Christian Cyclopedia

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Anabaptists

(from Gk. for “rebaptize”). Term of reproach applied to those who insist on rebaptism of those who were baptized as infants or by heretics or by clergy who lapsed from faith under persecution. The term was first used in the 4th century. 16th-c. centers include Zurich, Switz.; Zwickau and Wittenberg, Saxony; Moravia; NW Ger. and the Low Countries; Münster, Westphalia; Rhineland and SW Ger. See also Baptist Churches, 2; Denk, Johannes; Grace, Means of, I 7 Hetzer, Ludwig; Hofmann, Melchior; Hubmaier, Balthasar; Huter, Jakob; John of Leiden; Joris, David; Knipperdolling, Bernt; Luther, Controversies of, d; Manz, Felix; Menno Simons; Mennonite Churches, 1; Münster Kingdom; Münzer, Thomas; Restitution; Sattler, Michael; Zwickau Prophets.

Anacletus.

(Cletus; Anencletus [from Gk. for “blameless”]; 1st c.). In RC lists, successor of Linus*; pope (bp. Rome) perhaps ca. 79–ca. 92. Succeeded by Clement of Rome (see Apostolic Fathers, 1).

Anahita.

One of the chief deities in Mazdaism (see Zoroastrianism). Goddess of fertility

Analogia entis.

Analogy of being; term used in philos. and theol. to show relationship bet. God and creature. Both have existence and essence. In God these are identical, but in creatures they are tension-in-synthesis (Augustine* of Hippo) or a view toward God that is essentially a view from God Thomas* Aquinas). The analogia entis is rejected by some theologians, e.g., K. Barth.*

Analogy of Faith.

Term drawn from Ro. 12:6: “[Let us prophesy] according to the proportion [Gk. analogia] of faith.” J. Gerhard,* Locus I, chap. xxv (De interpretatione scripturae sacrae), par. 531 (532): “All interpretation of Scripture should be analogous to [the] faith [fidei analoga]. This canon is set forth Ro 12:6; this [passage] means that the interpretation of Scripture should be undertaken and properly done [conformari] in such a way that it harmonizes [consentiat] with the whole [perpetua] thought set forth in Scripture concerning each article of the heavenly doctrine.… The articles of faith which the apostle here [cf. 2 Ti 3:15] means by [“faith”], which all must know in order to be saved, are taught in Scripture in clear and plain [perspicuis] words.… In interpreting Scripture, nothing whatever is to be propounded [proferendum] in conflict with this rule* of faith.” This allows for apparent contradictions, e.g., with regard to predestination (see Predestination, I).

The view that restricts the analogy of faith to that which man finds harmonious and noncontradictory led to a broader use of Scripture and failure of free* Luth. confs. in Am. early in the 20th c.

See also Exegesis, 7; Hermeneutics; Humani generis; Scriptura scripturam interpretatur.

Anamnesis

(Gk. “memorial”). The part of many liturgies (e.g., RC, E, and Angl.) that commemorates the Passion, resurrection, and ascension of Christ; follows the Words of Institution.* The word is used Lk 22:19; 1 Co 11:24, 25.

Anan ben David

(fl. 2d half of 8th c. AD). Founded Karaites.* Unsuccessfully tried to become exilarch. Wrote Sepher ha-mitzvot (“Book of Precepts”).

Anaphora

(Gk. “offering”). Term that originated in the E ch. reference to the part of the liturgy in which he eucharistic elements are consecrated and offered as an oblation. Anaphoras vary in scope or extent. The Armenian rite has 1 (formerly 14), Byzantine 2, Chaldean 3, Coptic 3, Ethiopian 17, Malabar 1, Syrian 80, etc. See also Epiclesis.

Anarchism

(from Gk. for “rulerless”). Theory that regards govt. as source of major soc. and moral evils; would substitute spontaneous cooperation for pol. rule.

Anastasis

(Gk. “resurrection”). Some early chs. at Jerusalem and Constantinople were dedicated to the Anastasis of Christ.

Anathema.

(from Gk. for “set up, dedicate”). Term used in the LXX, e.g., Dt 13:6; Jos 6:18; Ez 10:8, as an equivalent for Heb. cherem, a word with the double meaning of devoted to God or set apart for punishment or annihilation. In the NT it is used, e.g., Acts 23:14; Ro 9:3; 1 Co 12:3; 16:22; Gl 1:8, 9. It was used as a formula of excommunication, e.g., by the Syn. of Elvira,* the Syn. of Laodicea,* the 3d Council of Toledo* 589, the Council of Chalcedon,* the Council of Trent,* and in later papal utterances. See also Blessing and Cursing; Justification, 10.

Anatolia

(from Gk. anatole, “sunrise”; land E of the Aegean Sea). (1) One of the 3 themes (themata; provinces) into which the 2 Phrygias (Prima [or Great, or Pacatiana, or western; Graeco-Roman] and Secunda [or Little, or Salutaris, or eastern, in which native manners and language remained]; these 2 Phrygias resulted from division of ancient Phrygia by Diocletian* at the end of the 3d c.) were divided in the military reorganization of the E Roman empire under Constans II Pogonatus (630–668; Constantinus; son of Constantine III; grandson of Heraclius*; b. Constantinople; Byzantine [E Roman] emp. 641–668). (2) In course of time the name was applied to the peninsula of Asia Minor; the heart of the Ottoman empire, it was included 1923 in formation of the Rep. of Turkey. See also Abercius, Inscriptions of; Middle East, B.

Anatolius

(d. ca. 282 AD). B. Alexandria, Egypt; bp. Laodicea; 268; opposed Paul* of Samosata. Wrote on the date of Easter.

Eusebius, HE, VII, xxxii, 6–12; MPG, 10, 207–236.

Anaximander

(ca. 611/610–ca. 547/546 BC). Gk. astronomer, geog., philos.; b. probably Miletus, near the mouth of the Maeander (modern Menderes), Ionia, Turkey, Asia Minor; probably pupil of Thales*; held that the first principle is eternal, indestructible, boundless matter, regarded as an animate being, sometimes identified with the “divine.” See also Anaximenes of Miletus; Philosophy.

Anaximenes of Miletus

(fl. probably ca. 545 BC; d. ca. 528/526 BC). Gk. philos.; 3d and last mem. of the “Milesian school of natural philosophers” (the others: Thales* and Anaximander*); held that air is primary substance. See also Dynamism; Philosophy.

Anaxogaras

(ca. 500–ca. 428 BC). Gk. philos.; b. Clazomenae, ca. 20 mi. W of present Izmir, Ionia, Turkey, Asia Minor; brought philosophy* from Ionia to Athens either 480 or 456 BC; held that mind arranged all things; investigated and explained many natural phenomena; influenced Euripides (see Religious Drama). Charged with impiety and banished from Athens perhaps ca. 450, others say shortly before his death. Wrote Peri physeos.

Ancestor Worship

(Manism). Worship of dead ancestors based on universal belief in the existence of an immaterial part of man that leaves the body at death. The deceased is also believed to have the same kindly interest in the affairs of the living as when alive and to interfere in the course of events for the welfare of the family or clan; or he may bring diseases, storms, or other misfortunes on them if his worship is neglected.

In ancient Rome, ancestor worship was a family religion. Masks or images, embodying the manes, i. e., the spirits of the deceased, who had become gods of the lower world, were set up in homes, altars erected, sacrifices made, and prayers offered to them in the same way as to the penates, the protecting spirits of the household. The Hindus bring sacrifices to the pitris (patres), the divine spirits of deceased ancestors, and implore them for assistance.

In China, ancestor worship is a general occurence. Tablets of wood bearing deceased's name and dates of birth and death are found in most homes; incense and spirit money are burned before them. From China, ancestor worship passed to Jap., where it also became firmly established.

Besides actual worship of spirits of the deceased, there has been among many races the custom of supplying the dead with things they enjoyed while alive. Among some savage races the dead man's wife, servants, and favorite animals were killed or buried alive with their former master.

Assoc. with ancestor worship is belief in possibility of communicating with spirits of the dead and obtaining their counsel and help in times of danger and misfortune through the agency of medicine men, wizards, or seers. There is also a wifely prevalent belief that ancestors are reincarnated in newborn children.

