his now extant writings. An outburst of anti-Macedonian feeling at Athens in 323 precipitated Aristotle's flightlest the Athenians should sin twice against philosophyto Chalcis in Euboea, where he died in 322, within a little more than a yr. of the deaths of Alexander and Demosthenes.
2. The Aristotelian corpus, excluding doubtful and spurious works, includes (1) the logical treatises of the Organon: Categories, De interpretatione, Prior analytics, Posterior analytics, Topics, and Sophistici elenchi; (2) the treatises on natural science now distinguished as (a) physical science: Physics, De coelo, De generatione et corruptione, and Meteorologica; (b) psychology: De anima and a collection of shorter works known as Parva naturalia; (c) biology: Historia animalium, De partibus animalium, De motu and De incessu animalium, and De generatione animalium; and (d) Problemata; (3) first philosophy, or Metaphysics; (4) the treatises on practical science distinguished as (a) ethics: Nicomachean Ethics (named after his son Nicomachus) and Eudemian Ethics (named after Eudemus, one of his pupils); and (b) politics: Politics, and Constitution of Athens; (5) the treatises on productive science: Rhetoric and Poetics, both dealing with literary arts. The standard ed. of the Gk. text is that of Bekker (Berlin Academy, 183170). A complete Eng. tr. of the works included in the Berlin ed. was prepared under the editorship of W. D. Ross (Oxford, 190831).
3. The logic of Aristotle, by him called analytic, is a discipline prior to all others, setting forth the requirements of scientific inquiry and proof. Science, in the strict sense, is demonstrated knowledge of the causes of things. Such demonstrated knowledge is obtained by syllogistic deduction from premises in themselves certainthus science differs from dialectic, which uses probable premises, and from eristic, which aims not at truth, but at forensic victory. The Aristotelian logic of terms, propositions, and syllogisms depends not merely on formal relations exemplified in statement of proof, but on the possibility of discovering principles, i. e., universals and causes, which are true of nature. Aristotle is fond of tracing the transition in knowledge from the particulars of sense experience (the things more knowable to us) to the universals present in an inchoate way in sensation but grasped by intuitive reason or nous (the things more knowable in themselves). He claims to have accounted for human science without reducing knowledge to the motion of atoms, as had Democritus,* or transforming things into ideas, as he thought Plato did.
4. The causes, which can be stated as connectives among terms because they are links among the phenomena of nature, are of 4 sorts: material (the stuff of which a thing is made), formal (its essence or nature, what it is), efficient (the agency that brings it into being), and final (its end, or that for the sake of which it exists). Thus for Aristotle every sensible object is a union of 2 principles, matter and formthe matter in every case regarded as potentiality for the form that actualizes it. The fact of motion or change is then accounted for as a process by which potential being passes over, through form, into actual being. This analysis Aristotle regards as a triumph over Platonism, which, appealing only to form, left motion unintelligible as a passage from nonbeing to being, and over Democritean atomism, which, reducing scientific explanation to the discovery of material parts, simply assumed motion as a principle.
5. Aristotle proceeds, on the basis of the causes, to divide the sciences into the theoretic, the practical, and the productive. The theoretic sciences have as their end simply to know; as their subject matter substances, things possessing an internal principle of motion or rest; as their form strict demonstration or necessity; as their agency the intellectual virtues of intuitive reason and science (combined in philosophic wisdom), the capacities of grasping first principles and demonstrating from them. The special theoretic sciences are differentiated according to differences found in their subject matters. Physics deals with common sensible matter, with kinds of sensible natural objectsits subject matter is never purely formal, but always includes matter and motion. Mathematics treats of intelligent matter, of numbers, points, lines, surfaces, volumes, which cannot exist apart from bodies, yet are abstracted in thought and treated separately in this science. Metaphysics investigates the first principles and causes that are assumed in the separate sciences, and therefore it treats of a substance that not only can be known apart, but that also exists apart from matter and motion, whose existence is established in the famous proof of the necessity of an unmoved mover as the cause of existence and motion. For if there were no separated substance, all sciences would be reduced to physics; and if forms and numbers existed separately, all philos. would be reduced to mathematics.
