(Eskimo Alakshak, Mainland; in popular belief Great Land). Area: figures vary from 566,432 to 586,412 sq. mi. Probably sighted 1732; effectively discovered by Russ. Vitus Jonassen Bering 1741. Became center of fur trade under Russ. control; transferred to U. S. October 18, 1867; became state January 3, 1959. Ethnic groups: about one sixth of the pop. is Eskimo and Indian (the later Tlingit and Tinneh), both native races; Aleuts, another native race, live in the Aleutian Islands; most full-blooded Russians left 1867. Natives of Can. and the Scand. countries predominate in the for.-born white pop. During and since WW II the pop. increased rapidly, mainly because of defense construction, coming of statehood, and oil discoveries.
The Russ. Orthodox Ch. and (184267) the Swed. Luth. Ch. were active during the Russ. occupation. RCs began work 1779, Presbs. 1877/78 (see Jackson, Sheldon); Am. Episc. work began 1885; Quakers and Meths. began work 1889, the Norw. Syn. 1894. The Mo. Syn. began work 1926, discontinued in the early 1930s, resumed 1937. OS
Legendary Brit. martyr. His death has been variously assigned to 249/251 (in a persecution under Decius), 283 or 286 (executed under martial law after protecting a priest, by whom he was converted, from persecutors), and 302/305 (in the persecution under Diocletian). Benedictine abbey founded ca. 793/794 at the site of his reputed martyrdom in Hertfordshire was named St. Albans in his honor. See also England, A 1; Persecution of Christians, 4.
(Albanian Shqipni, with variants). Country in Balkan Peninsula on Adriatic Sea. Area: ca. 11,100 sq. mi. Under Goths 4th5th cents., E Empire 6th13th cents., Serbs 14th c.; then became part of Ottoman Empire until 1912, when it became in indep. principality; invaded by Serbs 1913; indep. proclaimed again 1917; rep. 192528; monarchy 1928; under It. 193941; then invaded by Greece, followed by Ger.; invaded again 1944; people's (Communist) rep. 1946; mem. Warsaw Pact (and of UN 1955) 195568; under Chinese influence; cut links with China 1978. Ethnic composition: homogeneous; small Gk. minority. Language: Gheg in N, Tosk in S; official language based on Tosk; Gk. also spoken in south. Religion: ca. 70% Muslim, 20% Orthodox, 10% RC; all religious institutions closed by govt. 1967, reopened December 1990. Albania was Christianized early, probably by traders from Epirus and Macedonia, but the situation changed with the fall of the W Empire 5th6th cents.
(Alberus; ca. 150053). B. in the Wetterau (district or tract watered by the Wetter, tributary of the Main), Ger.; educ. Mainz and Wittenberg; Schoolmaster at Büdingen, Ursel, and Eisenach; pastor at various places; gen. supt. Mecklenburg; hymnist. Hymns include Nun freut euch, Gottes Kinder all'; Gott hat das Evangelium gegeben; Christ, der du bist der helle Tag (tr. from Lat.).
(Aulber; Alberus; 14951570). B. Reutlingen, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Freiburg; friend of P. Melanchthon*; pastor and reformer Reutlingen; opposed H. Zwingli's* view of the Lord's Supper, but followed M. Luther* only with reservation; inclined to Ref. view in rejecting all images; forced to leave Reutlingen by Interim*; pastor Stuttgart and collaborator of J. Brenz.* See also Lutheran Confessions, B 1.
J. Hartmann, Matthäus Alber, der Reformator der Reichsstadt Reutlingen (Tübingen, 1863).
(Albert II; the Younger; Albrecht; 152257). The Warlike; German Alcibiades. Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach; Prussian reformer; hymnist; at first supported Charles* V against the Schmalkaldic* League; deserted the emp. and joined the league 1551. See also Maurice of Saxony.
(Alberti; 160451). B. Lobenstein, in Reuss, younger line, in the Vogtland (or Voigtland), Thuringia, Ger.; organist, composer, hymnist; pupil of cousin H. Schütz* and of J. Stobäus*; influenced also by J. H. Schein*; organist Königsberg, Prussia, 1631. Hymns include Gott der Himmels und der Erden (words and music); O wie mögen wir doch unser Leben. See also Dach, Simon.
(ca. 11651229). Also called Albert von Buxhoeveden (Bekeshövede) after his ancestral castle, and Alpert von Apelern (Apeldern; Appeldern) after a village near the castle; Albert of Riga. Canon at Bremen; bp. Livonia 1199; founded Riga 1201 and made it the bp.'s see; recognized as imperial prince 1207 and 1225. See also Estonia, 1.
(17691831). Moravian bp. (see Moravian Church); b. Neuwied, Ger.; educ. Niesky and Barby; taught at Niesky 17881810; preacher at various places 181021; bp. Herrnhut and mem. of the Elders' Conf.; pres. of the conf. 1824; hymnist.
(Albrecht von Mainz; 14901545). B. Brandenburg; abp. Magdeburg and bp. Halberstadt 1513; abp. and elector Mainz 1514; cardinal 1518. M. Luther protested his Rome-approved promotion and sale of indulgences. See also Christian Church, History of the, III 1; Dessau, League of; Luther, Martin, 8.