See also Reincarnation; Slavs, Primitive Religion of; Spencer, Herbert; Spiritism; Transmigration of Souls.

See Religion, Comparative, bibliography.

Anchieta, Joése de

(1534[1533?]–1597). B. San Cristobal de la Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands; “Apostle of Brazil.” Port. Jesuit miss.; educ. Port.; arrived in Brazil (see South America, 4) 1553. Works include the mystic poem De beata virgine dei matre Maria; grammar of Tupi (language of the major Indian tribal grouping of E. Brazil).

Anchor.

Symbol of Christian hope. Scripture background: Heb 6:19.

Ancient of Days.

Title of Jahweh (Dan 7:9, 13, 22).

Ancyra

(Angora; Ankara). City in cen. Anatolia*; capital of Turkey and of Ankara province. Early councils, or syns., held here include (1) ca. 314/315; dealt with lapsi*; canon 21 condemned abortion*; (2) 358; under Basil* of Ancyra; semi-Arian (see Semi-Arianism).

Andersen, Paul

(1821–92). B. Norw.; to Am. 1843; educ.Beloit* Sem.,” Wisconsin; ordained in Franckean* Syn. 1848; organized 1st Norw. Luth. Ch. in Chicago, Illinois, 1848; also began a S. S. there and was the 1st Scand. Luth. minister in Am. to place Eng. on an equality with Norw. in the conduct of services and S. S.; charter mem. of the Ev. Luth. Syn. of N Illinois* and its pres. 1857; prominent in organizing the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. in N. Am. 1860 (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 8) and in organizing The Norwegian-Danish* Augustana Syn. in Am. 1870; pastor Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1876–83.

Andersen, Rasmus

(July 23, 1848–August 18, 1930). Luth. cleric; b. Vedelshave, near Middelfart, on Fyn (Fyen; Fünen) Is., Den.; attended Ryslinge Mission School, near Ringe, on Fyn; sent to US 1871 as miss. among Danes by The Society* for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Danes in N. Am.; educ. Augsburg* Sem., Marshall, Wisconsin Helped organize Kirkelig Missionsforening 1872 (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3). Pastor Waupaca, Wisconsin, 1872–78; Perth Amboy, New Jersey, from June 1878 (also immigrant missionary Castle Garden (at the Battery) and later on Ellis Is., New York; moved to Brooklyn, New York, September 1878 and began serving also the Dan. Seamen's Miss.; also served a cong. at Lansingburgh, New York Works include writings on Dan. ch. hist. See also Immigrant and Emigrant Missions.

Anderson, Anton Marius

(March 8, 1847–1941). B. Hopballe, Jellinge, Jutland (Julland), Den.; to US 1872; studied at Augsburg Sem. (see Luther Theological Seminary, 4); ordained by Norw.-Dan. Conf. 1874; pastor Nebraska, Wisconsin, and South Dakota; resigned from Norw.-Dan. Conf. 1884; helped found Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. Assoc. in Am. 1884 (gen. called Blair Ch.; see also Danish Lutherans in America, 5); founded Trin. Sem., Blair, Nebraska, 1884 (prof. 1884–89, 1895–97). Ed. Dansk Luthersk Kirkeblad 1877–84, Danskeren 1903–ca. 1920/21.

Anderson, Charles Palmerston

(1864–1930). B. Kemptville, Ont., Can.; educ. Prot Hope and Toronto, Ont.; Prot. Episc. priest 1888; in charge Beachburg, Ont., 1889–91, Grace, Oak Park, Illinois, 1891–1900; bp. Chicago 1900; active in ecumenical movement. Works include Letters to Laymen; The Religion of Our Lord; Religion and Morality.

Anderson, Lars

(Andersson; Laurentius Andreae; ca.1480–1552). B. probably Strengnäs (Strängnäs), Swed.; archdeacon Strengnäs; won for Reformation by O. Petri*; ch. diplomat and pol., chancellor to Gustavus* I 1523; alleged involvement in pol. intrigue led to his withdrawal from pub. life. Collaborated on Swed. Bible tr.

Andorra, Principality of.

In Pyrenees; area: ca. 180 sq. mi. Governed jointly by Fr. and the bps. of Urgel, Sp., since 1278. Ethnic groups: Sp. 60+%, Andorran ca. 30%, Fr. ca. 6%. Official language: Catalan; others: Sp. and French. Religion RC the Reformation in many places; prof., provost, and chancellor of the U. of Tübingen 1561. Coauthor FC; other works include 6 sermons on disputed points. See also Catalog of Testimonies; Chemnitz, Martin; Chyträeus, David; Crusius, Martin; Crypto-Calvinist Controversy; Eastern Orthodox Churches, 5; Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, A 5; Flacius Illyricus, Matthias; Lutheran Confessions, C 2; Maulbronn Colloquy; Montbeliard, Colloquy of; Pistorius, 3.

J. V. Andreä, Fama Andreana reflorescens (Strasbourg, 1630).

Andover Controversy.

Controversy in Cong. Ch. that spread in last 2 decades of 19th c. when the ABCFM refused to sanction missionaries who held the opinion of some Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. profs. that heathen who died without hearign the Gospel would have 2d chance to be saved. See also Progressive Orthodoxy.

T. P. Field, “The Andover Theory of Future Probation,” The Andover Review, VII (1886), 461–475.

Andrada, Diego de Paiva de

(Andrade; 1528–75 [78?]). B. Coimbra, Port.; Jesuit theol; taught at Coimbra; envoy of Port. king at Council of Trent* 1561/62. Works Include many tracts, esp. against M. Chemnitz.*

Andreä, Jakob

(1528–90). Grandfather of Johann V. Andreä*; b. Waiblingen, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; diaconus Stuttgart 1546; pressure of the Interim* drove him to Tübingen 1548; helped introd.

Andreä, Johann Valentin

(1586–1654). Grandson of Jakob Abdreä*; b. Herrenberg, near Tübingen, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; traveled in Ger., Switz., It., Austria, and Fr.; diaconus Vaihingen 1614; supt. Calw (on the Nagold R, in S. Württemberg); court preacher Stuttgart 1639; promoted educ. of ministers and ch. discipline. Works include Fama Andreana reflorescens See also Rosicrucians.

Andreen, Gustav Albert

(March 13, 1864–October 1, 1940). B. Porter, Indiana; educ. chiefly Augustana coll., Rock Island, Illinois, and Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut; instr. Augustana Coll. 1882–84; prof. of languages Bethany Coll., Lindsborg, Kansas, prof. Yale 1894–1901; pres. Augustana Coll. 1901–35; ordained 1905. Works include Det Svenska Spraaket i Amerika; Studies in the German Idyl; History of the Educational Work of the Augustana Synod; The Early Missionary Work of the Augustana Synod in New York City, 1865–1866; History of Augustana College at Its 75th Anniversary.

Andrewes, Lancelot

(1555–1626). Angl. prelate; b. Barking, London, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; after holding various positions he became dean of Westminster 1601; bp. Chichester 1605, Ely 1609, Winchester 1619; one of the translators of KJV (see Bible Versions, L 8, 10–11); involved in controversy with R. Bellarmine,* who had attacked a writing of King James* that defended the oath of allegiance imposed 1606 as a result of discovery of the Gunpowder* Plot. Held that consecration changed the elements in the Lord's Supper; he did not describe the change but emphasized the sacrificial concept of the rite. Opposed Calvinism. See also High Church; Preston, John.

Andrew of Caesarea

(fl. bet. 5th and 9th c., probably 6th–7th c.). Bp. Caesarea Mazaca, Cappadocia (modern Layseri, Turkey). Wrote a commentary on Rv. Some think that some of his glosses may have become part of the text of Rv.

Andrew of Crete

(ca. 660–probably ca. 740). B. Damascus; monk in Jerusalem 678; deacon in Constantinople ca. 685; abp. Gortyna, Crete, ca. 692; espoused Monothelitism* 712, disavowed it 713; hymnist.

MPG, 97, 805–1444.

Andrews, Lorrin

(April 29, 1795–September 29, 1868). B. Windsor (now Vernon), Connecticut; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to Hawaiian Is. 1828; stationed at Lahaina; est. Lahainaluna Sem. 1831 (it developed into the U. of Hawaii); severed connection with ABCFM 1842; served as judge and as secy. of Privy Council. Did research into the hist. and literature of the Hawaiian people. Works include A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language; Grammar of the Hawaiian Language; work in Bible tr.