6. The practical and productive sciences have as their end action (i. e., doing and making, respectively) rather than knowledge; as their subject matter things done and things made, whose principle of motion is in an external agent and that have no natural definitions; their principles are established dialectically, hence their conclusions are only probable; and the virtues required to pursue these sciences are practical wisdom and art. The practical sciences are differentiated as ethics, which treats of individual action, and politics, which treats of forms of community. In his ethics, Aristotle dialectically determines the good for man as the actualization or exercise of his distinctive faculty, reason, in the habitual subordination of appetite to rational principleit is here that particular moral virtues are defined as means between extremesand in the search for and contemplation of truth. In Politics, concerned with constitutions and forms of human associations that again have no natural definitions, a basis for proportional rules is found in the needs and interdependences of man for the ends of living and of living wellit is in this sense that man is by nature a political animal. The productive sciences, finally, are differentiated according to their products, and the kinds of art according to the object, means, and manner of their imitation of nature. Thus in Poetics tragedy is distinguished by isolating its means of imitation, and the liberal arts are distinguished by their educative influence in preparing men for freedom.
7. The influence of Aristotle on philos. and science is incalculably extensive. This influence is made intricate by the fact that he has been read in widely different ways and adapted to modes of thought to which he explicitly opposed his own. During the Hellenistic period, when nearly all the philosophies reflected the impress of his thought, Aristotle was regarded as merely the most eminent of Plato's disciples, and peripatetic signified a specialist in science rather than a philos. In the early Middle Ages there was slight direct contact with his writings, and infiltrations of Gk. thought into Christian philos. was rather Neoplatonic than Aristotelian. In the 12th and 13th c., however, all the works of Aristotle were tr. into Lat. and were made the object of intense study and large commentaries. The revolt of Renaissance philosophers against Aristotle was probably as much against this scholastic mode of discussion as against Aristotle's doctrine. A renaissance of Aristotelian studies in the 20th c. is a result of the modern ed. of his works by the Berlin Academy and of the papal blessing of the work of Thomas* Aquinas. Aristotle lives on in neo-scholasticism, in behaviorist psychology, in the vitalism and dynamism of such thinkers as H. Bergson,* and in much of the technical vocabulary, if not in the spirit, of modern science and philos. RL
See Arianism; See also Activism; Aesthetics; Being; Confucianism, Cosmos; Dialectic; Eternal Object; Ethics, 3; Eu daemonism; Eugenics; Heidelberg Disputation; Natural Law, 2; Philosophy; Psychology, C.
(314). Called by Constantine; first syn. of W; in its 22 canons Donatism is condemned, the desire is expressed for a uniform date for Easter, and heretical baptism is declared valid if performed in the name of the Trinity. The canons are esp. significant because of light they shed on ch.-state relations in this formative and critical period.
1. Called into being by the Mo. Syn. conv., Cleveland, Ohio, June, 1935. It organized February 13, 1936. Chief duties: to give ecclesiastical endorsement to qualified pastors for commissions as chaplains in military service, to counsel chaplains, and to minister to the spiritual welfare of synod's mems. in the armed forces and patients in Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. The scope of the work increased when the numerical strength of the armed forces of the US was raised through the Selective Service Act in 1940; took on global aspects with WW II. Ex offices were established 1940 in Chicago and a branch service office in Winnipeg, Man., Can., 1943. The ex. offices were moved to Washington, D.C., 1948, to be near the Chiefs of Chaplains. When the U. S. became involved in WW II, a comprehensive program was developed under the slogan They shall not march alone.
2. The commission also inaugurated a comprehensive literature program for the serviceman's private devotional life. From 1958 the commission provided each issue of Portals of Prayer for the serviceman's daily devotion. Each month he receives Loyalty: Christ and Country (a printed order of service with sermon). During WW II, At Ease, a news letter written in a lighter vein, accompanied Loyalty: Christ and Country. From 1951 Double-Time, a pocket-size picture magazine containing news of Luths. in service, their dependents, and US civilians stationed overseas, was mailed quarterly.