(the Elder; Albrecht von Ansbach; 14901568). Last grand master of Teutonic Knights (see Military Religious Orders, c), first Hohenzollern duke of Prussia; b. Ansbach, Ger.; chosen grand master of Teutonic Knights 1511; won for Lutheranism by A. Osiander* the Elder 1522; in 1523 M. Luther* advised him to dissolve the order and to marry; Prussia became his duchy 1525; founded U. of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) 1544 (destroyed in WW II). See also Chemnitz, Martin; George of Brandenburg-Ansbach; Germany, B; Lutheran Confessions, A 5.
(Albert von Helmstedt [after his family's adopted home]; A. von Rickmersdorf; ca. 131690). B. Rickmersdorf, lower Saxony, Ger.; educ. Paris, Fr.; taught at U. of Paris 135162 and was rector part of the time; 1st rector U. of Vienna 1365; bp. Halberstadt 1366; nominalist; pupil of J. Buridan.* Works include commentaries on Aristotle.*
(of Jerusalem; de Vercelli; ca. 1149ca. 1214/15). B. Parma, It.; studied theol. and civil and canon law; canon regular at Mortara; bp. Bobbio 1184, Vercelli 1185; patriarch Jerusalem 1205. Drew up 1st rule for Carmelites* 1207/09.
(Albert the Greatl ca. 1193/12001280). Doctor sublimis; Doctor universalis. Founded the most flourishing period of scholasticism; b. Lauingen, Bav.; educ. Bologna and Padua, It.; Dominican; lector of convent schools of his order in Ger.; studied theol. Paris; gen. of his ord er for Ger.; bp. Regensburg 2 yrs.; prepared way for modern conflict bet. theol. and false science. Works include Summa theologiae; commentary on Sententiae of Peter* the Lombard.
Opera omnia, ed. A. Birgnet (Paris, 189099), ed. B. Geyer (Cologne, 195171); G. v. Hertling, Albertus Magnus: Beiträge zu seiner Würdigung (Münster, 1914); M. Grabmann, Der hl. Albert der Grosse: Ein wissenschaftliches Charakterbild (Munich, 1932); H. C. Scheeben, Albert der Grosse (Leipzig, 1931) and Albertus Magnus (Cologne, 1955).
Branch of the Cathari* found mainly in S. Fr.; named after Albi, city in SW Fr. Believing in a god of light and a prince of this world, they developed a New Manichaeism*; the fallen angels were the lost sheep of the house of Israel; Jesus' death was only apparent (see Docetism). They were repeatedly subjected to armed attack 11811229 but did not finally disappear till the middle of the 14th c. See also Avignon.
C. G. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty (London, 1938); C. G. A. Schmidt, Histoire et doctrine de la secte des Cathares ou Albigeois, 2 vols. (Paris, 184849); H. J. Warner, The Albigensian Heresy, 2 vols. (London, 192228).
(ca. 1380ca. 1435/44). Last noteworthy Jewish medieval philos.; b. Monreal, Sp. (ca. 125 mi. ENE of Madrid). In Sepher ha-Ikkarim (Book of Dogmas) he defended Judaism against Christianity by reducing the foundations of religion to 3 primary principles: existence of God, divine revelation, and reward and punishment.
(Aegidius; Egidio; Carrillo; ca. 1295/13101367). B. Cuenca, Sp.; studied canon law in Toulouse, Fr.; abp. Toledo, Sp., 1338; cardinal at Avignon* 1350; legate to Rome 1353 to restore papal authority in papal states; promulgated Constitutiones Aegidianae for the Marches of Ancona 1357; the constitutions, later extended to all papal states, lasted till 1816.
(d. at Cape Town, S Afr., July 25, 1815). B. Swabia, Ger.; LMS lay miss. to S Afr. 180415 (arrived Cape Town January 19, 1805). Among first missionaries (with his brother Abraham) to cross the Orange R. to begin Christianizing Great Namaqualand*; est. a station at Warm Bath; Ordained 1810 at the Cape. See also Afrikaner.
(July 13, 1847July 10, 1924). B. Eschenau, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. St. Chrischona*; to Minnesota 1872. Pastor Greenwood, Minnesota, 1873; New Ulm, Minnesota, 1882. Pres. Minnesota* Syn. 188394. Helped found coll. at New Ulm 1884 and was its dir. 188485; instr. in the theol. dept. of the coll. 188493; helped form Joint Ev. Luth. Syn of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States 1892 (see Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod). Helped found the Ev. Luth. Miss. for China (see Arndt, Eduard Louis) and was its 1st pres.
(March 10, 1861October 21, 1943). B. Gross-Polzin, Pomerania; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1883; pastor Lebanon, Wisconsin, 188388; Janesville, Wisconsin, 188891; Fort Wayne, Indiana, 189193; prof. 18931937, pres. 18931921 Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin
(December 10, 1885November 16, 1961). B. Lebanon, Wisconsin; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1906; pastor Didsbury, Alta., Can., 190607, Hubbell, Michigan, 190713, Neshkoro, Wisconsin, 191322, Shawano, Wisconsin, 192227; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 192761. Tr. F. Pieper's Christliche Dogmatik into Eng. in the late 1930s; prepared index for the 195057 ed., of which T. E. W. Engelder* was chief tr.