Anerio, Felice

(ca. 1560—ca. 1614). B. Rome, It.; dir. of music at the Eng. Coll. in Rome 1585; succeeded G. P. da Latestrina* as composer to the papal chapel (1594–1602). As coworker in revision of plainchant he heldped produce the Editio Medicaea, now discredited.

Angela de Foligno

(ca. 1248/49–1309). Mystic (see Mysticism); b. Foligno, It.; converted ca. 1285 after a worldly life; influenced by Bonaventura*; called magistra theologorum. Works include her memoirs. See also Arnd(t), Johann.

Angelic Hymn.

The Gloria* in excelsis (“Glory to God in the highest,” Lk 2:14).

Angelico, Fra

(Giovanni da Fiesole, originally Guido de Pietro; perhaps ca. 1400[1387?]–1455). 15th-c. religious painter; b. Vicchio, Mugello, Tuscany, It.; Dominican priest; prior San Domenico, Florence, 1449. Works include frescoes at Orvieto and in the Vatican and paintings in the San Marco museum, Floence. See also Mysticism, A.

Angel of the Lord.

The expression “the angel of the Lord” or “the angel of God” occurs more than 40 times in the OT. “The angel of the Lord” appears, e.g., to Hagar in the wilderness, Gn 16:7–14; later again, Gn 21:17; in company with 2 created angels, He visits Abraham in Mamre, Gn 18; appears to Abraham as he is about to sacrifice Isaac, Gn 22:11; to Jacob at Bethel, Gn 31:11–13; cf. 28:10–15; Jacob wrestles with Him at Peniel, Gn 32:24–32 (cf. Hos 12:3–5); Jacob asks Him to bless the sons of Joseph, Gn 48:16; He appears to Moses in burning bush, Ex 3; goes before camp of Israel, Ex 14:19; God warns Israel not to provoke Him, Ex 23:20–25; He is again promised to Israel after they committed idolatry with the golden calf, Ex 32:34; 33:1–11; He leads them to Kadesh, Nm 20:16; appears to Balaam, Nm 22:22–35; to Joshua as Captain of the Lord's host, Jos 5:13–6:5; comes to Bochim, Ju 2:1–4; tells Israel to curse Meroz, Ju 5:23; appears to Gideon, Ju 6:11; to Manoah and his wife, Ju 13:2–5; His name is used in a proverbial expression, 1 Sm 29:9; 2 Sm 14:17, 20; 19:27; when David had numbered Israel, “the angel of the Lord” stretched His hand over Jerusalem to destroy it, 2 Sm 24:16, 17; 1 Ch 21:15–30; He appears to Elijah under juniper tree, 1 K 19:5–7; sends Elijah to Ahaziah, 2 K 1:1–3; smites 185,000 Assyrians, 1 K 19:35; 2 Ch 32:21; Is 37:36; David mentions Him, Ps 34:7; 35:5–6; Isaiah calls Him angel ot God's presence, Is 63:9; He appears to Zechariah, who mentions His name, Zch 1:8–21; 3; 12:8; and Malachi calls Him the Messenger, or Angel, of the covenant, Ml 3:1.&

Commentators are divided in opinions regarding the identity of “the angel of the Lord” in the OT. The formula of earlier dogmaticians is still held by some: Whenever the name of Jahweh or divine works and worship are ascribed to the Angel in Scripture, this Angel must be understood as the Son of God. Accordingly, this angel is often referred to as the Logos* or the Angelus increatus, and His appearances are regarded as appearances of the preincarnate Son of God.

Others hold that “the angel of the Lord” is not necessarily to be interpreted as reference to the preincarnate Christ but that manifestations of this “angel of the Lord” are nonetheless theophanies, or manifestations of God. M. Luther does not specifically identify this angel.

Examination of passages cited above reveals that “the angel of the Lord” speaks at times as if He Himself were the Lord, at times as one who speaks in behalf of the Lord, in some instances sppears in both roles interchangeably. OT Scriptures themselves offer no basis for definitive explication of precise nature of relationship bet. “the angel of the Lord” and the Lord Himself. Such NT occurrences of “the angel of the Lord” as Mt 1:24 and Lk 2:9 suggest that the NT writers did not relate this title to Jesus Christ. WW

See also Angels, Good, 1

Angelology.

Study of angels or of beliefs in angels; doctrine concerning angels. See also Apocalyptic Literature.

Angels, Good.

1. In both Heb. and Gk. the word for “angel” means “messenger.” Both OT and NT use it to designate human messengers, e.g., Gn 32:3; Lk 7:24. The OT applies it also to prophet and priest (e.g., Is 42:19; 44:26; Ml 2:7) with obvious reference to their function as messengers sent by God. This may also be the import of term “the angels of the seven churches” (Rv 1:20), where reference is evidently to the pastors of the 7 chs. But in most passages the term “angels” designates those spiritual beings that were created in infinite numbers (cf. Dt 33:2; Dn 7:10; Heb 12:22) to serve God in various ways as messengers. See also Angel of the Lord.

2. The OT creation accounts make no explicit reference to origin of angels. On basis of Gn 2:1–3; Ex 20:11; Jn 1:3; Cl 1:16, Christian interpreters have concluded that the angels were created at an unspecified time in the 6 days of creation. Jb 38:4–7 refers to the presence of angels (“the sons of God”) when God “laid the foundation of the earth.” The title “sons of God” (e.g., Jb 1:6; 2:1; 38:7; Ps 29:1 and 89:6 in Heb.) may also be seen as pointing to the angels' origin from God as well as their close relationship to Him.

3. Scriptures speak of angels as spiritual beings and portray these noncorporeal beings as appearing in human form when, in their capacity as divine messengers, they manifest themselves to human beings. They appear as men (e.g., Gn 19:1–22; Mt 28:2–4). The 2 referred to by proper names have masculine names: Gabriel* (Dn 8:16; Lk 1:19, 26) and Michael (Dn 10:13; Jude 9; Rv 12:7). Excluding references to cherubim and seraphim (see 6–7 below), the Biblical statements lend no direct support to the popular view that ascribes wings to angels.

4. Angels are described as possessing more than merely human attributes. In 3 passages speakers are quoted who refer to angels as “blameless” (1 Sm 29:9 RSV), as possessing ability “to discern good and evil” (2 Sm 14:17 RSV), and as having knowledge of “all things that are on the earth” (2 Sm 14:20 RSV). Ps 103:20 speaks of angels as “mighty men of strength” (Heb.). The moral perfection of angels is reflected in the designation “holy ones,” often used in the OT (e.g., RSV in Jb 5:1; Ps 89:5, 7; Dn 4:13; Zch 14:5). The NT reinforces the OT portrait of angels as creatures of holiness (Lk 9:26) and superhuman strength (2 Ptr 2:11). Immortality, implicit in OT writings, is explicitly ascribed in Lk 20:36.

5. Ranking of angels has been a subject of much speculation. Pseudo-Dionysius (see Dionysius the Areopagite, 2) invented 27 ranks in an angelic hierarchy allegedly consisting of 3 major orders, each with 9 subdivisions. Later writers imitated or adapter this speculative ranking of angels, based to some extent on apocryphal and pseudepigraphal documents such as Tobit, Enoch, 2 Esdras, and the Testament of Levi. Bible distinguishes only bet. “angel” and “archangel” (the latter occurring only 2 Th 4:16; Jude 9 and meaning “chief angel”). Dn 12:1 calls archangel Michael “the great prince” (cf. Rv 12:7); Jos 5:14 (RSV) mentions a “commander of the army of the Lord.” Some hold that such terms as principalities, powers, authorities, dominions, and thrones (cf. Ro 8:38; Eph 1:21; 3:10; Cl 1:16; 1 Ptr 3:22) are names of various angelic ranks.