5. At the close of WW II the commission maintained 47 Luth. Service Centers and 44 Parish Centers, some alone, some with the NLC In 1951 the Luth. Service Commission, a cooperative agency of the Mo. Syn. and the NLC, was est.
6. An important part of the commission's program was the ministry to patients in VA hospitals.
7. Pursuant to a syn. resolution of the 1956 St. Paul, Minnesota, conv., the commission assumed the added responsibility of ministering to military dependents overseas and to U. S. civilians living overseas at military bases.
8. Christ Church Military Congregation was est. under the commission's supervision 1955. Newly baptized and/or confirmed military personnel not near a civilian ch. or with very temporary residence status were enrolled in this Washington, D.C., transfer to a local cong., pending
9. The commission operated under a team of 3 dirs. an ex. dir., a dir. of special services (since 1951), and a dir. of publications. At peak activity 50 full-time and 43 part-time persons were employed.
10. At the close of WW II the names of ca. 135,000 US members of the Mo. Syn., the SELC, and the ELS were on file in the Chicago office, and of 4,000 Canadian members in the Winnipeg office. Many more were on file during the war. 4,084 Mo. Syn. members were killed in action or died in service since the beginning of WW II.
11. The key figure is the home pastor, who supplies the addresses of members. PLD; LB
12. First called Army and Navy Commission; name changed 1947 to Armed Services Commission; 1965 to Armed Forces Commission. The Armed Forces Commission was replaced 1981 by the Standing Committee for Ministry to the Armed Forces.
In W. Asia, bordering on Asia Minor, between the Black and the Caspian Sea and the Taurus and Caucasus Mountains, mainly high tableland. In 1918 the Rep. of Armenia was founded; recognized 1920 by the US, which, however, did not accept a mandate over it. In 1922 part of it, with Azerbaidzhan and Georgia, was incorporated in the Union* of Soviet Socialist Reps., but much of former Armenia is now part of Turkey. Area of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic: 11,306 sq. mi.;
Religion of Armenia originally much like that of Persia; sun and moon revered; male and female temple prostitutes. Christianity penetrated into this country early, probably from Antioch. Through the efforts of Gregory* the Illuminator, Christianity replaced paganism as the nat. ch. Ca. 420 the Bible was tr. into Armenian. The Armenians maintained their religion despite strenuous efforts of Zoroastrians and Turks to impose their beliefs by unspeakable persecutions, even in recent times. Armenians accept a strict Monophysite doctrine. Head of the Armenian Ch. is the catholicos or supreme patriarch, elected by nat. council, residing at Echmiadzin; 2 lower patriarchs at Jerusalem and Constantinople. Colonies of Armenians are found in most larger cities in the world; usually remain faithful to their religion. Many emigrated to Am., esp. after the Turkish massacres near the beginning of this c., settling largely in the San Joaquin Valley, California See also Abdul Hamid II; Armenian Churches; Monophysitism; Nonchalcedonian Churches.
Prot. miss. work was begun 1820 in Armenia by the ABCFM. (See also Dodd, Edward Mills) The Presb. Ch. followed in 1870. Robert Coll., Istanbul, was begun 1863 by Cyrus Hamlin; the Am. Coll. for Girls was est. 1871 at Scutari. OHS
Related to E Orthodox Ch. in doctrine, liturgy, and ch. govt. Holding Monophysite views, it separated from the other E churches at Chalcedon 451. Turkish persecution 1894 brought many Armenians to Am., esp. New Eng., New York, and California Some joined Prot. denominations; the majority try to perpetuate native language, customs, and religious views and organized The Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Ch. in Am. 1889. Armenian chs. in N. Am. include Armenian Apostolic Ch. of Am.; Diocese of the Armenian Ch. of Am. (including Diocese of California); Armenian Apostolic Ch. of Am., Diocese of Can.; Armenian Ev. Ch. in Can. See also Altar Bread; Armenia; Chalcedon, Council of; Florence, Council of, 3; Mechitar; Monophysite Controversy.