(18911971). Orientalist; b. Coquimbo, Chile; educ. Upper Iowa U., Fayette, Iowa, and Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, Maryland Acting dir. Am. School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, 192021; dir. 192129, 193336; prof. Johns Hopkins U. 192958; research prof. Jewish Theol. Sem. Am. 195759. Led archaeol. expeditions. Pres. Palestine Oriental Soc. 192122, 193435, Am. Oriental Soc. 193536. Works include From the Stone Age to Christianity; Archaeology and the Religion of Israel; The Archaeology of Palestine; History, Archaeology, and Christian Humanism; Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan. See also Geography, Christian, 8.
Acc. to the National Council on Alcoholism an alcoholic is one whose drinking causes a continuing problem in his or her life. For general purposes, alcoholics can be described as those people who drink in a very special waythat is, to excess, compulsively, without control, and self-destructively. The lack of control must be emphasized. (S. Vogel, Psychiatric Treatment of Alcoholism, The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 315 (January 1958), 100.
The Twenty Questions Test, compiled by Johns Hopkins U., is an excellent guide in determining whether or not one is an alcoholic. The NCA has suggested a similar test of only 4 questions. Answering yes to any of the following should be considered a warning: Have you had blackouts (periods of temporary amnesia) after drinking? Do you need a drink in the morning? Has drinking interfered with your eating habits? Have you felt remorse after drinking?
Any philos. basic to counseling alcoholics should include: (1) The alcoholic is a sick person. (2) The alcoholic can be helped and is worth helping.
Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for A.A. membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. A.A. is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy; neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety. (44 Questions and Answers)
H. J. Clinebell Jr., Understanding and Counseling the Alcoholic Through Religion and Psychology, rev. and enl. ed. (Nashville, 1968); J. C. Ford, Man Takes a Drink (New York, 1955); A. R. King, Basic Information on Alcohol (Mt. Vernon, Iowa, 1953); M. Mann, New Primer on Alcoholism (New York, 1958); Alcoholics Anonymous, new and rev. ed. (New York, 1955); 44 Questions and Answers About the Program of Recovery from Alcoholism (New York, 1952); Understanding Alcoholism, ed. S. D. Bacon, The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 315 (January 1958). EFE
(ca. 732/735804). B. Northumbria, probably in or near York, Yorkshire, Eng.; educ. in cathedral school of York; headmaster of the school after 778; after 781 head of a court school of Charlemagne*; abbot Tours 796; rev. the Vulgate; tried to convert heathen by the Gospel, not force; opposed adoptionism.* Taught Liudger* and Rabanus* Maurus.
MPL 100101; E. S. Duckett, Alcuin, Friend of Charlemagne (New York, 1951); L. Wallach, Alcuin and Charlemagne (Ithaca, New York, 1959); C. J. B. Gaskoin, Alcuin: His Life and Work (New York, 1966); A. F. West, Alcuin and the Rise of the Christian Schools (Westport, Connecticut, 1969); W. Heil, Alkuinstudien I (Düsseldorf, 1970).
(ca. 639/645709). B. probably Brokenborough, 2 mi. NW of Malmesbury, Wiltshire, Eng.; studied at Malmesbury and Canterbury; 1st abbot of the Benedictine monastery at Malmesbury ca. 673675; bp. Sherborne 705; founded centers of learning. Works include De virginitate; Carmina ecclesiastica.
(Hieronymus Aleander; 14801542). B. Motta, It.; studied at Padua; taught in Venice, Orleans, and Paris; rector Paris 1513; to Rome 1516 on secretarial assignment; nuncio of Leo X (see Popes, 20) to Charles* V to combat M. Luther* 1520; active at Diet of Worms* 1521; abp. Brindisi 1524; cardinal 1538. Friend of J. Cochlaeus.* See also Counter Reformation, 5.
(d'Allemand; ca. 13901450). B. Arbent-en-Bugey, Ain dept., Fr.; bp. Maguelonne 1418; abp. Arles 1423; legate in Bologna 142428; cardinal 1426; active at councils of Constance* and Basel*; opposed Eugenius* IV; deposed and banned 1439; reinstated 1449.
(ca. 171783). B. Paris, Fr.; Received given name from the ch. of Saint-Jean-Le-Rond, Paris, where his mother abandoned him; at coll. he was called d'Aremberg, which he changed to d'Alembert. Mathematician; philos.; forerunner of positivism.* See also Encyclopedists.
(variants include Aless and Alane; 150065). B. Edinburgh, Scot.; educ. St. Andrews; canon St. Andrews; won for the Reformation by P. Hamilton*; imprisoned; escaped to Ger.; became acquainted with M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon*; visited Eng. 1535; prof. theol. Frankfurt an der Oder 1540; active in Eng. under Edward VI (see England, B 4); from 1543 he was at Leipzig U., where he was rector at least twice.
(17991845). B. Schönlanke, Posen; trained in orthodox Judaism*; taught German and the Talmud; to Eng. 1820; bap. 1825; ordained 1827; miss. in Danzing for London* Jews' soc. 182730; miss. in London 183041; prof. Heb. at King's Coll., London, 1832; 1st Angl. bp. Jerusalem 1841.