6. The titles cherubim and seraphim (both are Heb. plurals), on the other hand, appear not to designate angelic ranks but rather special kinds of angelic beings. In the OT the Lord is portrayed as enthroned above (or upon) the cherubim (e.g., RSV in 1 Sm 4:4; 2 K 19:15; Ps 80:1; 99:1), or as riding on a cherub or cherubim (e.g., 2 Sm 22:11; Ps 18:10; Eze 1; 10). The cover (mercy seat) of the ark of the covenant, where the Lord promised to be present with His people, was embellished with figures of 2 cherubim with wings stretched out above the ark (cf. Ex 25:10–22). Embroidered representations of cherubim adorned the curtains of the tabernacle and the veil that enclosed the most holy place (Ex 26:1, 31; 2 Ch 3:14). Figures of cherubim with outspread wings stood in the most holy place in Solomon's temple (1 K 6:23–28), and carved figures of cherubim embellished the temple walls and doors (1 K 6:29–35). Cherubim may be regarded as guardians of a sacred place (Gn 3:24; Eze 28:16) or as symbols of God's presence. Archaeological evidence suggests that cherubim were represented pictorially as winged creatures having a human head and a lion's body. Except Heb 9:5, the word cherubim occurs in the Bible only in the OT.

7. Seraphim are mentioned by name only in Is 6:2–6, where they are described as 6-winged creatures who fly above the Lord's throne as they chant His praises. The winged “living creatures” (RSV) in the description of the heavenly throne room in Rv 4:5 appear to be NT counterparts of the cherubim and seraphim of the OT.

8. The function of angels as God's messengers may be seen as (1) conveying messages from God to men (e.g., Gn 31:11; Mt 2:13, 19–20; Acts 27:23–24); (2) foretelling special acts of God (e.g., Gn 16:11; Ju 13:3–5; Lk 1:11–20, 26–37; 2:9–12); (3) serving as agents of divine judgment (e.g., Gn 19:1–29; 2 Sm 24:15–17; Mt 13:41–42, 49–50; Acts 12:23); (4) serving as agents of divine providence (e.g., 1 K 19:5–8; Ps 91:11–12; Dn 6:22; Acts 5:19–20; 12:7–10). While the Scriptures do not answer the question whether each believer, esp. each believing child (cf. Mt 18:10), has one or more specially assigned guardian angels, they clearly assure God's people of the constant guardianship of His angelic messengers (Ps 91:11–12; Heb 1:14). A further service rendered to God's people is recognized by the Luth. Confessions: “that the angels pray for us” (Ap XXI 8; cf. SA-II II 26); cf. Zch 1:12. The invoking angels is forbidden try 22:8–9; Mt 4:10; cf. SA-II II 26; see also Angels, Veneration of. Angels praise and worship God (Ps 29:1–2; 103:20–21; Is 6:1–3; Lk 2:13–14; Rv 7:11–12).

9. Some angels sinned (see Devil). The angels who faithfully served God are referred to in Scripture as “holy angels” and dogmaticians speak of them as angels who “persevered in holiness” and are now “confirmed in holiness.”; cf. Mt 18:10; 25:31; Mk 8:38.

10. In the NT, where Jesus Christ is portrayed as “the Head over all things,” including the angels (cf. Eph 1:20–22; 1 Ptr 3:22), the ministry of the holy angels is given Christocentric emphasis. Angels announce Jesus' birth (Lk 1:26–35; 2:9–14), mediate providential guidance for infant Jesus (Mt 2:13, 19–20), minister to Him as He performs redemptive work (Mt 4:11; Lk 22:43), are instantaneously available for His service (Mt 26:53); are heralds of His resurrection (Mt 28:2–7) and ascension (Acts 1:10–11). Angels give attention to ministers of Christ's newly est. ch. (Acts 5:19–20; 8:26; 12:7–10; 27:23–24) even as they continue to watch over and rejoice in the progress of His ch. on earth (Lk 15:7, 10; 1 Ptr 1:12). Angels praise the ascended Christ before His throne (Rv 7:11–12), will accompany Him and assist Him at final judgment (Mt 24:31; 25:31; 1 Th 4:16). It is in their relationship to Jesus Christ that all Christians become beneficiaries of Scriptural promises concerning attendant angels, who are “ministering spirits sent forth to serve, for the sake of those who are to obtain salvation.” (Heb. 1:14 RSV). WW.

Angels, Veneration of.

Cl 2:18; Rv 19:10; 22:8–9 forbid the worship of angels. The primitive ch. down to Gregory I (see Popes, 4) condemned it. In RCm, devotion to angels is regarded as dulia (see Latria). Luths. honor St. Michael and all angels on September 29 and often refer to holy angels in prayers; on basis of Zch 1:12 the Luth. Symbols (Ap XXI 8; SA-II II 26) grant that angels pray for us, but hold that it would be idolatrous to invoke or adore them. See also Angels, Good, 8. ACP

Angelus.

RC prayer named after its Lat. form (Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae.… “The angel of the Lord declared to Mary.…”); commemorates the Annunciation (see Annunciation, Feast of). Its hist., obscure, may have roots in the 13th c. Recited ca. 6 a.m., noon, and 6 p.m.; at these hours a bell called the Angelus bell is rung (3 strokes followed by a pause 3 times, then 9 strokes). Consists of versicles, responses, 3 Hail Marys, and a collect. In the paschal* season Regina coeli, a hymn to Mary, is substituted. See also Mariology.

Angelus Temple.

Cen. ch. of the Internat. Ch. of the Foursquare Gospel, Los Angeles, California See also Foursquare Gospel, The.

Angilram

(Angilramnus; d. 791). Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Sens, Fr.; bp. Metz 768; chaplain at the court of Charlemagne* 784.

Anglican and Eastern Churches Association.

Founded 1864, partly on initiative of J. M. Neale,* to promote reunion of Angl. and Orthodox Ch.; formerly known as Eastern Cg. Assoc.; includes Angl. and Eastern Orthodox Chs. Union, founded 1906.

Anglican Catholic Church.

Formed August 1987 by some Anglicans in reaction to what they saw as growing liberalism in the Angl. Ch. (see England).

Anglican Chant.

Music of psalms used in Angl. Ch.; derived from plainchant of 17th c. See also Chant; Gregorian Music.

Anglican Church in North America.

Dissident mems. of The Protestant* Episc. Ch. formed a new body 1977 that objects to ordination of women as priests and to liturgical change in the Book of Common Prayer and repudiates the World* Council of Chs.

Anglican Confessions.

1. The Ten Articles, issued 1536 under direction of Henry* VIII and adopted by convocation (meeting of representatives of Angl. clergy), enjoin clergy to teach that the things in the Bible and the 3 Creeds are true, condemn all opinions condemned by the 1st 4 ecumenical councils (see Councils and Synods, 4) (I); teach that Baptism is necessary for attaining everlasting life, that infants and adults are to be baptized (II); assert that the sacrament of penance consists of contrition, confession, and amendment and is necessary for salvation (III); assert that in the Sacrament of the Altar the body and blood are corporally distributed “under the form and figure of bread and wine” (IV); assert that justification is our acceptance into the grace of God attained by contrition and faith joined with charity (V); retain images (VI), honor of and prayers to saints (VII, VIII), traditional rites and ceremonies (IX), prayers for departed souls to relieve them of some of their pain (X).

2. The Ten Articles were followed, though not legally superseded, 1537 by the Institution of a Christian Man (or Bishops' Book), with contained expositions of the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, Ave Maria, Ten Commandments, 7 sacraments (Baptism, Penance, Lord's Supper given greater dignity than the other 4), justification, human origin of the papacy, and other points of The Ten Articles; use of images was attacked. The Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man (known as The King's Book; free Lat. tr. Pia et catholica Christiani hominis institutio) was a 1543 rev. of the Institution and included added material on free will, justification, transubstantiaiton, good works, clerical celibacy, predestination, and purgatory. See also England, B 3.

3. The Six Articles (1539) enforced belief in transubstantiation, communion under 1 kind, clerical celibacy, monastic vows, private masses, and auricular confession. See also England, B 3.

4. The Thirteen Articles (1538), in Lat., were probably drafted in London by Eng. and Ger. scholars on basis on the AC. Though never pub., they became the basis for the Forty-two Articles.

5. In 1549 Parliament authorized Edward VI (see also England, B 4) to appoint 32 persons to draw up ecclesiastical laws. The appointees, who included M. Coverdale,* T. Cranmer,* J. Hooper,* Peter* Martyr, and N. Ridley,* drew up the Forty-two Articles (also known as Edwardine Articles), which were issued with a royal mandate 1553. As a result of resurgence of RCm under Mary* I they were not enforced. See also England, B 4.