Term embracing in gen. the teachings of Jacobus Arminius (Jacob Harmensen, or Hermansz, 15601609; minister Amsterdam; prof. theol. Leiden). The theol. views of Arminius and his followers were summed up in 5 points, briefly: 1. God from all eternity predestined to eternal life those of whom He foresaw that they would remain steadfast in faith to their end. 2. Christ died for all mankind, not only for the elect. 3. Man cooperates in his conversion by free will. 4. Man may resist divine grace. 5. Man may fall from divine grace. This last tenet was first held but doubtfully; but ultimately it was firmly accepted. The 161819 Syn. of Dordrecht* condemned the Arminian doctrines, and the civil powers, as was the gen. practice of the age, enforced the decrees of the council by pains and penalties. But the new view spread rapidly. In 1621 S. Episcopius,* at the request of the leading Remonstrants* (Arminians), drew up a formula of faith in 25 chaps. that was widely circulated and subscribed by the most eminent men in Holland and Fr., such as H. Grotius,* Philip(pus) van Limborch (16331712; Dutch Remonstrant theol.), Jean le Clerc (Johannes Clericus; 16571736; Swiss Prot. theol.), and J. J. Wettstein* In Fr. the effect of the controversy appeared in the modified Calvinism* of M. Amyraut* W. Laud* introduced Arminianism into the Ch. of Eng., where it was adopted by R. Cudworth,* Jeremy Taylor,* J. R. Tillotson,* W Chillingworth,* J. R. Pearson,* D. Whitby,* and others. Arminianism in the Ch. of Eng. at last became a negative term, implying the negation of Calvinism rather than any exact system of theol. Much of what passed for Arminianism was in fact Pelagianism, synergism in some form. A modified Arminianism arose again in Eng. in the Wesleyan Reformation of the 17th c.; its ablest expositions may be found in the works of John Wesley,* J. W. Fletcher,* and Richard Watson* (17811833); the other Eng. conformists and the Presbs in Scot. and elsewhere continued to be mainly Calvinists.
(April 13, 1805September 23, 1860). B. McEwensville, Pennsylvania; Presb.; grad. Princeton Theol. Sem. 1830; sent to Hawaii by ABCFM 1831; stationed at Haiku and Wailuku, Maul, 183540; Honolulu 1840. Active in miss. and govt. affairs. Minister of Pub. Instruction; Pres. Bd. of Educ.; mem. House of Nobles and King's Privy Council; trustee Oahu Coll. and Queen's Hosp.; ex. officer Bible and Tract Soc.
(16411721). Pastor and soldier. Led group of Waldenses to victory against Fr. and Savoyard armies.
(Arndt; 15551621). The most influential devotional author the Luth. Ch. has produced. Educ. U. of Helmstedt, Wittenberg, Strasbourg, and Basel; pastor Badeborn, Anhalt, in 1583. In 1590, when the territory became Ref., Arndt was deposed for insisting that he as a Luth. of the unaltered AC had the right to retain the exorcisms at Baptism. Pastor in Quedlinburg (influenced J. Gerhard*). Brunswick, and Eisleben; finally (1611) Generalsuperintendent in Celle. His Four (later Five and Six) Books on True Christianity and his Little Garden of Paradise have perennial and universal appeal; they have rarely been out of print in the original and have been tr. into many languages. Influenced by Luther, he stands solidly in the Luth. mystical tradition that goes back to the Middle Ages and demonstrates great skill in incorporating what is good from various medieval (J. Tauler,* the Imitation* of Christ, Angela de Foligno, J. v. Staupitz*) and post-Reformation sources into his thought; speaking to a situation where every one is very willing to be a servant of Christ, but no one will consent to be His follower (True Christianity, I, Preface, 3), he combines theol. orthodoxy with a profound concern for the practical development of the Christian virtues. In the field of theol. he helped to fix the place of the doctrine of the mystical union of the believer with Christ in the Luth. dogmatic tradition. ACP
Johann Arnd, Sechs Bücher vom wahren Christentum, tr. A. W. Boehm, True Christianity (London, 1712), ed. C. F. Schaeffer (Philadelphia, 1868).
