(Egidio Colonna; Giles of Rome; ca. 1243/471316). Doctor fundatissimus; b. perhaps Rome; some question his connection with the Colonna family; Augustinian theol.; studied under Thomas* Aquinas; became indep. thinker. His De summi pontificis potestate was the basis of Unam Sanctam (see Bull) of Boniface VIII (see Popes, 12). Other works include Quodlibeta; commentaries on Bible, Aristotle,* Peter* the Lombard. See also Church and State, 7.
(ca. 9551019). Eng. Benedictine; abbot; Eynsham, near Oxford; compiled Lat.-Anglo-Saxon grammar (hence called The Grammarian); tr. parts of OT; wrote homilies (Lives of the Saints most important): denied the Immaculate* Conception.
(Ämilie; Emilie; 16371706), Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. B. Heidecksburg-Rudolstadt, Ger.; orphaned at 5, adopted by her aunt, educ. in Rudolstadt; most productive of Ger. female hymnists; ca. 600 hymns attributed to her, including Bis hieher hat mich Gott gebracht and Wer weiss, wie nahe mir mein Ende!
(ca. 430518). Christian philos.; studied at Alexandria; taught at Gaza till ca. 488; known, with Procopius* of Gaza and Zacharias* Scholasticus, as one of the Gaza Triad, or Gaza School; exponent of Platonism* and Neoplatonism.* Works include letters; Theophrastus (dialog defending immortality of the soul but denying the Platonic view of the soul's preexistence).
Branch of philosophy* dealing with beauty. Socrates* regarded the beautiful as relative and as coincident with good. Plato* regarded proportion as the common element in beautiful objects. Aristotle* saw order, symmetry, and definiteness or determination as the universal elements of beauty. According to Plotinus,* beauty is the form of matter that beecomes a notion under the formative influence of objective reason; he initiated the transition to modern theories of beauty. Medieval aesthetics retained the objective nature of beauty and added the element of feeling evoked or pleasure experienced. The modern trend is to study aesthetics entirely from the subjective or psychological viewpoint. I. Kant* denied objective existence to beauty and found beauty only in the perception of the object. Present-day aesthetics centers on the aesthetic experience, which may be defined as arising from the disinterested and sympathetic attention to and contemplation of any object of awareness whatever, for its own sake alone (Stolnitz).
The chief theories of aesthetics may be classified as follows: imitation theories (Plato, Aristotle, S. Johnson*); formalism (Clive Bell, [18811964; b. East Sheffors, Berkshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; art critic], Roger Eliot Fry [18661934; b. London, Eng.; educ. at Clifton and King's Coll., Cambridge; painter and critic]); emotionalist theory (L. N. Tolstoi,* Ducasse [18811969; b. Angoulême, Fr.; to US 1900; naturalized citizen 1910; prof. philos.]); the theory of aesthetic fineness (Dilman Walter Gotshalk [1901; b. Trenton, New Jersey, educator]). Aesthetic evaluation and criticism is directed chiefly to painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, and music.
Aestheticism is a term applied to the theory that fails to distinguish bet. the beautiful and the good (true, to a certain extent, of the Greeks). The Bible often uses connotations of beauty in describing the good (e.g., Ps 149:4; Is 28:1; Eph 5:27; Rv 21), but it distinguishes bet. external beauty and moral uprightness (Pr 11:22; 1 Ptr 3:35).
J. Stolnitz, Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art Criticism: A Critical Introduction (Boston, 1960); C. J. Ducasse, Art, the Critics, and You (New York, 1944); J. L. Jarrett, The Quest for Beauty (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1957); T. Munro, The Arts and Their Interrelations (New York, 1949); M. C. Beardsley, Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism (New York, 1958); M. Weitz, Problems in Aesthetics: An Introductory Book of Readings (New York, 1959); K. E. Gilbert and H. Kuhn, A History of Esthetics (Bloomington, Indiana, 1953). WHW
(d. ca. 366/370). B. probably near Antioch, Syria (now Antakya, Turkey); studied there under Arian influence; deacon Antioch ca. 350; excommunicated for Arianism; to Alexandria, where he taught Eunomius* ca. 356; returned to Antioch under Eudoxius*; condemned for extreme views also by some Arians 359; exiled to NE Asia Minor; made bp. without see 361 by emp. Julian.* Leader of Anomoeans.* Follows are also called Aëtians. Works include On God Unengendered and on That Which Is Engendered; syllogisms.
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