6. Elizabeth* I gave M. Parker* the task of recasting the Forty-two Articles. Using Luth. and Ref. formulations, esp. the AC, he revised the Forty-two Articles into the Thirty-nine Articles, which received final revision by the Convocation of 1571. Synodical approval was gained through convocation. The Thirty-nine Articles include reference to RC tenets that separate Anglicans from Rome (works of supererogation, 14; authority of councils, 21; purgatory, 22; adoration of relics and images, 22; 7 sacraments, 25; transubstantiation, 28; denial of the cup to the laity, 30; enforced celibacy, 32; supremacy of the pope, 37). The theol. affinity of the art. on predestination has been much disputed; statements on the Lord's Supper are Reformed. Separation of Am. colonies from Eng. made changes necessary. The 1801 Gen. Conv. of the Protestant* Episc. Ch. in the US adopted the Thirty-nine Articles but omitted the Athanasian Creed (see Ecumenical Creeds, C) and “Of the Authority of General Councils” (Art. 21) and made other changes necessitated by changed pol. Circumstances. See also England, B, 2 and 4; Pardons; Presbyterian Confessions, 4.

7. Lambeth Articles. After adoption of the Thirty-nine Articles, Calvinism* gained strength in England. The Lambeth Articles (November 20, 1595) strongly enunciate the predestinarian system of J. Calvin* but never attained symbolical authority. See also Whitaker, William; Whitgift, John.

8. Irish Articles. Drawn up probably by J. Ussher* and approved at the 1st convocation of the Irish Prot. clergy, Dublin 1615, these 104 articles revised the Thirty-nine Articles (see 6) in a strongly Calvinistic direction (absolute predestination and perseverance; the pope is Antichrist; Puritan view of the Sabbath; no mention of episc. ordination), inc. the substance of the Lambeth Articles (see 7), and became a basis for the Westminster Confession. See also Ireland, 4; Presbyterian Confessions, 3–4.

9. Catechisms. Henry* VIII pub. a Primer 1545 based on a 15th-c. Prymer (Lord's Prayer, Creed, 10 Commandments) with additions. T. Cranmer* issued a catechism 1548. In the Prayer Books of Edward VI a catechism for children was included; it underwent frequent alterations and is still used. EL

See also Book of Common Prayer; Christian Church, History of, III 7; Reformed Episcopal Church; Wittenberg Articles.

P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vols. (New York, 1877; reprint. and rev. to 1966); H. E. Jacobs, The Lutheran Movement in England During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (Philadelphia, 1891); E. J. Bicknell, A Theological Introduction to the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, 3d ed., rev. H. J. Carpenter (London, 1955); C. S. Meyer, Elizabeth I and the Religious Settlement of 1559 (St. Louis, 1960); E. G. Rupp, Studies in the Making of the English Protestant Tradition (Cambridge, 1947; corrected reprint 1949); Creeds of the Churches, ed. J. H. Leith (New York, 1963); J. H. Blunt, The Reformation of the Church of England, 5th ed., 2 vols. (London, 1882); P. Hughes, The Reformation in England, 5th ed., 3 vols. in 1 (New York, 1963).

Anglican Evangelical Group Movement.

Organized 1906, as a private body called Group Brotherhood, by Anglicals who opposed what they held to be unduly conservative theol. and welcomed the aid of science and criticism. Changed name and became a pub. body 1923. Ceased to exist 1967. See also Evangelicals, 4; Liberal Evangelicalism.

Anglican Orthodox Church, The.

Est. 1963 at Statesville, North Carolina Holds to the Thirty-nine Articles, the 1928 Am. Book of Common Prayer, the KJV, and basic Angl. traditions and ch. govt.

Anglican Scandinavian Conferences.

A conf. was held 1947 in Chichester, Eng., bet. the Angl. Ch., the Ch. of Den., and the Ch. of Iceland, with a view to closer relations; some observers from the Ch. of Norw. were also present. Another conf. was held in Oslo, Norw., March 29–31, 1951, by representatives of the 4 chs. Limited altar fellowship was est., with the Ch. of Norw. expressing a gen. position of open communion.

Church in Fellowship, I, ed. V. Vajta (Minneapolis, 1963). pp. 209–221.

Anglo-Catholics.

Term applied to those in Eng. who were assoc. with Tractarianism,* to those who emphasized ritualism after the defection of J. H. Newman* to RCm 1845, and to adherents of the High* Ch. movement in gen. See also Denison, George Anthony; Oxford Movement.

Anglo-Israelism.

Theory that Anglo-Saxon peoples are descendants of the 10 lost tribes of Israel; first advanced 1649 by John Sadler; later developed by Richard Brothers (1757–1824); scholars deem its premises unsound. See also British Israelism; Ten Lost Tribes.

Angularius

(Angularis). See Hoeck, Jakob.

Anicetus

(fl. 2d c. AD). B. Syria; pope ca. 154/157–166/168. Polycarp* came to Rome to discuss with him the date of Easter; no solution to the Easter* controversy was found, but Anicetus allowed Polycarp to continue the E tradition.

Anker, Kristian

(October 29, 1848–November 16, 1928). B. Odense, Den.; to US 1881; ordained 1881. Pastor Chicago, Illinois; Elk Horn Iowa; Blair and Lincoln, Nebraska Broke with Dan. Luth. Ch. 1894; helped organize The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. America. Pres. Dana Coll. and Trin. Sem. 1899–1905 (listed as Blair Coll. and Theol. Sem. 1899; referred to as Blair Coll. and Trin. Sem. 1900–01; designated as Trin. Sem. and Blair Coll. 1901–03; officially named Dana Coll. and Trin. Sem. 1903). See also Danish Lutherans in America, 3, 5; Ministry, Education of, VIII B; X S.

Anna Comnena

(1083–after 1148). Daughter of E Roman emp. Alexius I Comnenus (1048–1118; emp. 1081–1118; persecuted the Bogomils*); failed to secure the throne for her husband, Nicephorus Bryennius; her Alexiad, chiefly a hist. of her father's reign, is an important source for Byzantine hist. at the time of 1st Crusade. (see Crusades, 2).

Annates

In RCm, the 1st yr.'s income from an ecclesiastical office, paid by the holder to the papal curia*; in other chs. observing a similar Practice, first-fruits are paid to the one presenting the benefice; the custom began in the 13th c. See also Queen Anne's Bounty.

Annet, Peter

(1693–ca. 1769). B. perhaps Liverpool, Eng.; deist; schoolmaster; attacked credibility of the resurrection of Christ, miracles, and supernaturalism and tried to discredit the work of Paul. Works include The Resurrection of Jesus Considered.

Annihilationism.

Belief that the unrighteous pass out of existence after death. Some adherents hold that such annihilation results from gradual disintegration occasioned by sin. Others hold that the wicked will suffer after death in expiation of their sins but that such suffering is followed by complete cessation of being. The origin of such teachings is to be found in the natural horror that men feel when confronted with the idea of eternal punishment. For the Scriptural doctrine opposing annihilationism see Hereafter; Last Things. See also Adventist Bodies, 3, 4; Conditional Immortality.

D. M. Gilbert, “The Annihilation Theory Briefly Examined,” LQ, IX (1879), 613–648; J. H. C. Fritz, “Eine Gnadenzeit nach dem Tode, die Vernichtung aller Gottlosen und andere Irrlehren,” CTM, VII (1936), 436–445.

Anno Domini

(Lat. “in the year of the Lord”). In common usage has come to mean “after Christ.” Abbreviated AD See also Dionysius Exiguus.

Annoni, Hieronymus

(d'Annone; 1697–1770). B. Basel, Switz.; pastor; leader of pietists at Muttenz, near Basel.

Annunciades

(Annunciates). RC orders founded under patronage of the Annunciation (see Annunciation, Feast of the). See also Annunciation, Orders of the, 1–3.

Annunciation, Feast of the.

Commemoration on March 25 of the announcement of Gabriel* to Mary that she was to become the mother of God (Lk 1:26–38). Also called Lady Day. See also Angelus; Church Year, 13, 16; Incarnation; Loreto; Mariology.

Annunciation, Orders of the.