(December 19, 1864April 17, 1929). B. Pomerania; grad. St. Louis 1885; pastor Saginaw, Michigan, 188597; prof. Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota, 18971910; helped found Ev. Luth. Miss. for China May 1, 1912; sent to China July 14, 1912; arrived Shanghai February 25, 1913; est. missions and schools in Hankow territory. Mo. Syn. adopted this miss. 1917. Wrote Our Task in China; ed. Missionsbriefe; tr. hymns and sermons into Chinese. Buried Internat. Cemetery, Hankow. See also Albrecht, Christian Johann; China, 8; Riedel, Erhardt Albert Henry.
Brief biography in Important Events in Lutheran Church History for 1929, CHIQ, II (January 1930), 98; E. H. A. Arndt, The Beginnings of Our Work in China, CHIQ, V (October 1932), 98104; V (January 1933), 137144; VI (April 1933), 1924; VI (July (1933), 5260.
(180281). Pastor Berlin; famous preacher.
(December 1, 1880February 25, 1957). B. Mayville, Wisconsin; d. Cambridge, Eng.; grad. St. Louis 1903; pastor Bluff City, Tennessee, 190305; St. Joseph, Missouri, 190510; Brooklyn, New York, 191012; prof. St. Paul's Coll., Concordia, Missouri, 191221; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192157; on leave of absence to establish a pastoral training program for the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. 195657. Secy. W Dist., Mo. Syn., 191221; mem. Mo. Syn. Bd. of For. Miss. 192156; mem. Com. for Luth. Union 192329, 193550. Ed. Magazin für Ev.-luth. Homiletik und Pastoraltheologie 192426; Theological Monthly 192630; coed. Concordia Theological Monthly 193038; managing ed. 193849; coauthor, Popular Symbolics; collaborator, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, a tr. and adaptation of W. Bauer's Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch. Other works include Does the Bible Contradict Itself? Siehe, ich stehe vor der Tür! Bible Difficulties; Christian Prayer; Fundamental Christian Beliefs; New Testament History; The Life of St. Paul; From the Nile to the Waters of Damascus; Bible Commentary: The Gospel According to St. Luke. See also Lexicons, B. ARS
P. M. Bretscher, William Frederick Arndt, 1880 to 1957, CTM, XVIII (June 1957), 401408.
(d. ca. 327). Teacher of rhetoric Sicca, Numidia; first a pagan and opponent of Christianity; after conversion wrote Adversus nationes as public avowal of sincerity (reveals great familiarity with classics, but deficient in Biblical and Christian knowledge). See also Lactantius Firmianus; Minucius Felix, Marcus.
See bibliography under Patristics.
(16661714). Ger. ev. pietist; for a time follower of Spener, then of J. G. Gichtel (pupil of Böhme). Court preacher at Allstedt. Prolific author of devotional manuals and hymns, all tinged with mysticism. See also Breckling, Friedrich; Molinos, Miguel de.
(182288). Eng. poet, critic, and essayist; the great English apostle of culture. B. Laleham, Middlesex, son of Dr. Thomas Arnold of Rugby; educ. Winchester, Rugby, and Oxford; private secy. to Lord Lansdowne 184751; inspector of schools 1851; prof. of poetry, Oxford 185767. As literary critic, Arnold propounded the need of maintaining the neglected qualities of dignity, harmony, and simplicity. Chief works: On Translating Homer; Essays in Criticism (first series, 1865); Essays in Criticism (second series, 1888); Culture and and Anarchy; St. Paul and Protestantism; Literature and Dogma; God and the Bible; Last Essays on Church and Religion; a Friend of God. Poems: Resignation; Self-Dependence; The Scholar Gypsy; Requiescat; Sohrab and Rustum; Dover Beach; Thyrsis; The Last Word; Rugby Chapel.
(14621532). Teacher, fellow monk, and opponent of Luther. Influenced by William of Occam and the moralism of humanism, he criticized scholasticism and abuses in the ch. but remained in RC Ch. Participated in writing the Confutation.