(18591938). Philos.; b. Sydney, Australia; educ. Melbourne, Australia, and Oxford, Eng.; prof. Manchester, Eng., 18931924; developed metaphysics of emergent evolution acc. to which matter, life, and mind are modifications of primal space-time, with mind groping toward deity as the next higher level of development. Works include Space, Time, and Deity. See also Compresence.
(18241911). Angl. prelate; b. Londonderry, Ireland; educ. Oxford; bp. Derry 186793; abp. Armagh and primate of Ireland 1893. Works include The Witness of the Psalms to Christ and Christianity; contributions to The Speaker's Commentary.
(180584). B. Paris, Kentucky; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; ordained 1831; to Hawaii as ABCFM miss. 1831/32; made preliminary surveys of Society Is. and Marquesas Is.; served at Waioli on Kauai Is.; cofounded Ponahue School (Oahu Coll); head of Lahainaluna Sem., Maui, 1843; pastor Wailuku 1855; est. a theol. school there 1863; resigned pastorate 1869; relinquished the school 1874 (it was then moved to Honolulu). Works include Pastor's Manual; S. S. books; The Evidences of Christianity; A System of Theology. See also Emerson, John S.
MPG, 18, 523608.
(Alexander of Novgorod; ca. 122063). B. probably Vladimir, Russ.; prince of Novgorod 1238; defeated Swedes on the Neva R. (hence Nevski) 1240 and Livonian knights (see Estonia, 1) on ice of Lake Peipus 1242; grand duke of Kiev and Novgorod 1246, of Vladimir 1252; opposed RCm; venerated in the Russ. Ch.
(Halensis; Alensis; ca. 1170 or 11851245). Doctor irrefragabilis; Doctor doctorum; Theologorum monarcha. Scholastic theol. and philos.; b. Hales Owen, Shropshire (or Halesowen, Worcestershire? or Hales [Hailes?], Gloucestershire?); studied and taught in Paris; Franciscan ca. 1236. Taught Bonaventura.* Perfected the triple division of questions into pro, contra, and resolutio. Works include Summa universae theologiae, a handbook of dialectic theol. that teaches the character indelebilis and the thesaurus supererogationis perfectorum (treasury of supererogation of those made perfect; see Treasury of Merits).
(181071). B. London, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; fellow of Trin. Coll., Cambridge, 1834; vicar Wymeswold, Leicestershire, 183553; lectured at Cambridge 184142; served a large cong. at Quebec Chapel, Marylebone, London, 185357; dean of Canterbury 1857; poet. First ed. The Contemporary Review 186670; hymns include Ten Thousand Times Ten Thousand and Come, Ye Thankful People, Come; other works include How to Study the New Testament; The State of the Blessed Dead; ed. The New Testament for English Readers and The Greek Testament. See also Metaphysical Society, The.
(Aelfred; 849899). B. Wantage, Berkshire, Eng.; king of Wessex (West Saxons; in SW Eng.) 871899; king of al the Eng. not under Dan. rule ca. 885/886. Gathered scholars 878/885; promoted Bible tr. and tr. of Lat. books (e.g., of Bede,* A. M. T. S. Boethius,* Gregory the Great (see Popes, 4), and Orosius* into Eng.
E. S. Duckett, Alfred the Great (Chicago, 1956; F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, 3d ed. (London, 1971).
(ca. 15821652). B. Rome, It.; composer of Roman baroque*; sang under G. B. Nanini* as a boy; also sang and studied under G. M. Nanini*; mem. papal choir 1629. Works include Miserere, sung in the Sistine Chapel (see Popes, 16; Vatican City) during Holy Week (see Church Year, 4, 8, 16).
(September 14, 1799July 17, 1863) B. Barre, Massachusetts educ. Amherst (Massachusetts) Coll. and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss to India 1827; ed. supt. Am. Mission Press. Works include rev. of Bible in Marathi; India, Ancient and Modern.
(April 23, 1858December 11, 1932). Diplomatist; Presb. med. miss.; b. Delaware, Ohio; educ. Ohio Wesleyan U., Delaware, Ohio, and Miami Med. Coll., Oxford, Ohio; miss. in China; to Korea 1884; saved life of a prince and others in a revolution; med. officer to Korean Court; est. Prot. missions; held various govt. positions. Works include A Chronological Index: Some of the Chief Events in the Foreign Intercourse of Korea from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Twentieth Century; Korean Tales; Things Korean. See also Korea, 5.
(181678). B. Kirkby-Lonsdale, West-moreland, Eng.; invalid all his life, suffering from a diseased spine; manager of his father's bank; philanthropist. During severe winter of 185960 composed Hymns of the Christian Life, containing 148 hymns, including Today Thy Mercy Calls Us.