RC orders. 1. Annunciades of Fr.; penitential order for women. Founded ca. 1500/02 by Jeanne de Valois (1464–1505; b. Paris), physically handicapped daughter of Louis XI of Fr. (1423–83; king 1461–83) and wife (1476) of the duke of Orleans, who became Louis XII (1462–1515; duke 1465–98; king 1498–1515). Louis had the marriage annulled after his accession to the throne. Jeanne retired to Bourges, where she founded the order.

2. Celestial Annunciades (Annunciades of It.). Order for women founded ca. 1602/04 near Genoa by Maria Victoria Fornari-Strata (1562–1617; b. Genoa, It.).

3. Annunciates (Annunciades; Annunciatae) of Lombardy (Ambrosians; Sisters of St. Ambrose; Sisters of St. Marcellina). Founded 1408 at Pavia, It. Guided by Augustinian* Rule. See also Catherine of Genoa.

4. Archconfraternity of the Annunciation. Est. 1460 in Rome, It., by J. de Torquemada* to provide dowries for poor girls.

5. Servites* are sometimes called Annunziata because their chief monastery at Florence, It., is dedicated to the Annunciation.

6. The Order of the Annunziate (Annunciad[a]). Military order that traces its origin to the Order of the Collare (or Collar; from the silver collar of love knots and roses that was its badge) est. ca. 1350/64 by Amadeus VI, count of Savoy (1334–83; reigned 1343–83).

Anomoeans

(from Gk. anomoios, “dissimilar”). Arians who denied the likeness of the Son to Father; distinguished from Semi-Arians, who denied only the consubstantiality. Leaders were Aëtius* and Eunomius.* See also Arianism, 1; Eudoxius.

Anquetil-Duperron, Abraham Hyacinthe

(1731–1805). Fr. orientalist; ed. and tr. Avesta (see Zend-Avesta).

Ansegis

(Ansegius; ca. 770—ca. 833). B. Lyonnais, Fr.; abbot of several abbeys, including the Benedictine abbey of Fontenelle, near Caudebec-en-Caux, N Fr. The 4 books of his collections of laws and decrees of Charlemagne* and of Louis* I are commonly called capitularies.

Anselm of Canterbury

(ca. 1033/34–1109). Father of medieval scholasticism.* B. Aosta, It.; succeeded Lanfranc* as prior of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec,* N Fr., 1063; abbot there 1078; abp. Canterbury, Eng., 1093. Studied Augustine extensively and lived himself into his spirit. Had many difficulties with the king of Eng. over rights and privilege. Was humble, kind of heart, and charitable. Works include Cur deus homo and Monologium; in the latter he developed an ontological argument for the existence of God. See also Barth, Karl; Christian Faith and the Intellectual, 3; Credo ut intelligam; God, Arguments for the Existence of.

A. C. Welch, Anselm and His Work (Edinburgh, 1901); M. Grabmann, Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1956); F. R. Hasse, Anselm von Canterbury, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1843–52); R. W. Southern, Saint Anselm and His Biographer (Cambridge, Eng., 1963); Opera omnia, ed. F. S. Schmitt (Edinburgh, 1946–61); G. H. Williams, Anselm: Communion and Atonement (St. Louis, 1960); J. Hopkins, A Companion to the Study of St. Anselm (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1972).

Anselm of Laon

(Ansellus; d. 1117). Theol.; b. Laon (near Paris), Fr.; taught at Laon. Contributed to what became known as Glossa ordinaria (see Glosses and Glossarists). See also Abelard, Peter; Gilbert de la Porrée; William of Champeaux.

Anselm of Lucca

(ca. 1036–86). B. Mantua, It.; Benedictine; partisan of Gregory VII (see Popes, 7); espoused ecclesiastical reforms.

Ansgar

(Anskar; Anschar[ius]; Ansgarius; ca. 801–865). “Apostle of the North.” B. near Corbie, N Fr.; Benedictine monk Corbie ca. 814; teacher and preacher Corvey, Westphalia, after 823; sent with an asst. by Louis* I to territory “beyond the Elbe” in the mid-820s in response to a request of Harold Klak (see also Denmark, Kingdom of) and to Swed. ca. 829/830 in response to a request of the king of Swed.; bp. Hamburg 832, Bremen 847. See also Sweden, Conversion of, to Christianity.

Y. Brilioth, Ansgar, Sveriges Apostel, 3d ed. (Stockholm, 1955).

Antediluvians.

Name applied to people who lived before the Flood.

Anthem

(from Gk. antiphoneo, “to sound in answer, reply”). In the narrower sense, a sacred choral work whose text, though taken from the Bible, is nonliturgical. While 17th-c. anthems were usually sung without accompaniment, modern anthems include instrumental accompaniment. Excellent anthems were written by Eng. master composers in the 17th and 18th c. Use of anthems declined in some areas toward the middle of the 20th c.

In the wider sense, an anthem is any hymn or song of gladness or praise.

See also Motet.

Anthony

(Antony: Antonius; ca. 251–ca. 356). “The Great”; “the Hermit”; founded Christian monasticism*; b. Coma (Comus; Koma; Kome; Keman), near Heracleopolis, Middle (or Upper?) Egypt; reputedly hermit for more than 80 yrs.; organized hermit colonies but left no written rule (the rule that bears his name was compiled later).

Anthony, Orders of St.

RC religious orders that claim(ed) St. Anthony* (d. ca. 356) as patron: (1) Disciples of Anthony (Antonians); 1st Christian religious community. (2) Antonine Hospitallers (Hospital Brothers of St. Antony; Canons Regular of St. Anthony of Vienne; Antonines); est. 1095 in Fr.; not extant. (3) Antonines of Flanders; est. 1615 under the rule of Augustine; not extant. (4) Syrian Antonines; est. 1668. (5) Armenian Antonines; est. 1705; founded a monastery near Beirut, Lebanon. (6) Chaldean Antonines of St. Hormisdas; est. 1808 near Alqosh, Mesopotamia. (7) Lebanese Maronite Order of St. Anthone; est. 1695/96. (8) Aleppian Maronite Order of St. Anthony; resulted 1758, when the Lebanese order split. (9) Maronite Antonine Order of St. Isaia; est. 1700 by the Maronite bp. of Aleppo; named after the main monastery, March Isaya; HQ near Beirut, Lebanon. (10) A fictional “Order of St. Anthony” assoc. with the hospice San Stefano dei Mori in Vatican City; the hospice was designated for the use of Ethiopian pilgrim monks in the 15th c.; regulations (the so-called rule) date from 1551. (11) A military order, The Order of the Knights of St. Anthony; est. 1382 by Albert I of Bav. (d. 1404) to conquer the Holy Land. (12) Benedictine Armenian Antonines, also called Mechitarists.*

Anthony of Padua

(Anthony; Antonius; bap. name Ferdinand; 1195–1231). B. Lisbon, Port.; Augustinian ca. 1212; Franciscan 1220 at the friary of San Antonio in Coimbra (whence he took the name Anthony); miss. to Morocco; preached against heretics in N It. 1222–24, S Fr. 1223; preacher in It. 1227–31, specifically in Padua 1231. See also Concordances, Bible; Preaching, History of, 8.

Anthropocentrism.

(anthropocentricism). View that man is at the center of all values and experiences.

Anthropolatry.

Cult of human being conceived as God or of God conceived as human. Apollinarians* were called Anthropolatrae. Alexander III (the Great; 356–323 BC; king of Macedonia 336–323) was deified. See also Roman Religion, 3; Shinto, 1, 2, 4.

Anthropology.