(ca. 11001155). B. probably at Brescia; said to have studied under Abelard; canon regular in It.; attacked worldliness of ch.; returned to Fr.; opposed by Bernard; condemned by Barbarossa; executed at Rome. See also Waldenses.
(Arnoldshainer Abendmahlsthesen). Eight theses formulated and approved, November 12, 1957, after 194757 discussions of the meaning of the Lord's Supper by a commission of Luth., Ref., and Union theologians representing the Ev. Ch. of Ger.
The theses, prepared by theologians and not churches were submitted for discussion to theologians, administrative groups, educators, and congregations of the Ev. churches of Ger. for discussion. The statements do not claim to offer a full exposition of the theol. of the Lord's Supper.
Thesis 4 reads: The words which our Lord Jesus Christ speaks at the distribution of the bread and the cup tell us what He Himself gives in this meal to all who approach: He, the crucified and risen Lord, permits us, through His promissory Word, to receive Him, with bread and wine, in His body that was given into death for all and in His blood that was shed for all. Therewith, by virtue of the Holy Spirit, the Lord receives us into the victory of His lordship, so that by faith in His promise we might have forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation.
Text of theses in Gemeinsam Formuliert und einmütig Angenommen, Evangelisch-lutherische Kirchenzeitung, XII (September 15, 1958), 302, 303; Eng. tr. in P. M. Bretscher, The Arnoldshain Theses on the Lord's Supper, CTM, XXX (February 1959), 83 to 91; Lutheran World, VII (1960), 5562; Hans Grasz, Die Arnoldshainer Thesen und die lutherische Abendmahlslehre, Neue Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie, II (1960), 6489; Albrecht Peters, Zur Kritik an den Abendmahlsthesen von Arnoldshain, Neue Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie, II (1960), 182219.
(Lat. art of dying [well]). Type of devotional book that became popular in 15th c., largely under Franciscan and Dominican influence; designed to prepare Christians for a happy death. Best known is the Ars moriendi of Jean de Gerson. Related to this literature are the Dances of Death that about the same time became popular motifs in ch. decoration, MS illumination, and early printed books like Chorea ab eximio macabro versibus alemanicis edita (Paris. Guido Mercator pro Godeffredo de Marnef, 1490). A well-known 17th-c. Eng. parallel is J. Taylor's The Rule and Exercise of Holy Dying.
1. The specific area of artistic endeavor that relates to the decoration of ch. bldgs., performs as symbol and article of use in the acts of the liturgy, and relates individual and communal expression of a faith life. Except for a few brief but catastrophic periods of iconoclasm, the Christian faith has not only made room for, but welcomed the artist and craftsman into the service of the ch. Since the beginning of Christianity, the ch. has been the sponsor of art considered great not only in the context for which it was intended but as the highest expression of artistic feeling and craft. When the ch. did not sponsor good art, it did not express itself meaningfully to the world in any way.
2. Earliest Christian art came under many influences simultaneously. Palestine, Asia Minor, Alexandria, and Rome each brought some element of its own artistic heritage. In the W the dominant influence was Gk. classic art; in the E, Oriental art imposed its style on Christian subject matter. Technically, the art of the catacombs is more a type of writing than a style of art. Fresco painting included symbols of Christ such as the Chi Rho, the Alpha and Omega, and the fish. Rarely was the cross used, not only because it still held its context as an instrument of torture, but because the Christians at this time concerned themselves with a theol. of hope and deliverance rather than death. Themes for early paintings followed this line, depicting such stories as Jonah, the 3 men in the fiery furnace, Paul being let down the wall in a basket, and the Good Shepherd. When deemed proper, the early Christians were not adverse to using pagan art for their own purposes. Thus the Roman god of the flocks, Hermes, provided a pattern for the Good Shepherd. Generally, however, the art of the early Christians can be described as abstract, geometric at times, symbolic and with no intention of depicting worldly reality. The human figure was deliberately distorted so that spiritual effect might take precedence.