(17601831). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; slave near Dover, Delaware; allowed to buy freedom 1777 by his master, who was converted as a result of services he allowed Allen to conduct in his (the master's) house; became Meth. 1777; moved to Philadelphia in the 1780s; licensed to preach 1784 by St. George's Meth. Ch., Philadelphia; organized Free African Soc. (a self-help and mutual-aid organization) April 1787; withdrew with other Negroes from St. George's Ch. rather than submit to forced segregation November 1787; ordained deacon by F. Asbury* 1799; helped found African* M. E. Ch. 1816 and was its bp. 181631.
(December 29, 1868June 9, 1947). B. perhaps in or near Bristol, Eng.; educ. Oxford; ordained Angl. 1892; SPG miss. to N China 1895; ill; took over a parish ch. in Eng. 1904; resigned 1907 in protest against state ch. requirements regarding baptism; navy chaplain in WW I; began traveling internationally in the 1920s in the interest of missions. Works include The Case for Voluntary Clergy (reissue of 2 earlier works); Education in the Native Church; Educational Principles and Missionary Methods; The Establishment of the Church in the Mission Field; Mission Activities Considered in Relation to the Manifestation of the Spirit; St. Paul's Missionary Methods (later reissued as Missionary Methods: St. Paul's or Ours?); Missionary Principles; The Nevius Method in Korea; Pentecost & the World: The Revelation of the Holy Spirit in the Acts of the Apostles; The Spontaneous Expansion of the Church and the Causes which Hinder It. See also Cochrane, Thomas.
Reform of the Ministry: A Study in the Work of Roland Allen, ed. D. M. Paton (London, 1968).
(153294). B. Rossall, Lancashire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, 1556; canon York 1558; promoted RCm; to U. of Louvain 1561; returned 1562 for health reasons; left Eng. permanently 1565; ordained priest at Mechlin, Belg.; concentrated on conversion of Eng. to RCm; founded coll. at Douai, Fr., 1568 for training priests for Eng. and helped found similar colleges at Rome, It., 157578 and Valladolid, Sp., 1589; cardinal 1587.
(Gen. Ev. Luth. Conf.). Organized 1868 in Hanover, Ger., under G. C. A. v. Harless*; official organ: Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung, ed. first by C. E. Luthardt.* See also Lutheran World Federation; Marahrens, August.
Organized London 1875; shortened names: World Presbyterian Alliance; World Alliance of Reformed Churches.
(16411717). B. Alençon, Fr.; educ. Sedan; Ref. pastor at Saint-Agobile in Champagne and then (1671) at Charenton (Paris); fled to Eng. after revocation of the Edct of Nantes*; est. a Fr. cong. in London; canon Salisbury 1690. Works include writings on the hist. of the chs. of Piedmont and on the hist. of the Albigenses.
Figure of speech by which Zwingli construed all passages of Scripture in which anything is ascribed to the divine nature of Christ or to the entire Christ that properly is property of the human nature. The purpose of the alloeosis, as used by Zwingli, was denial of the communication of attributes. He also used it in the doctrine of absolution. Thus Christ in Lk 24:28 is referred only to His human nature, since it is a mere figure of speech if the suffering and death of our Lord is ascribed to His divine nature.
(March 2, 1840April 9, 1910). B. Wachendorf, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Ger.; to Am. 1851 (not 1853); educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor in the Germania-Crystal Lake area, Marquette Co., Wisconsin, 186573, and at Lebanon, near Watertown, Wisconsin, 18741910. Opposed C. F. W. Walther* in Predestinarian* Controversy; helped form a separate conf. November 1881 at Blue Island, Illinois; the conf. joined the Ohio Syn. 1882. Allwardt was pres. of the Ohio Synod's NW Dist. 188390 and of its successor, the Wisconsin Dist., 189099; pres. of the Bd. of Control, Luther Sem., Afton, later St. Paul, Minnesota, 18841910. Wrote Die jetzige Lehre der Synode von Missouri von der Ewigen Wahl Gottes (1909). See also Free Lutheran Conference, 3; Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 5, 8.
[F. W.] St[ellhorn], Doktor H. A. Allwardt, Theologische Zeitblütter, XXIX (1910), 168170; J. L. Neve, History of the Lutheran Church in America, 3d rev. ed. W. D. Allbeck (Burlington, Iowa, 1934), p. 265.
(from Gk. eleemosyne, mercy, pity; an alms). Mt 6:14; Lk 11:41; 12:33; Acts 3:2, 3, 10; 10:2, 4, 31; 24:17. Alms means gifts to the poor, but in some sectors of the early ch. alms were divided into 4 parts: for the bps., priests, deacons and subdeacons, and the poor and ch. repair. Almsgiving holds an important place in some primitive cultures (e.g., Aleuts, Eskimos, and Sioux and Muskogee Indians) and has religious value in Buddhism* and Islam.* The OT stresses that the land belongs to God, that all have equal right to its fruits, and that the rule of conduct toward others is: Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself (Lv 19:18, 34; cf. Ex 23:11; Lv 23:22; 25:2528; Dt 15:911; Pr 14:2021; 21:13). After the return from captivity, increasing need caused increasing stress to be laid on almsgiving. The Apocrypha* made almsgiving a meritorious act, even an atonement for sin (e.g., Tob 12:89; Ecclus 3:33). The NT opposes this apocryphal teaching (Mt 6:14) and emphasizes that man is saved by faith alone (Eph 2:89). In view of the fact that works are the fruits and evidences of faith (Mt 7:1520; Ja 2), the NT speaks of rewards (Mt 6:4; 19:21; 25:3440; Lk 14:314; Gl 6:9).