The part of Christian dogmatics,* or doctrinal* theol. that refers to man's creation,* essential parts, fall (see Fall of Man) and subsequent sinfulness. Man* was originally created in the image* of God. Though “very good” (Gn 1:31), man could fall (Gn 2:17), though the question as to how this could be belongs to the mystery of the origin of sin.* Man's fall was voluntary; though Eve was deceived by the devil (1 Ti 2:14), she and Adam sinned against better knowledge (Gn 3:1–13). The Fall was foreseen, but not willed, by God (Ps 5:4–5). Scripture rejects all forms of determinism* and fatalism.* After the Fall, man still has a free will in worldly affairs, and to some extent it can achieve civil righteousness (Ap XVIII 4). But he has no free will in spiritual matters. The Moral Law was originally written in man's heart (acc. to one interpretation of Ro 1:19–32; 2:14–15), so that in the state of innocence Adam knew God's will even without special revelation (Gn 2:18–24). After the Fall, man still retains knowledge of God's law and will, though it is obscured by sin (Ro 1:32). Conscience* is man's moral faculty that, on basis of natural law, judges bet. right and wrong. Since the Fall has obscured the natural law and weakened man's moral judgment, his opinions of moral and spiritual matters are often wrong; conscience therefore is no longer a safe guide in doctrine and life but must be normed acc. to Scripture, the only source and rule of faith and life. JTM

Anthropomorphism

(from Gk. anthropos, “man,” and morphe, “form”). The Scriptural mode of speech by which the possession of human senses, limbs, and organs is attributed to God. God is spoken of as having a face, eyes, ears, nose, heart, arm, hand, finger (Gn 3:8; Ex 6:6; 7:4; 13:3; Ps 10:17; 11:4; 18:8; 34:16; 63:8; 95:4; 139:16; Is 52:10; 62:8; Jer 27:5; Lk 11:20). Since God is not composed of material but is simply spirit, complete in His spiritual nature, the Bible, in anthropomorphism and anthropopathism (the latter from Gk. for “human feeling”), intends to convey some notion of God and His ways (Is 55:8–11; Ro 11:33–36).

The term anthropomorphism is applied to heretical teachings that attribute an actual body and human emotions to God. Thus Latter* Day Saints hold that God is a material being, with human passions, who created man as men beget children. Those who thus ascribe human parts, attributes, and passions to God are called anthropomorphites.

Anti-Missouri Brotherhood.

Organized 1887 by a group of ministers of the Norw. Syn. under the leadership of F. A. Schmid(t).* Conducted a sem. at St. Olaf Coll., Northfield, Minnesota, 1886–90. In 1890 the Anti-Missouri Brotherhood became part of the United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. See also Beloit Seminary (Iowa); Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 10; Luther Theological Seminary, 4.

Anti-National Religious Organization Movement.

An antimissionary. and antibenevolent movement that arose in the US ca. 1820 and was supported by Baps. (e.g., A. Campbell*), Freethinkers, Universalists, Ref. Meths., Unitarians, and others. The basic motive for the movement was the fear that religious authority would be concentrated as a result of the various undenominational benevolent associations and thus the separation of ch. and state be obliterated.

G. P. Albaugh, “Anti-missionary Movement in the United States,” An Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. V. Ferm (New York, 1945), pp. 27–28.

Anti-Saloon League.

The Ohio Anti-Saloon League was organized at Oberlin 1893 in the interest of temperance and in opposition to all saloons in the state; a similar league was organized 1893 in the Dist. of Columbia. These and more than 40 similar organizations founded the Anti-Saloon League of Am. 1895, which pressed for adoption of the 18th Amendment to the US const. (adopted 1919; effective 1920; repealed 1933) and became known as the Nat. Temperance League 1948, which absorbed the Temperance Leagues of Am. and the Nat. Temperance Movement 1950.

Anti-Semitism

(from Shem [cf. Gn 10:1, 21–31] as ancestor of Jews). Prejudice, hostility, or opposition to Jews, Jewry, and Judaism.* See also Zionism.

Antichrist.

1. Term used in the NT (1) of all false teachers (1 Jn 2:18; 4:3) and (2) of one outstanding adversary of Christ (1 Jn 2:18). Characteristics of the Antichrist are mentioned, e.g., in Dn 11; 2 Th 2.

2. The word antichristos (Gk.) occurs first in the NT and there only in John's writings. But the idea is mentioned in earlier Jewish apocalyptic literature and is rooted in OT prophecy. The origin of the idea has been vainly sought in heathen lands, e.g., in the battle of Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu (see Zoroastrianism). The prophecies of Daniel were applied first to Antiochus IV (Epiphanes, i. e., the illustrious; d. 163 BC; king of the Seleucidae of Syria 175–163; declared Judaism illegal 168; destroyed Jewish temples in Syria; his opposition against Jewish religion led to Wars of the Maccabees), later to Pompey the Great (106–48; Roman gen. and statesman; captured Jerusalem 64–63), Herod the Great (73?–4 BC; king of Judaea 37–4), and Caligula (so named because he early wore caligae, military shoes; real name Gaius Caesar; 12–41 AD Roman emp. 37–41).

3. Polycarp* (letter to the Philippians, 7) quotes 1 Jn 4:3 in connection with those that do not “confess the testimony of the cross”; the Didache (16:4) speaks of “the deceiver of the world” who is to come; the “Ep of Barnabas,” IV, speaks of “beast” of Dn 7:7–8. Irenaeus (Adversus haereses, V xxv 3; xxviii 1) applies Jer 8:16; Dn 7:8, 20–25; 2 Th 2:8–12 to the Antichrist. Hippolytus (De Christo et antichristo) quotes Gn 49:16–17; Dt 33:22; Dn 11:31; 12:11–12; Rv 12:1–6, 13–17; Mt 24:15–22 and parallels; 2 Th 2:1–12 as pertaining to the Antichrist.

4. The Antichrist was soon connected with Nero* and his expected return (Augustine* of Hippo, Decivitate Dei, XX, 19; Commodianus,* Instructiones, 41; Lactantius Firmianus, De mortibus persecutorum, II [Nero as forerunner of the Antichrist]). In the 4th c., prediction of a last emp., or last ruler of the world, before Antichrist became prominent. Antichrist apocalypses flourished in the age of Islam and intensified during the Crusades.* People began to see Antichrist or his forerunner in every pol., nat., soc., or ecclesiastical opponent.

5. Franciscans opposed to certain features of the papacy* held that the pope is the Antichrist, or a least his forerunner. Bohemians J. Milíc,* M. v. Janow,* and J. Hus* as well as J. Wycliffe* and J. Purvey* adopted the same view.

6. M. Luther* regarded the pope as the Antichrist chiefly because the papacy* substituted work-righteousness for grace (WA 20, 673; 37, 600–661; 40 I, 36–37, 60–61, 301). Luther also pointed out that the pope substitutes man-made rules for divine law (5, 344; 40 I, 406–407), usurps power (5, 195, 339–344; 52, 654), usurps the position of Christ (42, 635; 45, 46; 52, 221; 50, 4–5), sits in the temple (40 I, 71; 40 III, 421), and exalts himself above God (14, 608; 50, 4). Luther also spoke of the Turk (together with the pope) as Antichrist (42, 634).

7. The AC does not speak of the pope as Antichrist but indicates that subscribers are willing to continue in the RC system, provided abuses are corrected (XXVIII, 28–78). The Ap shows that papacy* has the marks of the Antichrist as depicted by Daniel (VII abd VIII 24; XV 18–19; XXIII 25; XXIV 51) and by Paul (VII and VIII 4). It speaks of papacy as part of the kingdom of the Antichrist (XV 18). The SA hold that pope has clearly shown himself as Antichrist, since he exceeds even Turks and Tartars in keeping people from their Savior. (SA-II IV 10–11; cf. Tractatus 39–59). The FC (X 20) quotes the SA on Antichrist.

8. Luth. dogmaticians (e.g., J. W. Baier,* J. A. Quenstedt*) regarded the teaching of the Antichrist as nonfundamental (see Fundamental Doctrines). C. F. W. Walther* (Der Lutheraner, XXI [1864–65], 113–115) and F. A. O. Pieper* followed the opinion of the dogmaticians. EL

See also United States, Lutheranism in the, 7.