3. Byzantine art, though a direct outgrowth of early Christian art, introduces a new style element, the Oriental, and becomes a style in itself. The chief capitol of this era, Constantinople, was on the border between E and W; its art was a mixture of these 2 elements. The imperial palace and court of the emp. became the influence for the decoration of the churches. Wealth and pomp were carried over to the ch. both in the materials used and in the subject matter depicted. Mosaic, with its gold and glitter, became the primary pictorial medium. In this medium, colored glass, very luminous and in the form of very small cubes called tesserae, are cemented into the white stucco of the wall. Gold tesserae, glass fused to gold leaf, were often set into the stucco at angles, thus catching light and reflecting it in various directions. The effect is an overall richess of color, light, and subject matter. Often the subject matter included the emperor and empress and members of the court. Symbolism was also used extensively, esp. in defining the sacraments. A formal plan for decorating churches was devised that determined what decorations should be used, where they should be placed, and by what technique. All Byzantine churches used this plan. Great works of Byzantine art are at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul), in the 5th c. churches of Ravenna, It., done under the direction of Emp. Justinian, who resided there when Ravenna was the capital of the W Empire, and in Sicily, particularly at Monteale. St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, contains excellent examples of later Byzantine mosaic. This age also provided many fine examples of work in the minor arts, all of which rely heavily on the use of brilliant color and symbolism. Enamel ware, ivory carving, and precious metal were used in making plaques, icons, book covers, caskets, and liturgical items. A gen. description of this era would include the classical and Oriental influence, the rejection of the natural, and the use of wealth and light to transfer the observer's attention to the emotional and mystical elements of the liturgy.
4. Rome fell into utter ruin, and after the death of Charlemagne the ch. and its art went into hibernation. Awakening was due primarily to 3 influences: the monastic system, the Crusades, and the feeling of new life brought on by the passing of the year 1000 and its threat of the millennium. Monastaries maintained workshops to direct the skills of the artist towards the needs of the ch. Attempts were made, esp. in Fr., to encourage the style of the particular region rather than rely on a classical or Byzantine influence to dictate form. Thus each of various tribes that made up the Eur. complex provided a peculiar style to form a conglomerate whole. Esp. in painting we find considerable use of barbaric motifs. These worked their way into MS illuminations and provided strong influence for the resultant Gothic style. Since the ch. was now the patron of the arts, the state was removed as subject matter. God was the sole concern of the artist's work. There was very little attempt to create aesthetically pleasant work but rather to extend the work as a part of worship. Art now became an addition to the spoken word. Of all the art forms used at this time, sculpture can best be said to epitomize the age. Each ch. had its patron saint, sculpted and carried in procession on special occasions. The churches themselves were stark and massive and served also as fortresses. The sculptor's art kept them from being drab. The portal of the ch. provided the best arena for the sculptor, esp. at the tympanum. Here was depicted the Last Judgment, the Glorified Christ, or Christ surrounded by the 4 apocalyptic figures representing the Gospel writers. The sculptor was also called upon to execute crosses and crucifixes, many rivaling in wealth and beauty those done in the Byzantine age. The era can be summarized thus: ultra serious and devout, extremely inventive, with a concern for symbolizing truths that exist beyond the realm of human understanding and experience. Significant Romanesque art can be found in Fr. at Moissac, Chartres, Arles and Toulouse, in Ger. at Worms, Speyer and Hildesheim, in It. at Pisa and St. Ambrogio's in Milan, and in Eng. at Durham.