The ch. from its very beginning emphasized almsgiving (Acts 2:4445; 4:3435; 1 Co 16:13). The apocryphal idea of the efficaciousness of almsgiving crept into the ch. and is found in such early writers as polycarp* (Epistola ad Philippenses, 10); Hermas (The Shepherd, Sim. ii; See Apostolic Fathers, 5); 2 Clement 16:4 (not considered authentic; see Clementines); Cyprian* of Carthage (Deopere et eleemosynis); Chrysostom* (Hom. I in 2 Tim.); Ambrose* (Letter LXIII 16); and Augustine* of Hippo (De fide et operibus, 26). These aberrations finally grew into the medieval System of almsgiving.
M. Luther* restored almsgiving to its NT status as a pleasing work of the new life created through faith (WA 32, 407413; 52, 433434; cf. LC I 247). This teaching is also in the Confessions (AC VI; Ap IV 122400 [sometimes referred to as III]; XII 139 [sometimes referred to as VI 42]). EL
See also Charities, Christian.
Organized May 8, 1889, by 4 African-American pastors who were mems. of the North Carolina Syn.: David Koonts, pres.; W. Philo Phifer, secy.; Samuel Holt; Nathan Clapp. When Koonts died 1890, the syn. did not die with him. Phifer, in the name of the other 2 pastors, wrote to H. C. Schwan* 1891. The result was that the Synodical* Conf. took up work among the African-Americans in North Carolina 1891.
C. F. Drewes, Half a Century of Lutheranism Among Our Colored People (St. Louis, 1927).
(15881638). B. Ballersbach, Nassau, Ger.; educ. Herborn; prof. Herborn 1610 and Weissenburg, Transylvania, 1629; at 161819 syn. of Dordrecht*; polymath; set 1694 as the beginning of the millennium*; influenced J. A. Comenius.* Works include Summa casuum conscientiae nova methodo elaborata; Diatribe de mille annis apocalypticis non illis Chiliastarum et Phantastarum, sed BB. Danielis et Johannis; Encyclopaedia septem tomis distincta; Cursus philosophici encyclopaedia; Praecognita theologica. See also Encyclopedias and Dictionaries, 1.
(18831956). B. Stübach, Middle Franconia, Ger.; lectured at Greifswald 1909; prof. OT Basel 1914, Halle 1921, Leipzig 1922; a leader of the Deutsches Ev. Institut für Altertumswissenschaft 192131 and of the Deutscher Verein zur Erforschung Palästinas 192545.
In Christian worship, the symbol of the divine presence in a ch. or chapel and the focus of devotion. The many forms it takes all derive from the table in early places of worship to which mems. of the cong. brought their offerings and on which Communion was celebrated. In best Luth. tradition it is covered to the floor on all sides and has on the mensa,* in addition to the service book, only 2 candles and a crucifix (though these need not stand directly on the altar). When the altar stands against the back wall of the chancel,* it may have behind it a reredos or dossal (the latter an ornamental cloth hung behind and above the altar; if it extends around the sides of the altar, each side curtain is called a riddel). Over the altar may be a canopy called a ciborium or tester. Liturgical denominations are increasingly returning to the ancient practice of placing the altar far enough away from the wall to allow the officiant to function behind it, facing the people. Before the worship revival in contemporary Protestantism, altars were not gen. used in these denominations; the service was conducted from the rostrum or pulpit, and a small table was brought out for use as necessary in Communion services. The main altar is called the high altar. See also Church Furniture, 1. ACP
Three cards containing parts of the RC mass ritual; placed on the altar at the celebration of the mass and used by the officiant as an aid to memory.
The practice of communing at the same altar, which in the Luth. Ch. is a correlate of restricted or close* Communion. acc. to which only those who have been instructed, explored, and absolved are admitted to the Lord's* Supper. Restricted Communion was also a protest against those who denied the Real Presence (see also Grace, Means of, IV.3). The practice was followed until the establishment of the Prussian* Union 1817. Luth. state chs. continued to observe restricted Communion after 1817, though Ref. were increasingly admitted to their Communion.
Among early Luths. in Am., altar fellowship with Ref. was widely practiced. Reactions to the Prussian Union as well as the emigration of strict Luths., esp. in the 19th c., led to more conservative practice. Restricted Communion was practiced by the Joint Syn. of Ohio, the Syn. of Iowa, the Syn. Conf., and Scand. syns. The Gen. Council expressed its position in the Galesburg* Rule. The Gen. Syn., believing that the unity of the Church must be outwardly expressed, adhered to the practice which marked the prevalent sentiment in America from the beginning, opening the privilege of the Lord's Supper to members, in good and regular standing, of other orthodox churches.