“Ist der Antichrist im Atheismus unserer Zeit zu suchen?” L. u. W., XV (1869), 39–45; C. J. H. Fick, Das Geheimniss der Bosheit im römischen Papstthum (St. Louis, 1873); F. W. Stellhorn, “ 'Unsere Wege zur katholischen Kirche,' ” L. u. W., XIX (1873), 97–108; W. Bousset, The Antichrist Legend: A Chapter in Christian and Jewish Folklore, tr. A. H. Keane (London, 1896); H. Preuss, Die Vorstellung vom Antichrist im späteren Mittelalter, bei Luther und in der konfessionellen Polemik (Leipzig, 1906); A. Jeremias, Der Antichrist in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1930); B. Rigaux, L'Antéchrist et l'Opposition au Royaume Messianique dans l'Ancien et le Nouveau Testament (Paris, 1932); P. E. Kretzmann, “Papam esse verum Antichristum,” CTM, IV (1933), 424–435; W. Hoenecke, 5 essays on the Antichrist, Theologische Quartalschrift (Wisconsin Syn.), XL (1943), 166–188, 253–277; XLI (1944), 32–55, 91–109, 149–176; [J.] M[eyer], “Papam Esse Ipsum Verum Antichristum,” Theologische Quartalschrift (Wisconsin Syn.), XL (1943), 87–109; P. Schütz, Der Anti-Christus (Kassel, 1949); P. Althaus, Dis letzten Dinge, 5th ed. (durchgesehene Auflage; Gütersloh, 1949), 282–297; H. Hamann, “A Brief Exegesis of 2 Thess. 2:1–12 with Guideline for the Application of the Prophecy Contained Therein,” CTM, XXIV (1953), 418–433.

Anticlericalism.

1. Opposition to activity or influence of clergy in secular affairs.

2. Any opposition to clergy.

See also Freemasonry and the Church.

Anticreedalism.

Opposition to all creeds. Not to be confused with noncreedalism (nonuse of creeds). See also Brethren, Plymouth.

Antigua and Barbuda.

In E Caribbean; area: ca. 170 sq. mi. Antigua contacted by Columbus 1493; colonized by Eng. settlers 1632; indep. as Antigua and Barbuda 1981. Language: English. Religion: mostly Angl. See also Caribbean Islands, E 5.

Antilegomena

(Gk. “spoken against”). Certain books of the NT on which there was no unanimity but some uncertainty in the early ch. regarding their canonicity. Distinguished from homologoumena (Gk. “universally accepted”). Because certain false teachers and other unauthorized persons tried to have their writings introd. into Christian congs. (cf. 2 Th 2:2), it was necessary for Christians to be alert, lest false gospels or letters be acknowledged, esp. by being ascribed to true apostles or disciples of apostles. It was due chiefly to this special vigilance that the following books were not accepted by the ch. everywhere before the latter part of the 4th c.: Ja, Jude, 2 and 3 Jn, 2 Ptr, Heb and Rv The author of Heb is not definitely known; the identity of the James who is the author of the letter was not altogether certain, and the content of the letter was misunderstood; 2 and 3 Jn are addressed to private persons and were not made accessible to larger circles; 2 Ptr was most likely written shortly before the death of the author and had no definite addressees; Jude is very short and has a very circumscribed message; and the Rv was under suspicion because of its nature. Over against these objections it is to be noted that all these books are mentioned at a very early date, some of them referred to as early as the beginning of the 2d c. as apostolic writings, and all of them finally accepted by the ch. in the course of the 4th c. Doubts have been expressed about some of them even by orthodox Luth. teachers, but in almost every case the clear apostolic doctrine, the depth of the admonitions and of the whole presentation, and the high prophetic insight into future events speak strongly in their favor. Most of the objections raised in recent cents. have been satisfactorily met by earnest searchers after the truth. See also Canon, Bible, 5, 6.

For gen. information see references under Canon, Bible; for the position of Luth. dogmaticians see C. F. Walther, “Ist derjenige für einen Ketzer oder gefährlichen Irrlehrer zu erklären, welcher nicht alle in dem Convolut des Neuen Testamentes befindlichen Bücher für kanonisch hält und erklärt?” L. u. W., II (1856), 204–216.

Antinomian Controversy.

Began 1527 when P. Melanchthon* urged the Law to prevent abuse of free grace. J. Agricola* held that the Law had no place at all in the ch. and that knowledge of sin and contrition to be wrought not by the Law but by the Gospel. M. Luther* made peace bet. them. December 10, but Agricola did not abandon his view and, as prof. at Wittenberg 1536 through Luther's influence, promoted it in various ways. His teaching spread to Saalfeld, Brandenburg, and Frankfurt a.m. Main and esp. influenced J. Schenk* in Freiberg. Luther stopped Agricola from lecturing. Agricola agreed to recant but left it up to Luther to formulate the recantation and continued secretly to teach antinomianism. Finally Elector John* Frederick called Agricola to trial. Agricola escaped by accepting a call of Joachim II (see Joachim, 2) to Berlin, where he continued to defend his position.

The 2d Antinomian Controversy began 1556. Main issue: 3d use of the Law. A. Poach,* A. Otto,* A. Musculus,* and M. Neander* denied that, with respect to good works, the Law was of any service whatever to Christians. Theses such as these were defended: “The Law does not teach good works. Evangelical preachers are to preach the Gospel only and no Law.” The antionomianism of followers of Melanchthon was expressed by P. Crell* as follows: “The Gospel alone is expressly and particularly, truly and properly, a preaching and a voice of repentance, or conversion.”

FC VI settled the matter by recognizing the triple use of the Law: (1) for outward discipline, (2) for revealing sin, (3) for the rule of life to the regenerate, who need it because of their Old Adam.

See also Antinomianism; Bugenhagen, Johann; Faber, Wendalinus; Hutchinson, Anne.

Antinomianism.

The view that Christians are free of all moral law. See also Antinomian Controversy; Gnosticism, 7 f; Hutchinson, Anne.

Antinomy.

A pair of contradictory propositions drawn from the same premise. It is often used to show that a given premise is false.

Antioch, Synods of.

Among the syns. held at Antioch on the Orontes, in Syria (now in S Turkey), one was reported as held ca. 251/252 and dealing with Novatianism*; ca. 264–269 two or three syns. dealt with Paul* of Samosata, condemning his teaching on the Person of Christ; ca. 326/331, deposed Eustathius* of Antioch; 341, “Dedication Council” (concilium in encaeniis, from Gk. for “in dedication”), held at the dedication of the “Golden Ch.” (begun by Constantine* I, completed by Constantius* II), attended by Constantius II, adopted 3 or 4 creeds to replace the Nicene, and condemned Athanasius; 344, adopted a Semi-Arian creed; 354, Arian, again condemned Athanasius; 358, condemned both homoousios* and homoiousios*; ca. 360/361, elected Meletius bp. of Antioch (see Meletius of Antioch); 362, dominated by Arians; 363, 378, accepted Nicene faith; a syn. is thought by some to have been held ca. 388/390 and to have condemned the Euchites* (or at least that some opposed them); Monophysitism,* Nestorianism,* and Pelagianism* were dealt with in syns. in the 5th and 6th c.

Antiochene Rite.

Liturgical rite developed at Antioch, Syria; followed, with variants, by Syrian Jacobites and by some Malabar* Christians. See also Monophysite Controversy.

Antiphon

(from Gk. for “to sound in answer”). Something sung or spoken responsively, usually as part of a liturgy. In the exchange bet. officiant and cong. or choir it consists of versicle* and response.*

Antiphonary.

A book of antiphons. See also Service Books.

Antipope.

Rival pope. See also Papacy, 4.

Anton, Paul

(1661–1730). B. Hirschfelde, Upper Lusatia, Ger.; studied at Leipzig; influenced by P. J. Spener*; helped found Collegium philobiblicum at Leipzig 1686; traveling chaplain to Augustus* II in Fr., Sp., Port., and It. from 1687; supt. Rochlitz, Saxony, 1689; court preacher Eisenach 1693; prof. Halle 1695. Works include Collegium antitheticum. See also Francke, August Hermann.

Antonelli, Giacomo

(1806–76). B. Sonnino, near Terracina, Latium, It.; cardinal 1847; premier of Papal States (see States of the Church) 1848; when papal control of administration was challenged by an uprising he went with Pius IX (see Popes, 28), who fled to Gaeta November 1848; reest. papal govt. in Rome 1850 which lasted till 1870.

Antonij

(ca. 982–1073). Russ. saint; est. monastery at Kiev.

Antoninus

(Antonio; 1389–1459). B. Florence, It.; Dominican ca. 1405/06; abp. Florence 1446; advisor of popes and statesmen. Works include Summa theologica (or Summa moralis).

Anxious Bench.

Seat near the speaker at some revivals for those esp. concerned about their spiritual condition; also called anxious seat and mourner's bench. See also Finney, Charles Grandison.


Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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