5. If the Byzantine age can be called majestic, and the Romanesque age devout, the Gothic age can be called intellectual, since art and architecture combined to convey intellectual concepts of God as He exists in nature. The Gothic artist looked to every aspect of life around him for subject matter. Reality itself was symbolic. The artist's task was to refine the forms of reality. Under the influence of Thomas Aquinas and his definition of beauty the artist tried to capture an ultimate in aesthetic perfection. There is today a tendency to regard this search as purely contemplative or religious. But the Gothic artists were concerned primarily with artistic problems. They brought to their work special influences that existed nowhere else. Their work contains N characteristics. It is not coincidental that the reach of the tall Fr. cathedrals towards the light occurs in a land of tall trees. In the cold N, light was essential. It was an element in Aquinas's definition of beauty. The stained glass window was an attempt to capture and use this light. Paintings and MS illumination also tried to use light with brilliant and vibrating color. Gothic art is essentially the art of the cathedral. Even many of the paintings used the cathedral as a setting. For the medieval artist the cathedral was the beginning and end of his life and livelihood. At the outset Gothic art expressed emotional mysticism; in the hands of fine artists it spoke to its time. Eventually it became aesthetic hack work, repetitious and devoid of spiritual significance. By the time of the Reformation and It. Renaissance, Gothic art was ready to succumb to the concepts of humanism. Works that remain as great statements of the Gothic ideal are in Fr. at Amiens, Reims, Chartres, Beauvais, and Paris. Cologne and Ulm hold fine examples of Ger. Gothic art. Salisbury and Canterbury are high peaks of the Gothic expression in Eng. In It., Gothic art never reached a pure expression. Orvieto and Siena contain some of the best examples; the Cathedral of Milan tries to epitomize the best features of all Gothic art and becomes simply burlesque. (See also Church Architecture)
6. The Gothic spirit was felt in It. primarily in painting. The Sienese school used the sense of humility and spirituality that was Gothic and yet incorporated a new feeling for emotion and human expression. The ultimate ideal of this school is found in the work of Giotto. His work in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua is a display of utmost concern for spiritual feeling. The Renaissance begins with him. While it would be wrong to reject the work of the Renaissance artists out of hand, it would be equally wrong to categorize this era as Christian. Much art production at this time was religious or sacred in content, but its main purpose was to show the mastery of the artist over a particular art problem. As a result, churches tended to become museums.
7. The Prot. Reformation, though not antiart, resulted in iconoclastic misunderstandings from which we are only now beginning to recover. Few artists painting under the influence of the Reformation created a specific Prot. style. Rembrandt* did. His work is often Christ-centered. But it is not the Christ of majesty; it is the Christ who heals the sick, who makes Himself known at the level of mankind. If distinctions are made between RC and Prot. art, they must begin historically at this point the choice between the depiction of Christ's majesty and exalted state and the resultant majesty and glory of His followers, and His depiction as the suffering servant and the resultant servitude of His followers. This distinction is general but ecumenical considerations seem to be reducing the division.
8. The ch. is again using the expression and craft of the artist. The artist in turn is finding in religious and ecclesiastical art an opportunity to devote his expression to a particular need. Such organizations as The Luth. Soc. for Worship, Music, and the Arts, and The Am. Soc. for Ch. Architecture encourage churches and artists to meet on common ground. The list of artists receiving extensive recognition while concentrating on religious and ecclesiastical art is growing steadily. RRCj
G. G. Coulton, Art and the Reformation, 2d ed. (Cambridge, 1953); K. M. McClinton, Christian Church Art Through the Ages (New York, 1962); E. Male, Religious Art from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century (New York, 1963); E. Male, The Gothic Image (New York, 1958).
In order to crush Crypto-Calvinism, which under Chancellor Nikolaus Crell* was again rearing its head in Electoral Saxony, a gen. visitation of chs. and schools was ordered at Torgau 1592, to be conducted acc. to the Articles of Visitation (Visitation-Artikel in gantzen Churkreiss Sachsen), drawn up 1593 by A. Hunnius,* J. Löner,* W. Mamphrasius,* M. Mirus, G. Mylius,* et al. Four articles treat the Lord's Supper, the Person of Christ, Holy Baptism, and the Election of Grace, each in from 4 to 6 terse, canonlike sentences in substantial agreement with the FC To these are added just as terse statements of the errors of the Calvinists on these points. These Articles had to be confessed by all preachers and teachers and for a long time had a confessional character, esp. in Saxony.
(September 23, 1857September 18, 1884). B. Zionsville, Pennsylvania; d. Rajahmundry. Grad. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia; ordained Lancaster, Pennsylvania, May, 1880; miss. Rajahmundry, India, 1880; headmaster of miss. schools; started schools for native boys 1883 and 1884.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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