Gen. speaking, men prominent in the struggle for confessionalism also advocated restricted Communion (C. Porterfield Krauth,* C. F. W. Walther,* C. S. Fritschel*), and the rising emphasis on Luth. confessionalism was marked by a stricter altar practice. In the last decades of the 19th c. and early in the 20th c. most Luths. in Am. tended to follow organizational lines in the practice of altar fellowship. Later in the 20th c. inter-Luth. altar fellowship increased. Representatives of Luth. and Ref. groups met 196265 for several theol. consultations (dialogs), fund no insuperable obstacles to altar fellowship, and recommended to their parent bodies that they encourage their constituent churches to enter discussions looking forward to intercommunion.
W. Elert, Abendmahl und Kirchengemeinschaft in der alten Kirche hauptsächlich des Ostens (Berlin, 1954); H. Sasse, This Is My Body (Minneapolis, 1959); Church in Fellowship, v. 1 ed. V. Vajta, v. 2 ed. P. E. Hoffman and H. Meyer (Minneapolis, 196369).
Rail at entrance to or within chancel, at which communicants can kneel to receive Communion. Traditional among Scand. Luths., it made its way among other Luths. chiefly in the 20th c. in design it should be as transparent as possible, so as not to present a visual barrier bet. worshipers and altar. Also called communion rail. ACP
(15841640). B. Alach, near Erfurt, Ger.; educ. Erfurt; teacher and precentor Erfurt; pastor Ilversgehofen and Marbach (both near Erfurt) 1608, Trochtelborn 1611, Grossen Sommern (Sommerda, or Sömmerda; near Erfurt) 1621; fled to Erfurt under stress of the Thirty Years' War; in Erfurt diaconus of the Augustine Ch. 1637, pastor St. Andrew 1638; hymnist. Words and music of Verzage nicht, du Häuflein klein are ascribed to him.
(Altenburger Religionsgespräch). Held October 1568March 1569 at Altenburg, Ger., bet. Wittenberg theologians (P. Eber,* C. Cruciger* the Younger, A. Praetorius,* H. Moller* v. Hirsch, and others) and Jena theologians (J. Wigand,* J. F. Cölestin,* C. Irenaeus,* T. Kirchner,* B. Rosinus,* and others). The Philippists (Wittenberg) defended the AC of 1540. Subject discussed: justification, free will, and adiaphora. The colloquy led to increased bitterness and no constructive results. See also Synergistic Controversy.
(Colloquy; Interview). Discussion or negotiation, primarily on indulgences, held early in January 1519 bet. K. v. Miltitz* and M. Luther* in the house of G. Spalatin* at the Schlossberg, Altenburg, Ger., in presence of officials of the court of Frederick* III of Saxony. After the discussions Luther agreed to be silent on indulgences, provided his opponent did the same. It was also agreed that the bp. of Salzburg or bp. of Trier should arbitrate the matter.
Debate or disputation held April 1841 at Altenburg, Perry Co., Missouri, on questions of ch. polity that had agitated Saxon immigrants since deposition of M. Stephan* Sr. Disputants: C. F. W. Walther* And F. A. Marbach.* Walther drew the constructive conclusions, partially modifying the position that C. E. Vehse* had taken. See also Altenburg Theses.
M. Luther's* Bible tr., with his introductions and marginal comments, the summaries of V. Dietrich,* and the introductions and closing prayers of Franciscus Vierling. Preface to the reader dated Altenburg Ger. 1676; repub. at St. Louis, Missouri, 1866. See also Gönner, Johann Jakob.
I. The true Church, in the most real and most perfect sense, is the totality (Gesamtheit) of all true believers, who from the beginning to the end of the world from among all peoples and tongues have been called and sanctified by the Holy Spirit through the Word. And since God alone knows these true believers (2 Tim. 2:19), the Church is also called invisible. No one belongs to this true Church who is not spiritually united with Christ, for it is the spiritual body of Jesus Christ.
II. The name of the true Church belongs also to all those visible companies of men among whom God's Word is purely taught and the holy Sacraments are administered according to the institution of Christ. True, in this Church there are godless men, hypocrites, and heretics, but they are not true members of it, nor do they constitute the Church.
III. The name Church, and, in a certain sense, the name true Church, belongs also to those visible companies of men who have united under the confession of a falsified faith and therefore have incurred the guilt of a partial departure from the truth; provided they possess so much of God's Word and the holy Sacraments in purity that children of God may thereby be born. When such companies are called true churches, it is not the intention to state that they are faithful, but only that they are real churches as opposed to all worldly organizations (Gemeinschaften).
IV. The name Church is not improperly applied to heterodox companies, but according to the manner of speech of the Word of God itself. It is also not immaterial that this high name is allowed to such communions, for out of this follows:
1. That members also of such companies may be saved; for without the Church there is no salvation.
V. 2. The outward separation of a heterodox company from an orthodox Church is not necessarily a separation from the universal Christian Church nor a relapse into heathenism and does not yet deprive that company of the name Church.
VI. 3. Even heterodox companies have church power; even among them the goods of the Church may be validly administered, the ministry established, the Sacraments validly administered, and the keys of the kingdom of heaven exercised.
VII. 4. Even heterodox companies are not to be dissolved, but reformed.
VIII. The orthodox Church is chiefly to be judged by the common, orthodox, public confession to which its members acknowledge and confess themselves to be pledged. CSM
J. F. Köstering, Auswanderung der sächsischen Lutheraner im Jahre 1838, ihre Niederlassung in Perry-Co., Missouri, und damit zusammenhängende interessante Nachrichten, nebst einem wahrheitsgetreuen Bericht von dem in den Gemeinden zu Altenburg und Frohna vorgefallenen sog. Chiliastenstreit in den Jahren 1856 und 1857 (St. Louis, 1867), pp. 5152; W. O. Forster, Zion on the Mississippi (St. Louis, 1953), pp. 523525.
(Althammer; Brentzius; Gundelfingius; Grecized: Palaeosphyra; ca. 1500ca. 1539). B. Brenz, Wärttemberg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Tübingen; teacher's aide Schwäbisch-Hall, Reutlingen, and Schwäbisch-Gmünd; alsopriest Schwäbisch-Gmünd 1524; dismissed because of his Evangelicalism; fled to Wittenberg 1525; went to Nürnberg 1526; pastor Eltersdorf, near Erlangen, 1527; deacon at St. Sebald, Nürnberg, early in 1528; called to Ansbach early in May 1528 to aid the Luth. Reformation in Brandenburg. Works include Conciliationes locorum Scripturae, qui specie tenus inter se pugnare videntur, centuriae duae; Die Epistel S. Jacobs mit newer Auslegung; Catechismus; collects. See also Catechetics, 1.
T. Kolde, Andreas Althamer, der Humanist und Reformator in Brandenburg-Ansbach (Erlangen, 1895).
(18611925). Father of P. A. W. H. Althaus*; b. Fallersleben, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Göttingen; held several pastorates 188797; assoc. prof. theol. 1897, full prof. 1899 Göttingen. Works include Forschungen zur evangelischen Gebetsliteratur; Frömmigkeit und Sittlichkeit nach evangelischer Auffassung; Die Heilsbedeutung der Taufe im Neuen Testamente; Die historischen und dogmatischen Grundlagen der lutherischen Taufliturgie.
(18881966). Son of A. P. J. Althaus*; b. Obershagen, Hannnover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen, Tübingen, and at the theol. sem. Erichsburg, Hannover; privatdocent Göttingen 1914; military chaplain 191518; taught Rostock 192025; prof. Erlangen from 1925. Influenced by A. v. Schlatter,* K. Heim,* K. M. A. Kahler,* W. Windelband,* et al. Had a broad philos. foundation, extensive knowledge of NT and M. Luther's thought; speaks of axiological eschatology, acc. to which eschatology is experienced already in this life; held that God reveals Himself in a gen. revelation outside salvation hist.; rejected natural theol.; held that proper relationship to God is est. only by Christian faith. Works include Die letzten Dinge; Grundriss der Dogmatik; Grundriss der Ethik; Die christliche Wahrheit; Paulus und Luther über den Menschen; Die Theologie Martin Luthers; Die Ethik Martin Luthers; Der Brief an die Römer übersetzt und erklärt.
1. Johann Heinrich (15831644). Son of 3; b. Emden, Friesland; educ. Groningen and Herborn; took part in 161819 syn. of Dordrecht*; orthodox Calvinist. Collaborated on Dutch Bible version; other works include Theologia historica, pub. posthumously.
3. Menso (15411612). Father of 1; Ref. pastor; b. Eelde, near Groningen, Neth.; educ. Cologne and Heidelberg; preacher in the Neth.; fled to the Palatinate 1567; preacher there and in Heidelberg; preacher Emden 1575.
(171959). Organist, composer; b. Berna, Silesia; pupil and son-in-law of J. S. Bach,* who on his deathbed is said to have dictated to Altnikol his last composition, Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiermit.
(Altonaer Bekenntnis; Wort und Bekenntnis Altonaer Pastoren in der Not und Verwirrung des öffentlichen Lebens). Issued January 11, 1933, by pastors of Altona (now part of Hamburg), Ger., to give guidelines for Christian life on basis of Scripture in the confusing pol. situation; its 5 arts. deal with ch., boundaries for human behavior (Grenzen des Menschen), state, duties of the state, God's commandments; harbinger of things to come in Confessing* Ch. and Kirchenkampf.*
Lutherische Moonatshefte, VII (1968), 181184.
(Alba; Fernando Alvarez de Toledo; ca. 1507/08ca. 1583). Sp. gen.; commander under Charles* V and Philip II (152798; only son of Charles V and his cousin Isabella of Portugal [150339; b. Lisbon; m. 1525]; b. Valladolid; m. 4 times, including Mary* I 1554; king of Sp. 155698); defeated John* Frederick of Saxony at Mühlberg 1547.
(Alveld; Alvelt; 1480ca. 1535). Franciscan; b. Alfeld, near Hildesheim, Hannover, Ger.; teacher at Leipzig 1520; guardian at Halle 1524; provincial for Saxony 152932; opposed M. Luther* on the papacy.
(15701634). Hung. Ref. theol.; b. Aiud (Nagyen[y]ed), Transylvania; educ. Wittenberg and Heidelberg; influenced by D. Pareus*; held various positions, including that of confidential agent of I. Bocskay* and G. Bethlen*; opposed P. Pázmány*; sought harmony bet. Luths. and Ref. on the doctrine of the Lord's Supper.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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